Cardiac magnetic resonance longitudinal strain analysis in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A comparison with speckle-tracking echocardiography.
ABSTRACT: Background:Strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is considered superior to ejection fraction for ventricular function assessment in different clinical scenarios. Feature tracking (FT) permits cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain analysis in routinely acquired cine images. This study evaluated the feasibility of CMR-FT and its agreement with STE in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods:An echocardiogram and CMR were performed in 128 patients who underwent primary percutaneous revascularisation after a STEMI. Adequate strain analysis was obtained by both techniques in 98 patients and peak systolic longitudinal strain (LS) was assessed with STE and CMR-FT. Results:Of 1568 myocardial segments, 97.2% were correctly tracked with STE and 97.7% with CMR-FT. For global LS, STE showed a mean of -14.8?±?3.3% and CMR-FT -13.7?±?3.0%, with good agreement between modalities [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.826; bias -1.09%; limits of agreement (LOA)?±?4.2%]. On the other hand, segmental LS agreement was only moderate, with an ICC of 0.678 (bias -1.14%; LOA?±?11.76%) and the ICC ranged from 0.538 at the basal antero-lateral segment to 0.815 at the apical lateral segment. Finally, both STE and CMR-FT showed excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility (ICC?>?0.9). Conclusions:CMR-FT provides LS with similar feasibility to STE and both techniques showed good agreement for global LS, although agreement at segmental level was only moderate. CMR-FT showed excellent reproducibility, strengthening its robustness and potential for both research and clinical applications.
Project description:Parameters using myocardial strain analysis may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). As the agreement between currently available strain imaging modalities is unknown, three different modalities were compared. Twenty-seven CRT-candidates, prospectively included in the MARC study, underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and echocardiographic examination. Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain was analysed with CMR tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Basic strain values and parameters of dyssynchrony and discoordination obtained with CMR-FT and STE were compared to CMR-TAG. Agreement of CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall fair, while agreement between STE and CMR-TAG was often poor. For both comparisons, agreement on discoordination parameters was highest, followed by dyssynchrony and basic strain parameters. For discoordination parameters, agreement on systolic stretch index was highest, with fair intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) (CMR-FT: 0.58, STE: 0.55). ICC of septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept) was poor (CMR-FT: 0.41, STE: 0.30). Internal stretch factor of septal and lateral wall (ISFsep-lat) showed fair ICC values (CMR-FT: 0.53, STE: 0.46), while the ICC of the total LV (ISFLV) was fair for CMR-FT (0.55) and poor for STE (ICC: 0.32). The CURE index had a fair ICC for both comparisons (CMR-FT: 0.49, STE 0.41). Although comparison of STE to CMR-TAG was limited by methodological differences, agreement between CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall higher compared to STE and CMR-TAG. CMR-FT is a potential clinical alternative for CMR-TAG and STE, especially in the detection of discoordination in CRT-candidates.
