Ambulatory management of pre- and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis patients with imipenem delivered through port-a-cath: A mixed methods study on treatment outcomes and challenges.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Imipenem, an intravenous antibiotic is recommended for use in drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) when an effective regimen with combination of other second line drugs is not possible. Though the treatment success rates with carbapenems are promising, the twice daily injection of Imipenem usually requires patients to be hospitalized. The Médecins Sans Frontières independent clinic in Mumbai, India implemented ambulatory and home based management of patients receiving Imipenem through the use of port-a-cath. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to describe the adverse events and treatment outcomes of ambulatory pre- and XDR-TB patients initiated on imipenem through port-a-cath between January 2015 and June 2018 and to explore the challenges with this regimen as perceived by healthcare providers and patients. METHODS:A convergent mixed methods study with quantitative (longitudinal descriptive study using the routine data) and qualitative (descriptive study) part conducted concurrently. For the quantitative component, all XDR-TB and pre-XDR-TB initiated on imipenem containing regimen during January 2015-June 2018 were included. For qualitative component, interviews were carried out including patients who initiated on imipenem (n = 5) and healthcare providers (n = 7) involved in providing treatment. Treatment outcomes, culture conversion and adverse events during treatment were described. Thematic analysis was carried out for qualitative component. RESULTS:Of the 70 patients included, the mean age was 28.1 (standard deviation: 11.2) years and 36 (51.4%) were females. Fifty one (72.9%) had XDR-TB. All patients were resistant to fluoroquinilone, levofloxacin. Vomiting was reported by 55 (78.6%) patients and at least one episode of QTC prolongation (more than 500 msec by Fredrecia method) was detected in 25 (35.7%). Port-a-cath block and infection was seen in 11 (15.7%) and 20 (28.6%) patients respectively. Favourable outcomes were seen in 43 (61.4%) patients. Mortality was seen in 22 (31.4%) patients, 2 (2.9%) were lost-to-follow-up and 3 (4.3%) were declared as treatment failure. The overarching theme of the qualitative analysis was: Challenges in delivering Imipenem via port-a-cath device in ambulatory care. Major challenges identified were difficulties in adhering to drug dose timelines, vomiting, restricted mobility due to port-a-cath, paucity of infection control and space constraints at patients' home for optimal care. CONCLUSION:Administration of imipenem was feasible through port-a-cath. Though outcomes with ambulatory based imipenem containing regimens were promising, there were several challenges in providing care. The feasibility of infusion at day care facilities needs to explored to overcome challenges in infusion at patients home.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem) are used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), even if the published evidence is limited, particularly when it is otherwise difficult to identify the recommended four active drugs to be included in the regimen. No systematic review to date has ever evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of carbapenems. METHODS:A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of carbapenem-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extra-pulmonary disease which was bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB. We used PubMed to identify relevant full-text, English manuscripts up to the 20 December 2015, excluding editorials and reviews. RESULTS:Seven out of 160 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria: two on ertapenem, one on imipenem, and four on meropenem, all published between 2005 and 2016. Of seven studies, six were retrospective, four were performed in a single center, two enrolled children, two had a control group, and six reported a proportion of XDR-TB cases higher than 20%. Treatment success was higher than 57% in five studies with culture conversion rates between 60% and 94.8%. CONCLUSIONS:The safety and tolerability is very good, with the proportion of adverse events attributable to carbapenems below 15%.
Project description:Port-a-cath is a widely used device in patients with long-term venous access demand such as frequent or continuous administration of medications such as Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT), chemotherapy delivery, blood transfusions, blood products, and fluids. Patients with Lysosomal Storage Diseases (LSDs) often require recurrent courses of ERT. We reviewed our experience of using port-a-caths in patients with LSDs with the focus on challenges and complications associated with these catheters. Among 245 adult patients who were treated with ERT, twenty patients (8.2%) had a port-a-cath inserted due to poor venous access. Six patients were using their first port whereas five other patients had their port-a-caths replaced at least once. The remaining six patients had inactive port-a-caths. The majority of patients with active port-a-caths never missed more than one consecutive infusion, although one patient missed 2 consecutive infusions whilst on holiday. We identified significant gaps in patients' and their families' understanding of the management of port-a-caths and risks associated with them. It resulted in producing a leaflet and designing an educational program for our LSD patients.
