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Multifaceted interventions for healthcare-associated infections and rational use of antibiotics in a low-to-middle-income country: Can they be sustained?

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Transmission of infection between patients by health workers, and the irrational use of antibiotics are preventable causes for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and multi-resistant organisms. A previous study implementing a hand hygiene campaign and antibiotic stewardship program significantly reduced these infections. Sustaining such interventions can be challenging. AIMS:To evaluate whether there was a sustained effect of a multifaceted infection control and antibiotic stewardship program on HAI and antibiotic use 5 years after it began. METHODS:A prospective evaluation study was conducted over 26 months (from February 2016 to April 2018) in a teaching hospital in Indonesia, 5 years after the implementation of an antibiotic stewardship and infection control program, which was successful when initially evaluated. All children admitted to the pediatric ICU and pediatric wards were observed daily. Assessment of HAI was made based on the criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Assessment of rational antibiotic use was based on the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship between the HAI and the multifaceted intervention. RESULTS:We observed an increase in HAIs, from 8.6% (123/1419 patients) in the initial post-intervention period in 2011-2013 to 16.9% (314/1855) in the evaluation study (relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.95 (1.60 to 2.37)). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that an increase in HAI in the evaluation period with adjusted OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.45). Inappropriate antibiotic use also increased, from 20.6% (182 of 882 patients who were prescribed antibiotics) to 48.6% (545/1855) (RR 2.35 (2.04 to 2.71)). Hand hygiene compliance also declined from 62.9% (1125/1789) observed moments requiring hand hygiene to 51% (1526/2993) (RR 3.33 (2.99 to 3.70)). CONCLUSIONS:Healthcare-associated infections and irrational use of antibiotics remain significant even after the implementation of a multifaceted infection control intervention and antibiotic stewardship program. There is a need for continuous input, ongoing surveillance and long-term monitoring of these interventions to sustain compliance and effectiveness and address problems as they emerge.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7297356 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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