Project description:Myocardial deformation assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is increasingly used for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis in patients with clinical and pre-clinical cardiovascular diseases. Feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (FT-CMR) also allows myocardial deformation analysis. To clarify whether the two modalities can be used interchangeably, we compared myocardial deformation analysis by FT-CMR with STE in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases and healthy subjects. We included 40 patients and 10 healthy subjects undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiographic examination for left ventricular volumetric assessment. We studied patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (n = 10), acute perimyocarditis (n = 10), aortic valve stenosis (n = 10), and previous heart transplantation (n = 10) by global longitudinal (GLS), radial (GRS) and circumferential strain (GCS). Myocardial deformation analysis by FT-CMR was feasible in all but one participant. While GLS, GRS and GCS measured by FT-CMR correlated overall with STE (r = 0.74 and p < 0.001, r = 0.58 and p < 0.001, and r = 0.76 and p < 0.001), the correlations were not consistent within subgroups. GLS was systematically lower, whereas GRS and GCS were higher by FT-CMR compared to STE (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were comparable for FT-CMR and STE overall and across subgroups. In conclusion, myocardial deformation can be evaluated using FT-CMR applied to routine cine-CMR images in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, correlation between FT-CMR and STE was modest and agreement was not optimal due to systematic bias regarding GLS and GCS. Consequently, FT-CMR and STE should not be used interchangeably for myocardial strain evaluation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Parameters of myocardial deformation have been suggested to be superior to conventional measures of ventricular function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), but have required non-routine, tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. We assessed biventricular myocardial function using CMR cine-based feature tracking (FT) and compared it to speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and to simple endocardial border delineation (EBD). In addition, the relation between parameters of myocardial deformation and clinical parameters was assessed. METHODS: Overall, 28 consecutive adult patients with repaired ToF (age 40.4?±?13.3?years) underwent standard steady-state-free precession sequence CMR, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In addition, 25 healthy subjects served as controls. Myocardial deformation was assessed by CMR based FT (TomTec Diogenes software), CMR based EBD (using custom written software) and STE (TomTec Cardiac Performance Analysis software). RESULTS: Feature tracking was feasible in all subjects. A close agreement was found between measures of global left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) global strain. Interobserver agreement for FT and STE was similar for longitudinal LV global strain, but FT showed better inter-observer reproducibility than STE for circumferential or radial LV and longitudinal RV global strain. Reproducibility of regional strain on FT was, however, poor. The relative systolic length change of the endocardial border measured by EBD yielded similar results to FT global strain. Clinically, biventricular longitudinal strain on FT was reduced compared to controls (P?<?0.0001) and was related to the number of previous cardiac operations. In addition, FT derived RV strain was related to exercise capacity and VE/VCO2-slope. CONCLUSIONS: Although neither the inter-study reproducibility nor accuracy of FT software were investigated, and its inter-observer reproducibility for regional strain calculation was poor, its calculations of global systolic strain showed similar or better inter-oberver reproducibility than those by STE, and could be applied across RV image regions inaccessible to echo. 'Global strain' calculated by EBD gave similar results to FT. Measurements made using FT related to exercise tolerance in ToF patients suggesting that the approach could have clinical relevance and deserves further study.
Project description:Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), and more recently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) provides insight into all phases of atrial function. The aim of our study was to compare all phases of RA strain using CMR-FT and STE and also assess the relationship between RA and LA strain. A total of 61 healthy volunteers with mean age of 45?±?13 years had adequate tracking for analysis on CMR-FT and 2D-STE. Females had larger RA reservoir strain (39?±?15% vs. 32?±?13%, p?=?0.046) and conduit strain (26?±?12% vs. 20?±?9%, p?=?0.03) when compared to males, but was not the case with booster strain (14?±?7% vs. 12?±?6%, p?=?0.45). In comparison with STE derived strain, the RA reservoir and conduit strain were not significantly different between CMR-FT and the three echocardiography gating methods (p?>?0.05 for all). Noticeably, there were no significant differences in strain and strain rate between RA and LA function using CMR-FT (p?>?0.05 for all). RA strain and strain rate using CMR-FT had fair and good intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and had superior reproducibility compared to STE derived strain.
Project description:AIMS:Various strain parameters and multiple imaging techniques are presently available including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). This study aims to compare predictive performance of different strain parameters and evaluate results per imaging technique to predict cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent CMR and echocardiographic examination before CRT implantation. Strain analysis was performed in circumferential (CMR-TAG, CMR-FT, and STE-circ) and longitudinal (STE-long) orientations. Regional strain values, parameters of dyssynchrony, and discoordination were calculated. After 12 months, CRT response was measured by the echocardiographic change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV). Twenty-six patients completed follow-up; mean LVESV change was -29 ± 27% with 17 (65%) patients showing ?15% LVESV reduction. Measures of dyssynchrony (SD-TTPLV ) and discoordination (ISFLV ) were strongly related to CRT response when using CMR-TAG (R2 0.61 and R2 0.57, respectively), but showed poor correlations for CMR-FT and STE (all R2 ? 0.32). In contrast, the end-systolic septal strain (ESSsep ) parameter showed a consistent high correlation with LVESV change for all techniques (CMR-TAG R2 0.60; CMR-FT R2 0.50; STE-circ R2 0.43; and STE-long R2 0.43). After adjustment for QRS duration and QRS morphology, ESSsep remained an independent predictor of response per technique. CONCLUSIONS:End-systolic septal strain was the only parameter with a consistent good relation to reverse remodelling after CRT, irrespective of assessment technique. In clinical practice, this measure can be obtained by any available strain imaging technique and provides predictive value on top of current guideline criteria.
