A novel apidaecin Api-PR19 synergizes with the gut microbial community to maintain intestinal health and promote growth performance of broilers.
ABSTRACT: Background:Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as growth promoters to maintain animal intestinal health and improve feed efficiency in broilers by inhibiting pathogen proliferation. In view of the growing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen strains and drug residue issues, novel treatments are increasingly required. This study aimed to compare two antimicrobial approaches for managing pathogen infection and maintaining animal intestinal health in broilers by supplying Apidaecin Api-PR19 and AGPs over 42?d of a feeding trial. Results:Compared with the broilers that were only fed a corn-soybean basal diet (CON group), supplementation with Api-PR19 and AGP (respectively named the ABP and AGP groups) both increased the feed conversion efficiency. When compared with the AGP group, Api-PR19 supplementation could significantly increase the organ index of the bursa of fabricius and subtype H9 antibody level in broiler chickens. Moreover, when compared with the CON group, the intestinal villus height, intestinal nutrient transport, and intestinal sIgA content were all increased in the Api-PR19 group, while AGP supplementation was harmful to the intestinal villus height and intestinal nutrient transport. By assessing the antibacterial effect of Api-PR19 and antibiotics in vitro and in vivo, we found that Api-PR19 and antibiotics both inhibited the growth of pathogens, including Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the beneficial bacteria and microbiota in broilers were not disturbed but improved by apidaecin Api-PR19, including the genera of Eubacterium and Christensenella and the species of uncultured_Eubacterium_sp, Clostridium_asparagiforme, and uncultured_Christensenella_sp, which were positively related to improved intestinal development, absorption, and immune function. Conclusion:Apidaecin Api-PR19 treatment could combat pathogen infection and had little negative impact on beneficial bacteria in the gut compared to antibiotic treatment, subsequently improving intestinal development, absorption, and immune function.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of replacing antibiotics with a combination of plant essential oils on the growth performances and gastrointestinal health of broilers. A total of 720 1-day-old male AA broilers were randomly divided into 3 treatments: the control treatment (CON), the Aureomycin supplementation treatment (AGP), and the combined plant oils supplementation treatment (POC), with a 42-D period feeding procedure. Growth performances, carcass performances, intestinal sections, and cecal microbiota were investigated. Results indicated that POC supplementation decreased the feed conversion ratio compared with CON and AGP treatments, though not significantly. No significant differences were found for feed intake, BW gain, and culling rate among the 3 treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, no significant differences were seen on carcass performance. For the aspects of intestinal section, POC supplementation did not make significant effects on intestinal wall thickness, villus heights, crypt depths, and the ratio of villus heights/crypt depths compared with CON and AGP treatments. Cecal microbiota results demonstrated that bacterial diversity and some representative probiotic bacteria were significantly increased in numbers (P < 0.05) after POC supplementation. In conclusion, the combination of essential oils promoted intestinal health through improving gut bacterial diversity and probiotic bacteria, as well as improving feed conversion ratio of broilers. These results indicated that the combination of essential oils may benefit the gastrointestinal health and be applied as an antibiotic alternative.
Project description:Understanding the differences in microbial communities shaped by different food selective forces, especially during early post-hatch period, is critical to gain insight into how to select, evaluate, and improve antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) alternatives in food animals. As a model system, commercial diet-administered OAs (DOAs) and water-administered OAs (WOAs) were used separately or in combination as Virginiamycin alternatives for broiler feeding during two growth phases: 1-21 days and 22-42 days. Among these three OA-treated groups, the DOA group was most similar to the AGP group in the composition and the proportion of these dominant bacterial communities at the level of phylum, family, and genus in cecal chyme of broilers. Sub-therapeutic Virginiamycin decreased the richness, homogenization, and species diversity of gut microbiota, especially in the early growth stage from days 1 to 21. Among these three OA supplementation schemes, it was clear that DOA supplementation was more likely to increase or maintain the richness, homogenization, species diversity, and predicted gene functions of cecal microbiota in treated broilers than either no supplementation or AGP supplementation during two experimental stages. The interference of DOA treatment with early colonization of probiotics and pathogens in broiler cecum was the most similar to AGP treatment, and OAs did not cause the occurrence of Virginiamycin-resistant strains of Enterococcus at the end of this trial. In terms of the predicted gene functions of the microbiota, AGP and DOA treatments provided a similar selective force for microbial metabolism functions in the cecum of broiler chickens, especially in the early growth stage. Noticeably, the relative abundance of some microbiome that was modified by Virginiamycin or DOA supplementation was significantly correlated with body weight gain and KEGG pathway analysis-annotated gene functions such as replication and repair, translation, nucleotide metabolism, and so on. With the comprehensive analysis of these results and practical application, shortened DOA supplementation, after optimization of the amount of addition, would be a suitable alternative to sub-therapeutic Virginiamycin. It was suggested that the programed intestinal microecology under such early selection forces and the effective addition time may be the key elements to focus on the designed alternate strategies of AGPs in food animals.
