Multidisciplinary team approach in acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Limited data are available on the impact of a specialized extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) team on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). This study evaluated whether specialized ECMO team is associated with improved in-hospital mortality in AMI patients undergoing veno-arterial (VA) ECMO. METHODS:A total of 255 AMI patients who underwent VA-ECMO were included. In January 2014, a multidisciplinary ECMO team was founded at our institution. Eligible patients were classified into a pre-ECMO team group (n?=?131) and a post-ECMO team group (n?=?124). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS:In-hospital mortality (pre-ECMO team vs. post-ECMO team, 54.2% vs. 33.9%; p?=?0.002) and cardiac intensive care unit mortality (pre-ECMO team vs. post-ECMO team, 51.9% vs. 30.6%; p?=?0.001) were significantly lower after the implementation of a multidisciplinary ECMO team. On multivariable logistic regression model, implementation of the multidisciplinary ECMO team was associated with reduction of in-hospital mortality [odds ratio: 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.67; p?=?0.001]. Incidence of all-cause mortality [58.3% vs. 35.2%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.72; p?
Project description:The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) has suggested that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients should be managed by a multidisciplinary team. However, there are limited data on the impact of ECMO team on the outcomes of patients with severe acute respiratory failure.All consecutive patients with severe acute respiratory failure who underwent ECMO for respiratory support from January 2012 through December 2016 were divided into the pre-ECMO team period (before January 2014, n = 70) and the post-ECMO team period (after January 2014, n = 46). Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the two groups.The mortality rates in the intensive care unit (72.9 vs. 50.0%, P = 0.012) and hospital (75.7 vs. 52.2%, P = 0.009) were significantly decreased in the post-ECMO team period compared to the pre-ECMO team period. The median duration of ECMO support was not different between the two periods. However, the proportion of patients successfully weaned off ECMO was higher in the post-ECMO team period (42.9 vs. 65.2%, P = 0.018). During ECMO support, the incidence of cannula problems (32.9 vs. 15.2%, P = 0.034) and cardiovascular events (88.6 vs. 65.2%, P = 0.002) was reduced after implementation of the ECMO team. The 1-year mortality was significantly different between the pre-ECMO team and post-ECMO team periods (37.8 vs. 14.3%, P = 0.005).After implementing a multidisciplinary ECMO team, survival rate in patients treated with ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure was significantly improved.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, there are limited large-scale national data.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2014, a retrospective cohort of AMI utilizing ECMO was identified. Use of percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was also identified in this population. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends in utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD), in-hospital mortality, and resource utilization.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In ?9 million AMI admissions, ECMO was used in 2962 (<0.01%) and implanted a median of 1 day after admission. ECMO was used in 0.5% and 0.3% AMI admissions complicated by cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest, respectively. ECMO was used more commonly in admissions that were younger, nonwhite, and with less comorbidity. ECMO use was 11× higher in 2014 as compared with 2000 (odds ratio, 11.37 [95% CI, 7.20-17.97]). Same-day percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 23.1%; intra-aortic balloon pump/percutaneous LVAD was used in 57.9%, of which 30.3% were placed concomitantly. In-hospital mortality with ECMO was 59.2% overall but decreased from 100% (2000) to 45.1% (2014). Durable LVAD and cardiac transplantation were performed in 11.7% as an exit strategy. Of the hospital survivors, 40.8% were discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Older age, male sex, nonwhite race, and lower socioeconomic status were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality with ECMO use.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In AMI admissions, a steady increase was noted in the utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD). In-hospital mortality remained high in AMI admissions treated with ECMO.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are limited data on complications in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admissions receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS:Adult (>18 years) admissions with AMI receiving ECMO support were identified from the National Inpatient Sample database between 2000 and 2016. Complications were classified as vascular, lower limb amputation, hematologic, and neurologic. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends, in-hospital mortality, hospitalization costs, and length of stay. RESULTS:In this 17-year period, in ~10 million AMI admissions, ECMO support was used in 4608 admissions (<0.01%)-mean age 59.5 ± 11.0 years, 75.7% men, 58.9% white race. Median time to ECMO placement was 1 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-3) day. Complications were noted in 2571 (55.8%) admissions-vascular 6.1%, lower limb amputations 1.1%, hematologic 49.3%, and neurologic 9.9%. There was a steady increase in overall complications during the study period (21.1% in 2000 vs. 70.5% in 2016). The cohort with complications, compared to those without complications, had comparable adjusted in-hospital mortality (60.7% vs. 54.0%; adjusted odds ratio 0.89 [95% confidence interval 0.77-1.02]; p = 0.10) but longer median hospital stay (12 [IQR 5-24] vs. 7 [IQR 3-21] days), higher median hospitalization costs ($458,954 [IQR 260,522-737,871] vs. 302,255 [IQR 173,033-623,660]), fewer discharges to home (14.7% vs. 17.9%), and higher discharges to skilled nursing facilities (44.1% vs. 33.9%) (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Over half of all AMI admissions receiving ECMO support develop one or more severe complications. Complications were associated with higher resource utilization during and after the index hospitalization.
