S-Glutathionylation of human inducible Hsp70 reveals a regulatory mechanism involving the C-terminal ?-helical lid.
ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) proteins are a family of ancient and conserved chaperones. Cysteine modifications have been widely detected among different Hsp70 family members in vivo, but their effects on Hsp70 structure and function are unclear. Here, we treated HeLa cells with diamide, which typically induces disulfide bond formation except in the presence of excess GSH, when glutathionylated cysteines predominate. We show that in these cells, HspA1A (hHsp70) undergoes reversible cysteine modifications, including glutathionylation, potentially at all five cysteine residues. In vitro experiments revealed that modification of cysteines in the nucleotide-binding domain of hHsp70 is prevented by nucleotide binding but that Cys-574 and Cys-603, located in the C-terminal ?-helical lid of the substrate-binding domain, can undergo glutathionylation in both the presence and absence of nucleotide. We found that glutathionylation of these cysteine residues results in unfolding of the ?-helical lid structure. The unfolded region mimics substrate by binding to and blocking the substrate-binding site, thereby promoting intrinsic ATPase activity and competing with binding of external substrates, including heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1). Thus, post-translational modification can alter the structure and regulate the function of hHsp70.
Project description:The allosteric mechanism of Hsp70 molecular chaperones enables ATP binding to the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) to alter substrate affinity to the C-terminal substrate-binding domain (SBD) and substrate binding to enhance ATP hydrolysis. Cycling between ATP-bound and ADP/substrate-bound states requires Hsp70s to visit a state with high ATPase activity and fast on/off kinetics of substrate binding. We have trapped this "allosterically active" state for the E. coli Hsp70, DnaK, and identified how interactions among the NBD, the ? subdomain of the SBD, the SBD ?-helical lid, and the conserved hydrophobic interdomain linker enable allosteric signal transmission between ligand-binding sites. Allostery in Hsp70s results from an energetic tug-of-war between domain conformations and formation of two orthogonal interfaces: between the NBD and SBD, and between the helical lid and the ? subdomain of the SBD. The resulting energetic tension underlies Hsp70 functional properties and enables them to be modulated by ligands and cochaperones and "tuned" through evolution.
Project description:Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na,K-ATPase and alter responses of the enzyme to hypoxia or upon treatment with cardiotonic steroids.
Project description:Glutathione depletion and calcium influx into the cytoplasm are two hallmarks of apoptosis. We have been investigating how glutathione depletion leads to apoptosis in yeast. We show here that glutathione depletion in yeast leads to the activation of two cytoplasmically inward-facing channels: the plasma membrane, Cch1p, and the vacuolar calcium channel, Yvc1p. Deletion of these channels partially rescues cells from glutathione depletion-induced cell death. Subsequent investigations on the Yvc1p channel, a homologue of the mammalian TRP channels, revealed that the channel is activated by glutathionylation. Yvc1p has nine cysteine residues, of which eight are located in the cytoplasmic regions and one on the transmembrane domain. We show that three of these cysteines, Cys-17, Cys-79, and Cys-191, are specifically glutathionylated. Mutation of these cysteines to alanine leads to a loss in glutathionylation and a concomitant loss in calcium channel activity. We further investigated the mechanism of glutathionylation and demonstrate a role for the yeast glutathione S-transferase Gtt1p in glutathionylation. Yvc1p is also deglutathionylated, and this was found to be mediated by the yeast thioredoxin, Trx2p. A model for redox activation and deactivation of the yeast Yvc1p channel is presented.
Project description:The ubiquitin ligase CHIP plays an important role in cytosolic protein quality control by ubiquitinating proteins chaperoned by Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90, thereby targeting such substrate proteins for degradation. We present a 2.91 Å resolution structure of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of CHIP in complex with the ?-helical lid subdomain and unstructured tail of Hsc70. Surprisingly, the CHIP-TPR interacts with determinants within both the Hsc70-lid subdomain and the C-terminal PTIEEVD motif of the tail, exhibiting an atypical mode of interaction between chaperones and TPR domains. We demonstrate that the interaction between CHIP and the Hsc70-lid subdomain is required for proper ubiquitination of Hsp70/Hsc70 or Hsp70/Hsc70-bound substrate proteins. Posttranslational modifications of the Hsc70 lid and tail disrupt key contacts with the CHIP-TPR and may regulate CHIP-mediated ubiquitination. Our study shows how CHIP docks onto Hsp70/Hsc70 and defines a bipartite mode of interaction between TPR domains and their binding partners.