Project description:Early nutrition of pullets could determine the overall development and the performance of laying hens. With the aim to reduce the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) and to maintain the growth and development of pullets, the effect of simultaneous short-termed supplementation of AGPs (bacitracin zinc 20 mg/kg and colistin sulfate 4 mg/kg) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) DSM17299 probiotic, as well as the effect of supplementation of AGPs (bacitracin zinc 20 mg/kg and colistin sulfate 4 mg/kg) during the whole period (0~16 weeks) on the overall growth and development, intestinal health, and caecal microbiota of pullets were evaluated. In the present study, a total of 630 one-day-old Hy-Line Brown layers were randomly distributed into five equal groups: including the AGPs group (supplemented with AGPs based on basal diets for 16 weeks), the BA3 group (supplemented with AGPs and B. subtilis based on basal diets for 3 weeks), the BA6 group (for 6 weeks), the BA12 group (for 12 weeks), and the BA16 group (for 16 weeks). When compared with the AGPs group, the supplementation of AGPs + B. subtilis for the first 3 weeks could maintain overall growth performance, including the average body weight, average feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed conversion ratio of pullets at 3, 6, 12, and 16 weeks of age (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, the characteristic growth indexes in different periods were separately measured. At 3 weeks of age, the amylase activity in ileum was elevated (P = 0.028), and the length of tibia was up to the standard in the BA3 group. At 12 weeks of age, the increased villus height (P = 0.046) of jejunum, increased villus height (P = 0.023) and ratio of villus height to crypt depth (P = 0.012) of ileum, decreased crypt depth (P = 0.002) of ileum, and elevated mRNA levels of sucrase in jejunum (P < 0.05) were all identified in the BA3 group. At 16 weeks of age, the secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) content in the jejunum mucosa of the BA3 group was greater than the other groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, altered intestinal microbiota was found in the BA3 group. Specifically, decreased amounts of Alistipes, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, Dehalobacterium, and Sutterella and increased amounts of Lactobacillus, Dorea, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira were determined (P < 0.05) in the BA3 group at week 6. Meanwhile, decreased amounts of B. fragilis and C. leptum (P < 0.05) were identified in the BA3 group at week 12, which were found to be relevant for the improvement of intestinal morphology (P < 0.05) by Pearson analysis. In conclusion, simultaneous supplementation of AGP and B. subtilis for 0~3 weeks increased the relative abundance of beneficial microbiota in caecum in 0~6 weeks, then improved the intestinal morphology by elevating populations of B. fragilis and C. leptum in 7~16 weeks, and further upregulated sucrase expression and increased sIgA content in the intestinal mucosa in 13~16 weeks.
Project description:Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial) in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline), or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia) of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only), the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of wheat bran (WB) and antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal immunity, barrier function, and microbial composition in broiler chickens. A total of 168 one-day-old male Arbor Acre chicks were allocated to 3 treatments consisting of 7 replicates with 8 birds per replicate. The 3 treatments were: an antibiotic-free control diet (control, CON), CON + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), and CON + 3% WB. Birds fed AGP and WB had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during days 1 to 21 and lower (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio during each phase than those fed CON. The WB supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? and diamine oxidase activity compared with CON on both day 21 and 42. The AGP and WB supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) interleukin-1? concentration in jejunal mucosa on day 21 and increased (P < 0.05) secretory immunoglobulin A concentration in jejunal mucosa on day 21 and 42. The relative expression of occludin in jejunal mucosa was upregulated (P < 0.05) in WB than in CON on day 21. Moreover, both AGP and WB supplementation upregulated (P < 0.05) the relative expression of zonula occludens-1 in jejunal mucosa on day 21 and 42. The WB supplementation enhanced the ?-diversity of cecal microbiota, as evidenced by the increased Shannon index (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, the phylum Firmicutes was enriched (P < 0.05) in WB. At the genus level, the WB supplementation enriched (P < 0.05) Lachnoclostridium and Butyricicoccus. The WB supplementation increased (P < 0.05) cecal total short chain fatty acids concentrations on day 21 and 42, and butyric acid concentrations on day 42 compared with CON. Collectively, supplementation of 3% WB could promote growth by improving intestinal immunity, barrier function, and microbial composition in broilers. Thus, WB may have a role in replacing antibiotics for improved growth performance and intestinal health in broilers.