Project description:Little is known about the prevalence and outcomes of readmission to nonindex hospitals after an admission for acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). We aimed to determine the rate of nonindex readmissions following AMI-CS and to evaluate its association with clinical factors, hospitalization cost, length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality rates.<h4>Hypothesis</h4>Nonindex readmission may lead to worse in-hospital outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed the data of inpatients with AMI-CS between 2010 and 2017 using the National Readmission Database. The survey analytical methods recommended by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were used for national estimates. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the predictors of nonindex readmission, and its association with hospitalization cost, LOS, and in-hospital mortality rates.<h4>Results</h4>Of 238?349 patients with AMI-CS, 28028 (11.76%) had an unplanned readmission within 30?days. Of these patients, 7423 (26.48%) were readmitted to nonindex hospitals. Compared with index readmission, nonindex readmission was associated with higher hospitalization costs (p?<?.0001), longer LOS (p?<?.0001), and increased in-hospital mortality rates (p = .0016). Patients who had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention, received intubation/mechanical ventilation, or left against medical advice during the initial admission had greater odds of a nonindex readmission.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Over one-fourth of readmissions following AMI-CS were to nonindex hospitals. These admissions were associated with higher hospitalization costs, longer LOS, and higher in-hospital mortality rates. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether a continuity of care plan in the acute hospital setting can improve outcomes after AMI-CS.
Project description:Background:There are limited data on the prevalence and outcomes of chronic total occlusions (CTO) of the coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) patients. Methods:Using the National Inpatient Sample, all admissions with AMI-CS that underwent diagnostic angiography between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014, were included. CTO, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), comorbidities and concomitant cardiac arrest was identified for all admissions. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends, in-hospital mortality, and resource utilization in cohorts with and without CTO. Results:In this 7-year period, 163,628 admissions with AMI-CS admissions met the inclusion criteria, with 68% being ST-elevation AMI-CS. CTO was noted in 27,343 (16.7%) admissions, with an increase in prevalence during the study period. The cohort with CTOs was more likely to be male and bearing private insurance. The CTO cohort had higher cardiovascular comorbidity, higher rates of cardiac arrest and higher use of PCI and mechanical circulatory support. The presence of a CTO was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.20 [95% confidence interval 1.16-1.23]; p?<?0.001). The cohort with CTO had lower resource utilization (hospital stay and hospitalization costs) but was discharged more frequently to other hospitals. The presence of a CTO was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in the sub-groups of ST-elevation AMI-CS (31.5% vs. 28.7%; p?<?0.001) and non-ST-elevation AMI-CS (24.8% vs. 23.2%; p?<?0.001). Conclusions:In this cohort of AMI-CS admissions that underwent diagnostic angiography, the presence of a CTO identified a higher risk cohort that had higher in-hospital mortality.
Project description:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving procedure that requires careful coagulation management. Indications for ECMO continue to expand, leading to more complicated patients treated by ECMO teams. At our pediatric institution, we utilize a Coagulation Team to guide anticoagulation, transfusion and hemostasis management in an effort to avoid the all-to-common complications of bleeding and thrombosis. This team formulates a coagulation plan in conjunction with a multidisciplinary ECMO team after careful review of all available laboratory data as well as the patient's clinical status. Here, we present our general strategies for ECMO management in various clinical scenarios and a review of the literature pertaining to coagulation management in the pediatric ECMO setting.
