Biochemical Reduction of the Topology of the Diverse WDR76 Protein Interactome.
ABSTRACT: A hub protein in protein interaction networks will typically have a large number of diverse interactions. Determining the core interactions and the function of such a hub protein remains a significant challenge in the study of networks. Proteins with WD40 repeats represent a large class of proteins that can be hub proteins. WDR76 is a poorly characterized WD40 repeat protein with possible involvement in DNA damage repair, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, gene expression regulation, and protein quality control. WDR76 has a large and diverse interaction network that has made its study challenging. Here we rigorously carry out a series of affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) analyses to map out the WDR76 interactome through different biochemical conditions. We apply AP-MS analysis coupled to size-exclusion chromatography to resolve WDR76-based protein complexes. Furthermore, we also show that WDR76 interacts with the CCT complex via its WD40 repeat domain and with DNA-PK-KU, PARP1, GAN, SIRT1, and histones outside of the WD40 domain. An evaluation of the stability of WDR76 interactions led to focused and streamlined reciprocal analyses that validate the interactions with GAN and SIRT1. Overall, the approaches used to study WDR76 would be valuable to study other proteins containing WD40 repeat domains, which are conserved in a large number of proteins in many organisms.
Project description:Stability regulation of RAS that can affect its activity, in addition to the oncogenic mutations, occurs in human cancer. However, the mechanisms for stability regulation of RAS involved in their activity and its roles in tumorigenesis are poorly explored. Here, we identify WD40-repeat protein 76 (WDR76) as one of the HRAS binding proteins using proteomic analyses of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) tissue. WDR76 plays a role as an E3 linker protein and mediates the polyubiquitination-dependent degradation of RAS. WDR76-mediated RAS destabilization results in the inhibition of proliferation, transformation, and invasion of liver cancer cells. WDR76-/- mice are more susceptible to diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis. Liver-specific WDR76 induction destabilizes Ras and markedly reduces tumorigenesis in HRasG12V mouse livers. The clinical relevance of RAS regulation by WDR76 is indicated by the inverse correlation of their expressions in HCC tissues. Our study demonstrates that WDR76 functions as a tumor suppressor via RAS degradation.
Project description:Ras/MAPK (mitogen active protein kinase) signaling plays contradictory roles in adipocyte differentiation and is tightly regulated during adipogenesis. However, mechanisms regulating adipocyte differentiation involving Ras protein stability regulation are unknown. Here, we show that WD40 repeat protein 76 (WDR76), a novel Ras regulating E3 linker protein, controls 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through HRas stability regulation. The roles of WDR76 in obesity and metabolic regulation were characterized using a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model using Wdr76-/- mice and liver-specific Wdr76 transgenic mice (Wdr76Li-TG). Wdr76-/- mice are resistant to HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia with an increment of HRas levels. In contrast, Wdr76Li-TG mice showed increased HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance with reduced HRas levels. Our findings suggest that WDR76 controls HFD-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis via HRas destabilization. These data provide insights into the links between WDR76, HRas, and obesity.
Project description:Proteins that respond to DNA damage play critical roles in normal and diseased states in human biology. Studies have suggested that the S. cerevisiae protein CMR1/YDL156w is associated with histones and is possibly associated with DNA repair and replication processes. Through a quantitative proteomic analysis of affinity purifications here we show that the human homologue of this protein, WDR76, shares multiple protein associations with the histones H2A, H2B, and H4. Furthermore, our quantitative proteomic analysis of WDR76 associated proteins demonstrated links to proteins in the DNA damage response like PARP1 and XRCC5 and heterochromatin related proteins like CBX1, CBX3, and CBX5. Co-immunoprecipitation studies validated these interactions. Next, quantitative imaging studies demonstrated that WDR76 was recruited to laser induced DNA damage immediately after induction, and we compared the recruitment of WDR76 to laser induced DNA damage to known DNA damage proteins like PARP1, XRCC5, and RPA1. In addition, WDR76 co-localizes to puncta with the heterochromatin proteins CBX1 and CBX5, which are also recruited to DNA damage but much less intensely than WDR76. This work demonstrates the chromatin and DNA damage protein associations of WDR76 and demonstrates the rapid response of WDR76 to laser induced DNA damage.