Project description:Background:Glucose oxidase (GOD), an aerobic dehydrogenase, has been used as an antibiotic substitute in feed. A study was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of 2 different GODs fermented by Aspergillus niger or Penicillium amagasakiense on caecal microbiota and to further illuminate the potential roles of changes in the gut microbiota in regulating the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Results:A total of 420 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: the control group, the antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) supplementation group, and the GOD-A and GOD-P (GODs produced by A. niger and P. amagasakiense, respectively) groups. As a result, supplementation with GOD produced by P. amagasakiense could significantly improve the average daily weight gain and average daily feed intake of broilers before 21?days of age by significantly increasing the enzymatic activities of jejunal amylase and those of ileal amylase, chymotrypsin, and lipase in 21-day-old broilers and could increase the enzymatic activities of duodenal amylase, jejunal amylase and lipase, and ileal chymotrypsin and lipase in 42-day-old broilers. Meanwhile, compared with AGP treatment, supplementation with GOD produced by P. amagasakiense significantly decreased the L value of 21-day-old broilers and the ?pH and L* value of 42-day-old broilers, while supplementation with GOD produced by A. niger significantly increased the pH24?h value of 21-day-old and 42-day-old broilers by reducing plasma malondialdehyde content. By using 16S rRNA sequencing, we found that the beneficial bacteria and microbiota in broilers were not disturbed but were improved by GOD supplementation compared with ADP treatment, including the genera Eubacterium and Christensenella and the species uncultured_Eubacterium_sp, Clostridium_asparagiforme, and uncultured_Christensenella_sp, which were positively related to the improved intestinal digestive enzymatic activities, growth performance, and meat quality of broilers. Conclusion:The altered gut microbiota induced by supplementation with glucose oxidase produced by P. amagasakiense mediate better regulatory effects on the meat quality and growth performance of broilers than that induced by supplementation with glucose oxidase produced by A. niger.
Project description:Sanguinarine is a bioactive compound as a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid from plant of the Macleaya cordata, Papaveraceae family. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sanguinarine supplementation on growth performance, serum biochemistry parameters, intestinal mucosal morphology and gut microbiome in yellow feathered broilers. Two hundred and seventy 1-d-old female broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments ? Basal diet (NG); ? Basal diet containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (50mg/Kg diet) (ANT); ? Basal diet containing sanguinarine (0.7 mg/ kg of feed) (SAG). The statistical results showed that dietary sanguinarine supplementation enhanced growth performance and decreased glucose, uric acid as well as urea nitrogen levels of broilers at 28d of age (P<0.05). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that sanguinarine significantly decreased the species from the phyla Bacteroidetes, and increased the species from phyla Firmicutes. Moreover, dietary sanguinarine supplementation improved mucosal morphology to achieve higher ratio of intestinal villus height to crypt depth (P < 0.05), and decreased the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-4 in jejunum mucosal. This study demonstrated that sanguinarine supplementation in the diet of yellow feathered broilers improved intestinal morphology and microbiota community structure to promote growth performance on 1-28d.
Project description:Zinc is an essential nutritional trace element for all forms of life as it plays an important role in numerous biological processes. In poultry, zinc is provided by in-feed supplementation, mainly as zinc oxide or zinc sulfate. Alternatively zinc can be supplemented as organic sources, which are characterized by using an organic ligand that may be an amino acid, peptide, or protein to bind zinc and have a higher bioavailability than inorganic zinc sources. There are limited number of studies directly comparing the effects of inorganic vs. organic zinc sources on performance and intestinal health in broilers. Therefore, a digestibility and a performance study were conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of an amino acid-complexed zinc source vs. an inorganic zinc source on intestinal health. The experiment consisted of 2 treatments: either a zinc amino acid complex or zinc sulfate was added to a wheat-rye based diet at 60 ppm Zn, with 10 replicates (34 broilers per pen) per treatment. Effects on performance, intestinal morphology, microbiota composition, and oxidative stress were measured. Supplementing zinc amino acid complexes improved the zinc digestibility coefficient as compared to supplementation with zinc sulfate. Broilers supplemented with zinc amino acid complexes had a significantly lower feed conversion ratio in the starter phase compared to birds supplemented with zinc sulfate. A significantly higher villus length was observed in broilers supplemented with zinc amino acid complexes at days 10 and 28. Supplementation with zinc amino acid complexes resulted in a decreased abundance of several genera belonging to the phylum of Proteobacteria. Plasma malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activity showed an improved oxidative status in broilers supplemented with zinc amino acid complexes. In conclusion, zinc supplied in feed as amino acid complex is more readily absorbed, potentially conferring a protective effect on villus epithelial cells in the starter phase.
Project description:Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell components implicated in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the significance of AGPs in response to stress factors, their distribution during development of fungal disease in fruit is unknown. In our work, in situ analysis of AGP arrangement in fruit inoculated with Penicillium spinulosum during the consecutive days of infection development was carried out. For immunolocalization of AGPs, samples were incubated with JIM13, MAC207, LM2, and LM14 antibodies recognizing the AGP carbohydrate moieties. To analyse cell walls without proper action of AGP, an experiment with ?-glucosyl Yariv reagent specifically binding AGPs was performed. The results showed an increase of signal fluorescence in the fruit after 16 days of fungal disease. Higher amounts of the examined epitopes were observed in the infection-altered sites of the fruit, in close vicinity to a surface filled by fungal spores. The results indicate that the Yariv reagent treatment induced progress of the fungal disease. Changes in the AGP presence during the fungal disease confirmed their involvement in defence against pathogen attack in fruit.
Project description:The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.