Project description:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is increasingly used in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to treat acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients who experienced cardiogenic shock. However, to date, there have been no studies on the relationship between clinical outcomes and CPR time in such patients with AMI treated by ECMO-assisted primary PCI.From July 2008 to March 2016, we analyzed data from 42 AMI with cardiogenic shock patients who underwent CPR and were treated by ECMO-assisted primary PCI. The primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality after primary PCI. The predictors of mortality were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model.Thirty-day in-hospital mortality was observed for 33 patients (78.6%). The mean CPR time was 37.0±37.3 minutes. The best cut-off CPR time value associated with clinical outcome was calculated to be 12.5 minutes using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that CPR time of >12.5 minutes was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-17.406; p=0.018).Despite ECMO support, the clinical outcomes of AMI patients with a complication of cardiogenic shock remain poor. Prolonged CPR time is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with AMI treated by ECMO-assisted primary PCI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is scarce evidence for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in patients with influenza-related myocarditis complicated by refractory cardiogenic shock (rCS). We sought to investigate the impact of MCS using combined veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) and micro-axial flow pumps (the ECMELLA concept) in influenza-related myocarditis complicated by rCS. METHODS:This is a prospective, observational analysis from the single centre HAnnover Cardiac Unloading REgistry (HACURE) from two recent epidemic influenza seasons. We analysed patients with verified influenza-associated myocarditis complicated by rCS who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) on MCS. Subsequently, we performed a propensity score (PS) matched analysis to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by rCS and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (DCM) related rCS. RESULTS:We describe a series of seven patients with rCS-complicated influenza-related myocarditis (mean age 56±10?years, 58% male, influenza A (n=2)/influenza B (n=5)). No patient had been vaccinated prior to the influenza season. MCS was provided using combined VA-ECMO and Impella micro-axial flow pump. In two patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, VA-ECMO had been implanted for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. All patients died within 18?days of hospital admission. By PS-based comparison to patients with AMI- or DCM-related rCS and combined MCS, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in influenza-related rCS. CONCLUSION:Despite initial stabilisation with combined MCS in patients with rCS-complicated influenza-related myocarditis, the detrimental course of shock could not be stopped and all patients died. Influenza virus infection potentially critically affects other organs besides the heart, leading to irreversible end-organ damage that MCS cannot compensate for and, therefore, results in a devastating outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are limited data on the complications with a percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) vs. intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). OBJECTIVE:To assess the trends, rates and predictors of complications. METHODS:Using a 17-year AMI-CS population from the National Inpatient Sample, AMI-CS admissions receiving pLVAD and IABP support were evaluated for vascular, lower limb amputation, hematologic, neurologic and acute kidney injury (AKI) complications. In-hospital mortality, hospitalization costs and length of stay in pLVAD and IABP cohorts with complications was studied. RESULTS:Of 168,645 admissions, 7,855 (4.7%) receiving pLVAD support. The pLVAD cohort had higher comorbidity, cardiac arrest (36.1% vs. 29.7%) and non-cardiac organ failure (74.7% vs. 56.9%) rates. Complications were higher in pLVAD compared to IABP cohort-overall 69.0% vs. 54.7%; vascular 3.8% vs. 2.1%; lower limb amputation 0.3% vs. 0.3%; hematologic 36.0% vs. 27.7%; neurologic 4.9% vs. 3.5% and AKI 55.4% vs. 39.1% (all p<0.001 except for amputation). Non-White race, higher comorbidity, organ failure, and extracorporeal membrane oxygen use were predictors of complications for both cohorts. The pLVAD cohort with complications had higher in-hospital mortality (45.5% vs. 33.1%; adjusted odds ratio 1.65 [95% confidence interval 1.55-1.75]), shorter duration of hospital stay, and higher hospitalization costs compared to the IABP cohort with complications (all p<0.001). These results were consistent in propensity-matched pairs. CONCLUSIONS:AMI-CS admissions receiving pLVAD had higher rates of complications compared to the IABP, with worse in-hospital outcomes in the cohort with complications.
Project description:Background Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality. In recent years, many US hospitals have formed multidisciplinary shock teams capable of rapid diagnosis and triage. Because of preexisting collaborative systems of care, hospitals with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) programs may also represent "centers of excellence" for CS care. However, the outcomes of patients with CS at LVAD centers have not been previously evaluated. Methods and Results Patients with CS were identified in the 2012 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample. Clinical characteristics, revascularization rates, and use of mechanical circulatory support were analyzed in LVAD versus non-LVAD centers. The association between hospital type and in-hospital mortality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Of 272 075 hospitalizations, 26.0% were in LVAD centers. CS attributable to causes other than acute myocardial infarction represented most cases. In-hospital mortality was lower in LVAD centers (38.9% versus 43.3%; <i>P</i><0.001). In multivariable analysis, the odds of mortality remained significantly lower for hospitalizations in LVAD centers (odds ratio, 0.89; <i>P</i><0.001). In patients with CS secondary to acute myocardial infarction, revascularization rates were similar between LVAD and non-LVAD centers. The use of intra-aortic balloon pump (18.7% versus 18.8%) and Impella/TandemHeart (2.6% versus 1.9%) was similar between hospital types, whereas extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used more frequently in LVAD centers (4.3% versus 0.2%; <i>P</i><0.001). Conclusions Risk-adjusted mortality was lower in patients with CS who were hospitalized at LVAD centers. These centers likely represent specialized, shock team capable institutions across the country that may be best suited to manage patients with CS.