Project description:Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) has become an increasing threat not only in countries where the TB burden is high but also in affluent regions, due to increased international travel and globalization. Carbapenems are earmarked as potentially active drugs for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis To better understand the potential of carbapenems for the treatment of M/XDR-TB, the aim of this review was to evaluate the literature on currently available in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data on carbapenems in the treatment of M. tuberculosis and to detect knowledge gaps, in order to target future research. In February 2018, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was performed. Overall, the results of the studies identified in this review, which used a variety of carbapenem susceptibility tests on clinical and laboratory strains of M. tuberculosis, are consistent. In vitro, the activity of carbapenems against M. tuberculosis is increased when used in combination with clavulanate, a BLaC inhibitor. However, clavulanate is not commercially available alone, and therefore, it is impossible in practice to prescribe carbapenems in combination with clavulanate at this time. Few in vivo studies have been performed, including one prospective, two observational, and seven retrospective clinical studies to assess the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of three different carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem). We found no clear evidence at the present time to select one particular carbapenem among the different candidate compounds to design an effective M/XDR-TB regimen. Therefore, more clinical evidence and dose optimization substantiated by hollow-fiber infection studies are needed to support repurposing carbapenems for the treatment of M/XDR-TB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The emergence of pre-extensively and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (Pre-XDR/XDR-TB) is the major hurdle for TB prevention and care programs especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. The less emphasis on universal access to laboratory techniques for the rapid diagnosis of TB and drug susceptibility testing (DST) makes the management of MDR-TB a challenge. Early detection of second line anti-TB drugs resistance is essential to reduce transmission of Pre-XDR/XDR-TB strains and adjusting the treatment regimen in MDR-TB. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and resistance pattern of Pre-XDR- and XDR-TB among MDR-TB patients in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. METHODS:A cross sectional study was carried out in nine MDR-TB treatment centers in the Amhara region. Sputum samples were collected from all pulmonary rifampicin resistant (RR) or MDR-TB patients prior to anti-TB treatment. L?wenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) smear, MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays were performed according to the standard procedures. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software. Chi-square and/or Fishers exact test was employed. RESULTS:Overall, 6.3% of MDR-TB isolates were resistant to at least one second line drugs. Pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates accounted 5.7% and 0.6% respectively. Moreover, 3.4% were resistant to FQs and 3.4% were resistant to second line injectable drugs. All isolates were susceptible for low level kanamycin. Almost all pre-XDR-TB strains (90%) were previously treated with anti-TB drugs. Drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were disproportionately distributed in districts of the Amhara region and the majorities were concentrated in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS:The high proportion of MDR-TB patients resistant to at least one second line drug is alarming. Strengthening the laboratory facilities to monitor pre-XDR and XDR-TB patients is crucial. The TB programs need to give emphasis on the effective and rational use of second line drugs for newly diagnosed MDR-TB patients to prevent the emergence of pre-XDR/XDR-TB strains.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) patients with multiple episodes of anti-TB treatment represent an important source of TB transmission, as well as a serious threat to the control of drug resistant TB, due to the high risk of multidrug and extensively drug resistance (MDR/XDR) and elongating infectiousness of this patient group. In this study we analyzed the possible risk of development and transmission of MDR and XDR in TB patients with multiple episodes of previous treatment history.The study subjects were pulmonary TB patients who had at least two episodes of previous anti-TB treatment. A total of 166 eligible patients were identified from 10 counties/districts distributed in east, west, north, south and central China. Drug susceptibility test (DST) was performed by proportion method on LJ-media for the 1st line anti-TB drugs and a line probe assay was used to detect mutations related to resistance of the key 2nd-line drugs. Genotyping of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) was performed with MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping.Resistances to 1st-line drugs was observed