Project description:Na,K-ATPase is highly sensitive to changes in the redox state, and yet the mechanisms of its redox sensitivity remain unclear. We have explored the possible involvement of S-glutathionylation of the catalytic ? subunit in redox-induced responses. For the first time, the presence of S-glutathionylated cysteine residues was shown in the ? subunit in duck salt glands, rabbit kidneys, and rat myocardium. Exposure of the Na,K-ATPase to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) resulted in an increase in the number of S-glutathionylated cysteine residues. Increase in S-glutathionylation was associated with dose- and time-dependent suppression of the enzyme function up to its complete inhibition. The enzyme inhibition concurred with S-glutathionylation of the Cys-454, -458, -459, and -244. Upon binding of glutathione to these cysteines, the enzyme was unable to interact with adenine nucleotides. Inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase by GSSG did not occur in the presence of ATP at concentrations above 0.5 mm. Deglutathionylation of the ? subunit catalyzed by glutaredoxin or dithiothreitol resulted in restoration of the Na,K-ATPase activity. Oxidation of regulatory cysteines made them inaccessible for glutathionylation but had no profound effect on the enzyme activity. Regulatory S-glutathionylation of the ? subunit was induced in rat myocardium in response to hypoxia and was associated with oxidative stress and ATP depletion. S-Glutathionylation was followed by suppression of the Na,K-ATPase activity. The rat ?2 isoform was more sensitive to GSSG than the ?1 isoform. Our findings imply that regulatory S-glutathionylation of the catalytic subunit plays a key role in the redox-induced regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity.
Project description:The 70-kilodalton (kDa) heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones essential for cellular protein folding and proteostasis. Each Hsp70 has two functional domains: a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), which binds and hydrolyzes ATP, and a substrate-binding domain (SBD), which binds extended polypeptides. NBD and SBD interact little when in the presence of ADP; however, ATP binding allosterically couples the polypeptide- and ATP-binding sites. ATP binding promotes polypeptide release; polypeptide rebinding stimulates ATP hydrolysis. This allosteric coupling is poorly understood. Here we present the crystal structure of an intact ATP-bound Hsp70 from Escherichia coli at 1.96-Å resolution. The ATP-bound NBD adopts a unique conformation, forming extensive interfaces with an SBD that has changed radically, having its ?-helical lid displaced and the polypeptide-binding channel of its ?-subdomain restructured. These conformational changes, together with our biochemical assays, provide a structural explanation for allosteric coupling in Hsp70 activity.
Project description:Binding of ATP to the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) molecular chaperones reduces the affinity of their C-terminal substrate-binding domain (SBD) for unfolded protein substrates. ATP binding to the NBD leads to docking between NBD and ?SBD and releasing of the ?-helical lid that covers the substrate-binding cleft in the SBD. However, these structural changes alone do not fully account for the allosteric mechanism of modulation of substrate affinity and binding kinetics. Through a multipronged study of the Escherichia coli Hsp70 DnaK, we found that changes in conformational dynamics within the ?SBD play a central role in interdomain allosteric communication in the Hsp70 DnaK. ATP-mediated NBD conformational changes favor formation of NBD contacts with lynchpin sites on the ?SBD and force disengagement of SBD strand ?8 from strand ?7, which leads to repacking of a ?SBD hydrophobic cluster and disruption of the hydrophobic arch over the substrate-binding cleft. In turn, these structural rearrangements drastically enhance conformational dynamics throughout the entire ?SBD and particularly around the substrate-binding site. This negative, entropically driven allostery between two functional sites of the ?SBD-the NBD binding interface and the substrate-binding site-confers upon the SBD the plasticity needed to bind to a wide range of chaperone clients without compromising precise control of thermodynamics and kinetics of chaperone-client interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:S-glutathionylation is the formation of disulfide bonds between the tripeptide glutathione and cysteine residues of the protein, protecting them from irreversible oxidation and in some cases causing change in their functions. Regulatory glutathionylation of proteins is a controllable