Project description:LSH/DDM1 enzymes are required for DNA methylation in higher eukaryotes and have poorly defined roles in genome maintenance in yeast, plants, and animals. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a tractable system that encodes a single LSH/DDM1 homolog (NCU06306). We report that the Neurospora LSH/DDM1 enzyme is encoded by mutagen sensitive-30 (mus-30), a locus identified in a genetic screen over 25 years ago. We show that MUS-30-deficient cells have normal DNA methylation, but are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. MUS-30 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its predicted role as a chromatin remodeling enzyme, and levels of MUS-30 are increased following DNA damage. MUS-30 co-purifies with Neurospora WDR76, a homolog of yeast Changed Mutation Rate-1 and mammalian WD40 repeat domain 76. Deletion of wdr76 rescued DNA damage-hypersensitivity of ?mus-30 strains, demonstrating that the MUS-30-WDR76 interaction is functionally important. DNA damage-sensitivity of ?mus-30 is partially suppressed by deletion of methyl adenine glycosylase-1, a component of the base excision repair machinery (BER); however, the rate of BER is not affected in ?mus-30 strains. We found that MUS-30-deficient cells are not defective for DSB repair, and we observed a negative genetic interaction between ?mus-30 and ?mei-3, the Neurospora RAD51 homolog required for homologous recombination. Together, our findings suggest that MUS-30, an LSH/DDM1 homolog, is required to prevent DNA damage arising from toxic base excision repair intermediates. Overall, our study provides important new information about the functions of the LSH/DDM1 family of enzymes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:WD40 repeat proteins constitute one of the largest families in eukaryotes, and widely participate in various fundamental cellular processes by interacting with other molecules. Based on individual WD40 proteins, previous work has demonstrated that their structural characteristics should confer great potential of interaction and complex formation, and has speculated that they may serve as hubs in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. However, what roles the whole family plays in organizing the PPI network, and whether this information can be utilized in complex prediction remain unclear. To address these issues, quantitative and systematic analyses of WD40 proteins from the perspective of PPI networks are highly required. RESULTS:In this work, we built two human PPI networks by using data sets with different confidence levels, and studied the network properties of the whole human WD40 protein family systematically. Our analyses have quantitatively confirmed that the human WD40 protein family, as a whole, tends to be hubs with an odds ratio of about 1.8 or greater, and the network decomposition has revealed that they are prone to enrich near the global center of the whole network with a fold change of two in the median k-values. By integrating expression profiles, we have further shown that WD40 hub proteins are inclined to be intramodular, which is indicative of complex assembling. Based on this information, we have further predicted 1674 potential WD40-associated complexes by choosing a clique-based method, which is more sensitive than others, and an indirect evaluation by co-expression scores has demonstrated its reliability. CONCLUSIONS:At the systems level but not sporadic examples' level, this work has provided rich knowledge for better understanding WD40 proteins' roles in organizing the PPI network. These findings and predicted complexes can offer valuable clues for prioritizing candidates for further studies.
Project description:As an ancient protein family, the WD40 repeat proteins often play essential roles in fundamental cellular processes in eukaryotes. Although investigations of eukaryotic WD40 proteins have been frequently reported, prokaryotic ones remain largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we report a systematic analysis of prokaryotic WD40 proteins and detailed comparisons with eukaryotic ones. About 4,000 prokaryotic WD40 proteins have been identified, accounting for 6.5% of all WD40s. While their abundances are less than 0.1% in most prokaryotes, they are enriched in certain species from Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, and participate in various functions such as prokaryotic signal transduction and nutrient synthesis. Comparisons show that a higher proportion of prokaryotic WD40s tend to contain multiple WD40 domains and a large number of hydrogen bond networks. The observation that prokaryotic WD40 proteins tend to show high internal sequence identity suggests that a substantial proportion of them (~20%) should be formed by recent or young repeat duplication events. Further studies demonstrate that the very young WD40 proteins, i.e., Highly-Repetitive WD40s, should be of higher stability. Our results have presented a catalogue of prokaryotic WD40 proteins, and have shed light on their evolutionary origins.