in 122 (73.5%) of the 166 Mtb isolates with 97 (58.4%) being MDR-TB. Mutations relevant to 2nd-line drug resistance was seen in 63 isolates, including 35 MDR-TB isolates (30 pre-XDR, 5 XDR-TB). The Spoligotyping revealed 83.1% Mtb isolates belonged to the Beijing family. The MIRU-VNTR based genotyping revealed 32 (19.3%) of patients were infected with more than one strain. The number of previous TB treatment episode was found being significantly associated with the risk of MDR-TB and XDR-TB. Among the remaining 134 patients infected with a single Mtb strain, MIRU-VNTR revealed a high homogeneity of strain especially within Beijing family despite the polymorphic variations along with geographic locations.The high genetic relatedness and risk of MDR-TB and subsequent pre-XDR and XDR-TB among repeatedly treated patients suggest the establishment of M/XDR Mtb in this specific patient population. It highlights the urgent needs of providing DST of both 1st- and 2nd-line drugs before and during the medication in China's MDR-TB control program. Furthermore, the possibility of infection with multiple strains should also be considered to be associated with the drug resistance, which calls for the modification of treatment regimen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) is largely underdetected in Indonesia. Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) has recently been introduced, prioritizing patients at risk of RR-TB, followed by phenotypic drug-susceptibility (DST) if rifampicin resistance is detected. OBJECTIVE:This study investigated Xpert-based management of presumptive RR-TB cases under routine practice in West Java, Indonesia. METHODS:We examined all records of patients tested with Xpert in the referral hospital for West Java in 2015-2016. We measured loss across a limited cascade of care, time to Xpert diagnosis and the commencement of initial second-line treatment, and identified factors associated with diagnostic and treatment delay. Additionally, we analyzed the appropriateness of treatment according to DST results. RESULTS:Of 3415 patients with presumptive RR-TB, 3215 (94%) were tested by Xpert, of whom 339 (10.5%) were diagnosed as RR-TB. 288 (85%) of 339 RR-TB patients started initial second-line TB treatment, with 48 (14%) patients being lost between diagnosis and pre-treatment assessment. Second-line treatment was commenced at a median of 41 days (IQR 29-70) after RR-TB diagnosis. Delays in both diagnosis and treatment initiation were observed in 104 (52%) of 201 RR-TB patients with identifiable referral date. Rural residence was associated with delay to diagnosis (adjusted OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.5-5.2) and treatment initiation (adjusted OR 2.0; 1.2-3.4). Of 162 patients with available DST result, 107 (66%) had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 32 (20%) had either pre-extensively drug resistant (pre-XDR) or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). We estimated that with the current algorithm 41% of pre-XDR or XDR-TB patients are diagnosed, and 33% of them started on an appropriate treatment regimen. CONCLUSIONS:Many patients with Xpert-diagnosed RR-TB either do not start MDR-TB treatment or encountered diagnostic and treatment delays under programmatic conditions in Indonesia, and most pre-XDR and XDR-TB cases remain undiagnosed. Further expansion and ongoing quality improvement of RR-TB services are urgently needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>South Africa shows one of the highest global burdens of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). Since 2002, MDR-TB in South Africa has been treated by a standardized combination therapy, which until 2010 included ofloxacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Since 2010, ethambutol has been replaced by cycloserine or terizidone. The effect of standardized treatment on the acquisition of XDR-TB is not currently known.<h4>Methods</h4>We genetically characterized a random sample of 4,667 patient isolates of drug-sensitive, MDR and XDR-TB cases collected from three South African provinces, namely, the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Drug resistance patterns of a subset of isolates were analyzed for the presence of commonly observed resistance mutations.<h4>Results</h4>Our analyses revealed a strong association between distinct strain genotypes and the emergence of XDR-TB in three neighbouring provinces of South Africa. Strains predominant in XDR-TB increased in proportion by more than 20-fold from drug-sensitive to XDR-TB and accounted for up to 95% of the XDR-TB cases. A high degree of clustering for drug resistance mutation patterns was detected. For example, the largest cluster of XDR-TB associated strains in the Eastern Cape, affecting more than 40% of all MDR patients in this province, harboured identical mutations concurrently conferring resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin, ethionamide, kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>XDR-TB associated genotypes in South Africa probably were programmatically selected as a result of the standard treatment regimen being ineffective in preventing their transmission. Our findings call for an immediate adaptation of standard treatment regimens for M/XDR-TB in South Africa.