Project description:Myocardial deformation is a sensitive marker of sub-clinical myocardial dysfunction that carries independent prognostic significance across a broad range of cardiovascular diseases. It is now possible to perform 3D feature tracking of SSFP cines on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR). This study provides reference ranges for 3D FT-CMR and assesses its reproducibility compared to 2D FT-CMR. One hundred healthy individuals with 10 men and women in each of 5 age deciles from 20 to 70 years, underwent 2D and 3D FT-CMR of left ventricular myocardial strain and strain rate using SSFP cines. Good health was defined by the absence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, or any cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, haematological and systemic inflammatory disease. Normal values for myocardial strain assessed by 3D FT-CMR were consistently lower compared with 2D FT-CMR measures [global circumferential strain (GCS) 3D -?17.6?±?2.6% vs. 2D -?20.9?±?3.7%, P?<?0.005]. Validity of 3D FT-CMR was confirmed against other markers of systolic function. The 3D algorithm improved reproducibility compared to 2D, with GCS having the best inter-observer agreement [intra-class correlation (ICC) 0.88], followed by global radial strain (GRS; ICC 0.79) and global longitudinal strain (GLS, ICC 0.74). On linear regression analyses, increasing age was weakly associated with increased GCS (R2?=?0.15, R?=?0.38), peak systolic strain rate, peak late diastolic strain rate, and lower peak early systolic strain rate. 3D FT-CMR offers superior reproducibility compared to 2D FT-CMR, with circumferential strain and strain rates offering excellent intra- and inter-observer variability. Normal range values for myocardial strain measurements using 3D FT-CMR are provided.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Acute myocardial infarction-related heart failure (HF) is associated with poor outcome. This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS) and mean longitudinal strain of left anterior descending artery territory (LS<sub>ant</sub>) measured by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) in prediction of acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ant-STEMI)-related HF.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 171 patients with ant-STEMI who underwent successful primary coronary intervention and had available 2D STE data were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups: in-hospital HF, post-discharge HF, and no-HF groups.<h4>Results</h4>In-hospital and post-discharge HF developed in 39 (22.8%) and 13 (7.6%) of patients, respectively and 113 patients (69.6%) remained without HF. Multivariate analysis showed that GLS was the only factor significantly associated with the development of in-hospital HF. For post-discharge HF, LS<sub>ant</sub> was the only independent predictor. Other echocardiographic or laboratory parameters did not show independent association with the development of ant-STEMI-related HF.<h4>Conclusions</h4>GLS is a powerful echocardiographic parameter related to development of in-hospital HF and LS<sub>ant</sub> was significantly associated with post-discharge HF in patients with successfully reperfused ant-STEMI.
