Efficient production of a high-performance dispersion strengthened, multi-principal element alloy.
ABSTRACT: Additive manufacturing currently facilitates new avenues for materials discovery that have not been fully explored. In this study we reveal how additive manufacturing can be leveraged to produce dispersion strengthened (DS), multi-principal element alloys (MPEA) without the use of traditional mechanical alloying or chemical reactions. This new processing technique employed resonant acoustic mixing to coat an equiatomic NiCoCr powder with nano-scale yttrium oxides. Then, through laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), the coated powder was successfully consolidated into 99.9% dense parts. Microstructural analysis confirmed the successful incorporation and dispersion of nano-scale oxides throughout the build volume. Furthermore, high temperature mechanical testing of the DS alloys showed significant improvements in strength and ductility over the baseline NiCoCr. As a result, this recently discovered processing route opens a new alloy design and production path that is synergistic between additive manufacturing and dispersion strengthening, possibly enabling a new generation of high-performance alloys.
Project description:Additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys combines the mechanical properties of this novel family of alloys with the geometrical freedom and complexity required by modern designs. Here, a non-beam approach to additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys is developed based on 3D extrusion of inks containing a blend of oxide nanopowders (Co3O4 + Cr2O3 + Fe2O3 + NiO), followed by co-reduction to metals, inter-diffusion and sintering to near-full density CoCrFeNi in H2. A complex phase evolution path is observed by in-situ X-ray diffraction in extruded filaments when the oxide phases undergo reduction and the resulting metals inter-diffuse, ultimately forming face-centered-cubic equiatomic CoCrFeNi alloy. Linked to the phase evolution is a complex structural evolution, from loosely packed oxide particles in the green body to fully-annealed, metallic CoCrFeNi with 99.6 ± 0.1% relative density. CoCrFeNi micro-lattices are created with strut diameters as low as 100 μm and excellent mechanical properties at ambient and cryogenic temperatures.
Project description:Selective laser melting is a promising powder-bed-based additive manufacturing technique for titanium alloys: near net-shaped metallic components can be produced with high resource-efficiency and cost savings [...].
Project description:Titanium (Ti) and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing) or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy.
Project description:A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.
Project description:Additive manufacturing of aluminum alloys is largely dominated by a near-eutectic Al-Si compositions, which are highly weldable, but have mechanical properties that are not competitive with conventional wrought Al alloys. In addition, there is a need for new Al alloys with improved high temperature properties and thermal stability for applications in the automotive and aerospace fields. In this work, we considered laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of two alloys in the Al-Ce-Mg system, designed as near-eutectic (Al-11Ce-7Mg) and hyper-eutectic (Al-15Ce-9Mg) compositions with respect to the binary L → Al + Al<sub>11</sub>Ce eutectic reaction. The addition of magnesium is used to promote solid solution strengthening. A custom laser scan pattern was used to reduce the formation of keyhole porosity, which was caused by excessive vaporization due to the high vapor pressure of magnesium. The microstructure and tensile mechanical properties of the alloys were characterized in the as-fabricated condition and following hot isostatic pressing. The two alloys exhibit significant variations in solidification structure morphology. These variations in non-equilibrium solidification structure were rationalized using a combination of thermodynamic and thermal modeling. Both alloys showed higher yield strength than AM Al-10Si-Mg for temperatures up to 350 °C and better strength retention at elevated temperatures than additively manufactured Scalmaloy.
Project description:Particulate matter (PM) emitted during laser additive manufacturing with stainless steel powder materials has been studied in detail. Three different additive manufacturing techniques were studied: selective laser melting, direct metal deposition and laser cladding. Gas flow and temperature fields accompanying the processes were numerically modeled for understanding particle growth and oxidation. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used for primary particle and PM characterization. The PM collected in the atmosphere during manufacturing consisted of complex aggregates/agglomerates with fractal-like geometries. The overwhelming number of particles formed in the three processes had equivalent projected area diameters within the 4-16 nm size range, with median sizes of 8.0, 9.4 and 11.2 nm. The primary particles were spherical in shape and consisted of oxides of the main steel alloying elements. Larger primary particles (>?30 nm) were not fully oxidized, but where characterized by a metallic core and an oxidic surface shell.