Project description:The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has posed additional challenges for global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, as limited treatment options are available and treatment outcomes are often sub-optimal. This study determined treatment outcomes among a cohort of MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Hunan Province, China, and identified factors associated with poor treatment outcomes.We conducted a retrospective study using data obtained from medical records of TB patients in Hunan Chest Hospital, and from the internet-based TB management information system managed by the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, for the period 2011 to 2014. Treatment outcomes were assessed for patients diagnosed with MDR-TB (TB resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) and XDR-TB (MDR-TB plus resistance to any fluoroquinolone and at least 1 second-line injectable drug). Cumulative incidence functions were used to estimate time to events (i.e. poor treatment outcomes, loss to follow-up, and unfavourable treatment outcomes); and a competing-risks survival regression model was used to identify predictors of treatment outcomes.Of 481 bacteriologically-confirmed patients, with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation SD ± 13 years), 10 (2%) had XDR-TB and the remainder (471; 98%) had MDR-TB. For the entire cohort, treatment success was 57% (n = 275); 58% (n = 272) for MDR-TB and 30% (n = 3) for XDR-TB. Overall, 27% were lost to follow-up (n = 130), 27% (n = 126) for MDR-TB and 40% (n = 4) for XDR-TB; and 16% had a poor treatment outcome (n = 76), 15% for MDR-TB and 30% (n = 3) for XDR-TB. Of the 10 XDR-TB patients, 3 (30%) completed treatment, 3 (30%) died and 4 (40%) were lost to follow-up. Of the 471 MDR-TB patients, 258 (57%) were cured, 16 (3%) completed treatment, 13 (3%) died, 60 (13%) experienced treatment failure, and 126 (27%) were lost to follow-up. Resistance to ofloxacin was an independent predictor of poor (AHR = 3.1; 95%CI = 1.5, 6.3), and unfavourable (AHR = 1.7; 95%CI = 1.07, 2.9) treatment outcomes. Patients who started treatment during 2011-2012 (AHR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.5, 5.3) and 2013 (AHR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.9) had poorer treatment outcomes compared to patients who started treatment during 2014.Patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB had low rates of treatment success in Hunan Province, especially among patients who started treatment during 2011 to 2013, with evidence of improved treatment outcomes in 2014. Resistance to ofloxacin was an independent predictor of poor treatment outcomes.
Project description:AIMS:To externally validate an earlier characterized relationship between bedaquiline exposure and decline in bacterial load in a more difficult-to-treat patient population, and to explore the performances of alternative dosing regimens through simulations. METHODS:The bedaquiline exposure-response relationship was validated using time-to-positivity data from 233 newly diagnosed or treatment-experienced patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis from the C209 open-label study. The significance of the exposure-response relationship on the bacterial clearance was compared to a constant drug effect model. Tuberculosis resistance type and the presence and duration of antituberculosis pre-treatment were evaluated as additional covariates. Alternative dosing regimens were simulated for tuberculosis patients with different types of drug resistance. RESULTS:High bedaquiline concentrations were confirmed to be associated with faster bacterial load decline in patients, given that the exposure-effect relationship provided a significantly better fit than the constant drug effect (relative likelihood = 0.0003). The half-life of bacterial clearance was identified to be 22% longer in patients with pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and 86% longer in patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB, compared to patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. Achievement of the same treatment response for (pre-)XDR TB patients as for MDR TB patients would be possible by adjusting the dose and dosing frequency. Furthermore, daily bedaquiline administration as in the ZeNix regimen, was predicted to be as effective as the approved regimen. CONCLUSION:The confirmed bedaquiline exposure-response relationship offers the possibility to predict efficacy under alternative dosing regimens, and provides a useful tool for potential treatment optimization.
Project description:Growth-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) is the reference standard for diagnosing drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), but standard time to result (TTR) is typically ??3 weeks. Rapid tests can reduce that TTR to days or hours, but accuracy may be lowered. In addition to the TTR and test accuracy, the cost of a diagnostic test may affect whether it is adopted in clinical settings. We examine the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostics for extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in three different high-prevalence settings.1128 patients with confirmed TB were enrolled at clinics in Mumbai, India; Chisinau, Moldova; and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Patient sputum samples underwent DST for first and second line TB drugs using 2 growth-based (MGIT, MODS) and 2 molecular (Pyrosequencing [PSQ], line-probe assays [LPA]) assays. TTR was the primary measure of effectiveness. Sensitivity and specificity were also evaluated. The cost to perform each test at each site was recorded and included test-specific materials, personnel, and equipment costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated in terms of $/day saved. Sensitivity analyses examine the impact of batch size, equipment, and personnel costs.Our prior results indicated that the LPA and PSQ returned results in a little over 1 day. Mean cost per sample without equipment or overhead was $23, $28, $33, and $41 for the MODS, MGIT, PSQ, and LPA, respectively. For diagnosing XDR-TB, MODS was the most accurate, followed by PSQ, and LPA. MODS was quicker and less costly than MGIT. PSQ and LPA were considerably faster but cost more than MODS. Batch size and personnel costs were the main drivers of cost variation.Multiple factors must be weighed when selecting a test for diagnosis of XDR-TB. Rapid tests can greatly improve the time required to diagnose drug-resistant TB, potentially improving treatment success, and preventing the spread of XDR-TB. Faster time to result must be weighed against the potential for reduced accuracy, and increased costs.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02170441 .