Project description:Strain assessment allows accurate evaluation of myocardial function and mechanics in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Strain using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has traditionally been assessed with tagging but limitations of this technique have led to more widespread use of alternative methods, which may be more robust. We compared the inter-study repeatability of circumferential global peak-systolic strain (Ecc) and peak-early diastolic strain rate (PEDSR) derived by tagging with values obtained using novel cine-based software: Feature Tracking (FT) (TomTec, Germany) and Tissue Tracking (TT) (Circle cvi42, Canada) in patients following STEMI. Twenty male patients (mean age 56?±?10 years, mean infarct size 13.7?±?7.1% of left ventricular mass) were randomised to undergo CMR 1-5 days post-STEMI at 1.5 T or 3.0 T, repeated after ten minutes at the same field strength. Ecc and PEDSR were assessed using tagging, FT and TT. Inter-study repeatability was evaluated using Bland-Altman analyses, coefficients of variation (CoV) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Ecc (%) was significantly lower with tagging than with FT or TT at 1.5 T (-?9.5?±?3.3 vs. -?17.5?±?3.8 vs. -15.5?±?5.2, respectively, p?<?0.001) and 3.0 T (-?13.1?±?1.8 vs. -?19.4?±?2.9 vs. -?17.3?±?2.1, respectively, p?=?0.001). This was similar for PEDSR (.s-1): 1.5 T (0.6?±?0.2 vs. 1.5?±?0.4 vs. 1.0?±?0.4, for tagging, FT and TT respectively, p?<?0.001) and 3.0 T (0.6?±?0.2 vs. 1.5?±?0.3 vs. 0.9?±?0.3, respectively, p?<?0.001). Inter-study repeatability for Ecc at 1.5 T was good for tagging and excellent for FT and TT: CoV 16.7%, 6.38%, and 8.65%, respectively. Repeatability for Ecc at 3.0 T was good for all three techniques: CoV 14.4%, 11.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. However, repeatability of PEDSR was generally lower than that for Ecc at 1.5 T (CoV 15.1%, 13.1%, and 34.0% for tagging, FT and TT, respectively) and 3.0 T (CoV 23.0%, 18.6%, and 26.2%, respectively). Following STEMI, Ecc and PEDSR are higher when measured with FT and TT than with tagging. Inter-study repeatability of Ecc is good for tagging, excellent for FT and TT at 1.5 T, and good for all three methods at 3.0 T. The repeatability of PEDSR is good to moderate at 1.5 T and moderate at 3.0 T. Cine-based methods to assess Ecc following STEMI may be preferable to tagging.
Project description:Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates.Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated.Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ?0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ?0.61).The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available.• Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.
Project description:AIMS:A multitude of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques are used for myocardial strain assessment; however, studies comparing them are limited. We sought to compare global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), segmental longitudinal (SLS), and segmental circumferential (SCS) strain values, as well as reproducibility between CMR feature tracking (FT), tagging (TAG), and fast-strain-encoded (fast-SENC) CMR techniques. METHODS AND RESULTS:Eighteen subjects (11 healthy volunteers and seven patients with heart failure) underwent two CMR scans (1.5T, Philips) with identical parameters. Global and segmental strain values were measured using FT (Medis), TAG (Medviso), and fast-SENC (Myocardial Solutions). Friedman's test, linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess differences and correlation in measured GLS and GCS between the techniques. Two-way mixed intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variance (COV), and Bland-Altman analysis were used for reproducibility assessment. All techniques correlated closely for GLS (Pearson's r: 0.86-0.92) and GCS (Pearson's r: 0.85-0.94). Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility was excellent in all techniques for both GLS (ICC 0.92-0.99, CoV 2.6-10.1%) and GCS (ICC 0.89-0.99, CoV 4.3-10.1%). Inter-study reproducibility was similar for all techniques for GLS (ICC 0.91-0.96, CoV 9.1-10.8%) and GCS (ICC 0.95-0.97, CoV 7.6-10.4%). Combined segmental intra-observer reproducibility was good in all techniques for SLS (ICC 0.914-0.953, CoV 12.35-24.73%) and SCS (ICC 0.885-0.978, CoV 10.76-19.66%). Combined inter-study SLS reproducibility was the worst in FT (ICC 0.329, CoV 42.99%), while fast-SENC performed the best (ICC 0.844, CoV 21.92%). TAG had the best reproducibility for combined inter-study SCS (ICC 0.902, CoV 19.08%), while FT performed the worst (ICC 0.766, CoV 32.35%). Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable inter-technique biases for GLS (FT vs. fast-SENC 3.71%; FT vs. TAG 8.35%; and TAG vs. fast-SENC 4.54%) and GCS (FT vs. fast-SENC 2.15%; FT vs. TAG 6.92%; and TAG vs. fast-SENC 2.15%). Limits of agreement for GLS ranged from ±3.1 (TAG vs. fast-SENC) to ±4.85 (FT vs. TAG) for GLS and ±2.98 (TAG vs. fast-SENC) to ±5.85 (FT vs. TAG) for GCS. CONCLUSIONS:We found significant differences in measured GLS and GCS between FT, TAG, and fast-SENC. Global strain reproducibility was excellent for all techniques. Acquisition-based techniques had better reproducibility than FT for segmental strain.