Motion tracking of 80-nm-size skyrmions upon directional current injections.
ABSTRACT: Nanometer-scale skyrmions are prospective candidates for information bits in low-power consumption devices owing to their topological nature and controllability with low current density. Studies on skyrmion dynamics in different classes of materials have exploited the topological Hall effect and current-driven fast motion of skyrmionic bubbles. However, the small current track motion of a single skyrmion and few-skyrmion aggregates remains elusive. Here, we report the tracking of creation and extinction and motion of 80-nm-size skyrmions upon directional one-current pulse excitations at low current density of the order of 109 A m-2 in designed devices with the notched hole. The Hall motion of a single skyrmion and the torque motions of few-skyrmion aggregates have been directly revealed. The results exemplify low-current density controls of skyrmions, which will pave the way for the application of skyrmions.
Project description:Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers for the next-generation spintronic devices because of their small size, facile current-driven motion and topological stability. The controllable nucleation and motion of skyrmions in magnetic nanostructures will be essential in future skyrmionic devices. Here, we present the microwave assisted nucleation and motion of skyrmion-chains in magnetic nanotrack by micromagnetic simulation. A skyrmion-chain is a one-dimensional cluster of equally spaced skyrmions. A skyrmion-chain conveys an integer bit n when it consists of n skyrmions. A series of skyrmion-chains with various lengths is generated and moved in the nanotrack driven by spin-polarized current. The period, length and spacing of the skyrmion-chains can be dynamically manipulated by controlling either the frequency of the microwave field or the time dependent spin-polarized current density. A skyrmion-chain behaves as a massless particle, where it stops without delay when the current is stopped. Their velocity is found to be linearly dependent on the current density and insensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the excitation microwave field. Uniform motion of trains of skyrmion-chains in nanotrack offers a promising approach for spintronic multi-bit memories containing series of skyrmion-chains to represent data stream.
Project description:Skyrmions hold promise for next-generation magnetic storage as their nanoscale dimensions may enable high information storage density and their low threshold for current-driven motion may enable ultra-low energy consumption. Skyrmion-hosting nanowires not only serve as a natural platform for magnetic racetrack memory devices but also stabilize skyrmions. Here we use the topological Hall effect (THE) to study phase stability and current-driven dynamics of skyrmions in MnSi nanowires. THE is observed in an extended magnetic field-temperature window (15-30 K), suggesting stabilization of skyrmions in nanowires compared with the bulk. Furthermore, we show in nanowires that under the high current density of 10(8)-10(9) A m(-2), the THE decreases with increasing current densities, which demonstrates the current-driven motion of skyrmions generating the emergent electric field in the extended skyrmion phase region. These results open up the exploration of skyrmions in nanowires for fundamental physics and magnetic storage technologies.
Project description:Skyrmions offer high density, low power, and nonvolatile memory functionalities due to their nanoscale and topologically-protected chiral spin structures. For integrated high-bandwidth devices, one needs to control skyrmion generation and propagation rates using current. Here, we introduce a skyrmion initialization and control method to generate periodic skyrmions from 114 MHz to 21 GHz using spin-polarized direct current. We first initialize a stable magnetic domain profile that is pinned between a notch and a rectangular constriction using a DC pulse. Next, we pass spin-polarized DC charge current to eject periodic skyrmions at a desired frequency. By changing the DC current density, we demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations that skyrmion generation frequencies can be controlled reversibly over more than seven octaves of frequencies. By using domain pinning and current-driven skyrmion motion, we demonstrate a highly tunable and DC-controlled skyrmion signal source, which pave the way towards ultra wideband, compact and integrated skyrmionic circuits.
Project description:Skyrmion, a topologically-protected soliton, is known to emerge via electron spin in various magnetic materials. The magnetic skyrmion can be driven by low current density and has a potential to be stabilized in nanoscale, offering new directions of spintronics. However, there remain some fundamental issues in widely-studied ferromagnetic systems, which include a difficulty to realize stable ultrasmall skyrmions at room temperature, presence of the skyrmion Hall effect, and limitation of velocity owing to the topological charge. Here we show skyrmion bubbles in a synthetic antiferromagnetic coupled multilayer that are free from the above issues. Additive Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin-orbit torque (SOT) of the tailored stack allow stable skyrmion bubbles at room temperature, significantly smaller threshold current density or higher speed for motion, and negligible skyrmion Hall effect, with a potential to be scaled down to nanometer dimensions. The results offer a promising pathway toward nanoscale and energy-efficient skyrmion-based devices.