and reversible process associated with cell response to the changing redox status. Prediction of cysteine residues that undergo glutathionylation allows us to find new target proteins, which function can be altered in pathologies associated with impaired redox status. We set out to analyze this issue and create new tool for predicting S-glutathionylated cysteine residues. RESULTS:One hundred forty proteins with experimentally proven S-glutathionylated cysteine residues were found in the literature and the RedoxDB database. These proteins contain 1018 non-S-glutathionylated cysteines and 235?S-glutathionylated ones. Based on 235?S-glutathionylated cysteines, non-redundant positive dataset of 221 heptapeptide sequences of S-glutathionylated cysteines was made. Based on 221 heptapeptide sequences, a position-specific matrix was created by analyzing the protein sequence near the cysteine residue (three amino acid residues before and three after the cysteine). We propose the method for calculating the glutathionylation propensity score, which utilizes the position-specific matrix and a criterion for predicting glutathionylated peptides. CONCLUSION:Non-S-glutathionylated sites were enriched by cysteines in -?3 and?+?3 positions. The proposed prediction method demonstrates 76.6% of correct predictions of S-glutathionylated cysteines. This method can be used for detecting new glutathionylation sites, especially in proteins with an unknown structure.
Project description:The Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones participates in a number of cellular processes, including binding to nascent polypeptide chains and assistance in protein (re)folding and degradation. We present the solution structure of the substrate binding domain (residues 393-507) of the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, that is bound to the peptide NRLLLTG and compare it to the crystal structure of DnaK(389-607) bound to the same peptide. The construct discussed here does not contain the alpha-helical domain that characterizes earlier published peptide-bound structures of the Hsp70s. It is established that removing the alpha-helical domain in its entirety does not affect the primary interactions or structure of the DnaK(393-507) in complex with the peptide NRLLLTG. In particular, the arch that protects the substrate-binding cleft is also formed in the absence of the helical lid. 15N-relaxation measurements show that the peptide-bound form of DnaK(393-507) is relatively rigid. As compared to the peptide-free state, the peptide-bound state of the domain shows distinct, widespread, and contiguous differences in structure extending toward areas previously defined as important to the allosteric regulation of the Hsp70 chaperones.
Project description:Cysteine is susceptible to a variety of modifications by reactive oxygen and nitrogen oxide species, including glutathionylation; and when two cysteines are involved, disulfide formation. Glutathione-cysteine adducts may be removed from proteins by glutaredoxin, whereas disulfides may be reduced by thioredoxin. Glutaredoxin is homologous to the disulfide-reducing thioredoxin and shares similar binding modes of the protein substrate. The evolution of these systems is not well characterized. When a single Cys is present in a protein, conjugation of the redox buffer glutathione may induce conformational changes, resulting in a simple redox switch that effects a signaling cascade. If a second cysteine is introduced into the sequence, the potential for disulfide formation exists. In favorable protein contexts, a bistable redox switch may be formed. Because of glutaredoxin's similarities to thioredoxin, the mutated protein may be immediately exapted into the thioredoxin-dependent redox cycle upon addition of the second cysteine. Here we searched for examples of protein substrates where the number of redox-active cysteine residues has changed throughout evolution. We focused on cross-strand disulfides (CSDs), the most common type of forbidden disulfide. We searched for proteins where the CSD is present, absent and also found as a single cysteine in protein orthologs. Three different proteins were selected for detailed study-CD4, ERO1, and AKT. We created phylogenetic trees, examining when the CSD residues were mutated during protein evolution. We posit that the primordial cysteine is likely to be the cysteine of the CSD which undergoes nucleophilic attack by thioredoxin. Thus, a redox-active disulfide may be introduced into a protein structure by stepwise mutation of two residues in the native sequence to Cys. By extension, evolutionary acquisition of structural disulfides in proteins can potentially occur via transition through a redox-active disulfide state.