Project description:WD40 proteins are involved in a variety of protein-protein interactions as part of a multi-protein assembly modulating diverse and critical cellular process. It is known that several proteins of this family have been implicated in different disorders such as developmental abnormalities and cancer. However, molecular functions of many proteins in this family are yet unknown and it is of clinical interest. Therefore, it is of interest to define, construct, understand, analyze, evaluate, redefine and refine an interactome for WD40 protein family. We used data from literature mining using Cytoscape followed by linear regression analysis between Betweenness centrality and stress scores to define a model to filter the nodes in a representative WD40 interactome construction. We identified 10 ranked nodes in this analysis and subsequent microarray data selected three of them in insulin resistance that is further demonstrated in HepG2 cell culture models. We also observed the expression of GRWD1, RBBP5 and WDR5 genes during perturbation. Thus, we report hub nodes of WD40 interactome in insulin resistance. It should be noted that the pipeline using protein interaction network help find new proteins of clinical importance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stabilization of RAS is a key event for the hyper-activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling and activation of cancer stem cell (CSC) in colorectal cancer (CRC). WD Repeat protein 76 (WDR76) mediates the polyubiquitination-dependent degradation of RAS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated whether WDR76 destabilizes RAS and acts as a tumor suppressor inhibiting CSC activation in CRC. METHODS:We generated mice with deletion of Wdr76 (Wdr76-/-) and crosses of Wdr76-/- with ApcMin/+ (Wdr76-/-; ApcMin/+) and compared them with wildtype mice (Wdr76+/+) and ApcMin/+ mice (Wdr76+/+; ApcMin/+), respectively. Intestinal crypt lengthening, tumorigenesis and CSC activation were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting. CRC cell line was engineered to stably express or knockdown WDR76 or control vector and was analyzed after spheroid culture. RESULTS:Wdr76-/- mice, with increased Ras level, displayed crypt elongation and hyper-proliferation. Wdr76-/-; ApcMin/+ mice developed more tumors with bigger sizes than ApcMin/+ mice and their tumors showed increased proliferation and CSC activation with elevated RAS and ?-catenin levels. In CRC cells, overexpression or knockdown of WDR76 decreased or increased the numbers and sizes of CRC spheroids with inhibition or activation of CSC markers, respectively. In human CRC, lower level of WDR76 was associated with poor patient survival. CONCLUSIONS:In analyses of mice with deletion of Wdr76 and CRC spheroids, we found that RAS stability plays important roles in tumorigenesis by affecting proliferation and CSC activation. Our results suggest that destabilization of RAS by WDR76 is a potential strategy for targeting malignant CRC involving CSC activation.
Project description:WD40-repeat proteins (WD40s), as one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes, play vital roles in assembling protein-protein/DNA/RNA complexes. WD40s fold into similar ?-propeller structures despite diversified sequences. A program WDSP (WD40 repeat protein Structure Predictor) has been developed to accurately identify WD40 repeats and predict their secondary structures. The method is designed specifically for WD40 proteins by incorporating both local residue information and non-local family-specific structural features. It overcomes the problem of highly diversified protein sequences and variable loops. In addition, WDSP achieves a better prediction in identifying multiple WD40-domain proteins by taking the global combination of repeats into consideration. In secondary structure prediction, the average Q3 accuracy of WDSP in jack-knife test reaches 93.7%. A disease related protein LRRK2 was used as a representive example to demonstrate the structure prediction.
Project description:Arabidopsis COP1 is a photomorphogenesis repressor capable of directly interacting with the photomorphogenesis-promoting factor HY5. This interaction between HY5 and COP1 results in targeted deg radation of HY5 by the 26S proteasome. Here we characterized the WD40 repeat domain-mediated interactions of COP1 with HY5 and two new proteins. Mutational analysis of those interactive partners revealed a conserved motif responsible for the interaction with the WD40 domain. This novel motif, with the core sequence V-P-E/D-φ-G (φ = hydrophobic residue) in conjunction with an upstream stretch of 4-5 negatively charged residues, interacts with a defined surface area of the ss-propeller assembly of the COP1 WD40 repeat domain through both hydrophobic and ionic interactions. Several residues in the COP1 WD40 domain that are critical for the interaction with this motif have been revealed. The fact that point mutations either in the COP1 WD40 domain or in the HY5 motif that abolish the interaction between COP1 and HY5 in yeast result in a dramatic reduction of HY5 degradation in transgenic plants validates the biological significance of this defined interaction.