Project description:Magnetic skyrmions are swirling magnetic textures with novel characteristics suitable for future spintronic and topological applications. Recent studies confirmed the room-temperature stabilization of skyrmions in ultrathin ferromagnets. However, such ferromagnetic skyrmions show an undesirable topological effect, the skyrmion Hall effect, which leads to their current-driven motion towards device edges, where skyrmions could easily be annihilated by topographic defects. Recent theoretical studies have predicted enhanced current-driven behavior for antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled skyrmions. Here we present the stabilization of these skyrmions and their current-driven dynamics in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo films. By utilizing element-specific X-ray imaging, we find that the skyrmions in the Gd and FeCo sublayers are antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled. We further confirm that ferrimagnetic skyrmions can move at a velocity of ~50?m?s-1 with reduced skyrmion Hall angle, |?SkHE| ~?20°. Our findings open the door to ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic skyrmionics while providing key experimental evidences of recent theoretical studies.
Project description:Magnetic skyrmions are stable nanosized spin structures that can be displaced at low electrical current densities. Because of these properties, they have been proposed as building blocks of future electronic devices with unprecedentedly high information density and low energy consumption. The electrical detection of an ordered skyrmion lattice via the Topological Hall Effect (THE) in a bulk crystal, has so far been demonstrated only at cryogenic temperatures in the MnSi family of compounds. Here, we report the observation of a skyrmion lattice Topological Hall Effect near room temperature (276?K) in a mesoscopic lamella carved from a bulk crystal of FeGe. This region coincides with the skyrmion lattice location revealed by neutron scattering. We provide clear evidence of a re-entrant helicoid magnetic phase adjacent to the skyrmion phase, and discuss the large THE amplitude (5?n?.cm) in view of the ordinary Hall Effect.
Project description:The topological Hall effect (THE) is the Hall response to an emergent magnetic field, a manifestation of the skyrmion Berry-phase. As the magnitude of THE in magnetic multilayers is an open question, it is imperative to develop comprehensive understanding of skyrmions and other chiral textures, and their electrical fingerprint. Here, using Hall-transport and magnetic-imaging in a technologically viable multilayer film, we show that topological-Hall resistivity scales with the isolated-skyrmion density over a wide range of temperature and magnetic-field, confirming the impact of the skyrmion Berry-phase on electronic transport. While we establish qualitative agreement between the topological-Hall resistivity and the topological-charge density, our quantitative analysis shows much larger topological-Hall resistivity than the prevailing theory predicts for the observed skyrmion density. Our results are fundamental for the skyrmion-THE in multilayers, where interfacial interactions, multiband transport and non-adiabatic effects play an important role, and for skyrmion applications relying on THE.
Project description:The promise of high-density and low-energy-consumption devices motivates the search for layered structures that stabilize chiral spin textures such as topologically protected skyrmions. At the same time, recently discovered long-range intrinsic magnetic orders in the two-dimensional van der Waals materials provide a new platform for the discovery of novel physics and effects. Here we demonstrate the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and Néel-type skyrmions are induced at the WTe<sub>2</sub>/Fe<sub>3</sub>GeTe<sub>2</sub> interface. Transport measurements show the topological Hall effect in this heterostructure for temperatures below 100 K. Furthermore, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy is used to directly image Néel-type skyrmion lattice and the stripe-like magnetic domain structures as well. The interfacial coupling induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is estimated to have a large energy of 1.0 mJ?m<sup>-2</sup>. This work paves a path towards the skyrmionic devices based on van der Waals layered heterostructures.
Project description:The direct imaging of current density vector distributions in thin films has remained a daring challenge. Here, we report that an inhomogeneous current distribution can be mapped directly by the trajectories of magnetic half-skyrmions driven by an electrical current in Pt/Co/Ta trilayer, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The half-skyrmion carries a topological charge of 0.5 due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which leads to the half-skyrmion Hall effect. The Hall angle of half-skyrmions is independent of current density and can be reduced to as small as 4° by tuning the thickness of the Co layer. The Hall angle is so small that the elongation path of half-skyrmion approximately delineates the invisible current flow as demonstrated in both a continuous film and a curved track. Our work provides a practical technique to directly map inhomogeneous current distribution even in complex geometries for both fundamental research and industrial applications.
Project description:Current-induced motion of non-axisymmetric skyrmions within tilted ferromagnetic phases of polar helimagnets with the easy plane anisotropy is studied by micromagnetic simulations. Such non-axisymmetric skyrmions consist of a circular core and a crescent-shaped domain-wall region formed with respect to the tilted surrounding state. Current-driven motion of non-axisymmetric skyrmions exhibits two distinct time regimes: initially the skyrmions rotate towards the current flow direction and subsequently move along the current with the skyrmionic crescent first. According to the Thiele equation, the asymmetric distribution of the topological charge and the dissipative force tensor play an important role for giving the different velocities for the circular and the crescent-shaped constituent parts of the skyrmion what underlies such a shuttlecock-like movement. Moreover, the current-velocity relation depends on the angle of the tilted ferromagnetic phase what makes in particular the transverse velocity of skyrmions sensitive to their field-driven configurational transformation. We also argue the possibility of magnetic racetrack waveguides based on complex interplay of robust asymmetric skyrmions with multiple twisted edge states.