Project description:The present study introduces an approach to the powder metallurgical shaping of a pseudo-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi 44 alloy) combining two different Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, namely fused filament fabrication (FFF) and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF), by manufacturing filigree structures on top of sintered FFF parts. Both processes start with commercial gas atomized NiTi powder, which is fractionated into two classes. Using the fine fraction with particle sizes <15 µm, robust thermoplastic filaments based on a non-commercial binder system were produced and processed to different auxetic and non-auxetic geometries employing a commercial standard printer. FTIR analysis for thermal decomposition products was used to develop a debinding regime. After sintering, the phase transformation austenite/martensite was characterized by DSC in as sintered and annealed state. Precipitates resulting from residual impurities were detected by micrographs and XRD. They led to an increased transformation temperature. Adjusting the oxygen and carbon content in the alloy remains a challenging issue for powder metallurgical processed NiTi alloys. Filigree lattice structures were built onto the surfaces of the sintered FFF parts by LPBF using the coarser powder fraction (15-45 µm). A good material bond was formed, resulting in the first known NiTi hybrid, which introduces new production and design options for future applications.
Project description:High-entropy alloys are an intriguing new class of metallic materials that derive their properties from being multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing high concentrations of five or more elements with different crystal structures. Here we examine an equiatomic medium-entropy alloy containing only three elements, CrCoNi, as a single-phase face-centred cubic solid solution, which displays strength-toughness properties that exceed those of all high-entropy alloys and most multi-phase alloys. At room temperature, the alloy shows tensile strengths of almost 1?GPa, failure strains of ?70% and KJIc fracture-toughness values above 200?MPa??m(1/2); at cryogenic temperatures strength, ductility and toughness of the CrCoNi alloy improve to strength levels above 1.3?GPa, failure strains up to 90% and KJIc values of 275?MPa??m(1/2). Such properties appear to result from continuous steady strain hardening, which acts to suppress plastic instability, resulting from pronounced dislocation activity and deformation-induced nano-twinning.
Project description:X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) can be applied to analyse powder feedstock used in additive manufacturing. In this paper, we demonstrate a dedicated workflow for this analysis method, specifically for Ti6Al4V powder typically used in commercial powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) systems. The methodology presented includes sample size requirements, scan conditions and settings, reconstruction and image analysis procedures. We envisage this method will support standardization in powder analysis in the additive manufacturing community. This is aimed at ultimately improving the quality of additively manufactured parts, through the identification of impurities and defects in powders. •MicroCT analysis of metal powders for additive manufacturing•Method describes a standard workflow simplifying usage of the technique•Sample requirements and image analysis workflow is described.
Project description:Transition metal multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs) are novel alloys that may offer enhanced surface and mechanical properties compared with commercial metallic alloys. However, their biocompatibility has not been investigated. In this study, three CoCrFeNi-based MPEAs were fabricated, and the in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in direct contact with fibroblasts for 168 h. The cell viability and cell number were assessed at 24, 96, and 168 h using LIVE/DEAD assay and alamarBlue assay, respectively. All MPEA sample wells had a high percentage of viable cells at each time point. The two quaternary MPEAs demonstrated a similar cell response to stainless steel control with the alamarBlue assay, while the quinary MPEA with Mn had a lower cell number after 168 h. Fibroblasts cultured with the MPEA samples demonstrated a consistent elongated morphology, while those cultured with the Ni control samples demonstrated changes in cell morphology after 24 h. No significant surface corrosion was observed on the MPEAs or stainless steel samples following the cell culture, while the Ni control samples had extensive corrosion. The cell growth and viability results demonstrate the cytocompatibility of the MPEAs. The biocompatibility of MPEAs should be investigated further to determine if MPEAs may be utilized in orthopedic implants and other biomedical applications.