Surfactin Like Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Lipopeptide Co-produced With Sublancin From Bacillus subtilis Strain A52: Dual Reservoir of Bioactives.
ABSTRACT: An antimicrobial substance producing strain designated as A52 was isolated from a marine sediment sample and identified as Bacillus sp., based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The ANI and dDDH analysis of the genome sequence displayed high identity with two strains of B. subtilis sub sp. subtilis. Strain A52 yielded two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that differed in activity spectrum. MALDI mass spectrometry analysis of HPLC purified fractions revealed mass of peptides as 3881.6 and 1061.9 Da. The antiSMASH analysis of genome sequence unraveled presence of identical biosynthetic cluster involved in production of sublancin from B. subtilis sub sp. subtilis strain 168, which yielded peptide with identical mass. The low molecular weight peptide is found to be a cyclic lipopeptide containing C16 ?-hydroxy fatty acid that resembled surfactin-like group of biosurfactants. However, it differed in fatty acid composition and antimicrobial spectrum in comparison to other surfactins produced by strains of B. subtilis. It exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibited growth of pathogenic strains of Candida and filamentous fungi. Further, it exhibited hemolytic activity, but did not show phytotoxic effect in seed germination experiment. The emulgel formulation of surfactin-like lipopeptide showed antimicrobial activity in vitro and did not show any irritation effects in animal studies using BALB/c mice. Moreover, surfactin-like lipopeptide displayed synergistic activity with fluconazole against Candida, indicating its potential for external therapeutic applications.
Project description:Lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by <i>Bacillus</i> sp. were assessed regarding their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were found not to be susceptible to these lipopeptides. However, mycosubtilin and mycosubtilin/surfactin mixtures were very active against the filamentous fungi <i>Paecilomyces variotti</i> and <i>Byssochlamys fulva</i>, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1-16 mg/L. They were also active against <i>Candida krusei</i>, MIC = 16-64 mg/L. Moreover it was found that the antifungal activity of these lipopeptides was not affected by differences in isoform composition and/or purity. Furthermore their cytotoxicity tested on two different cell lines mimicking ingestion and detoxification was comparable to those of approved food preservatives such as nisin. Overall, for the first time here mycosubtilin and mycosubtilin/surfactin mixtures were found to have high antifungal activity against food relevant fungi at concentrations lower than their toxicity level hence, suggesting their application for extending the shelf-life of products susceptible to these moulds. In addition combining nisin with mycosubtilin or mycosubtiliin/surfactin mixtures proved to be an effective approach to produce antimicrobials with broader spectrum of action.
Project description:Bacillus spp. produce a broad spectrum of lipopeptide biosurfactants, among which surfactin, iturin and fengycin are widely studied families. The goals of this study were to characterize the biosurfactant activity of Bacillus spp. and to investigate their motility and biofilm formation capabilities. In addition, we extracted lipopeptides from these bacteria to assess their antifungal activities and analyzed these products by mass spectrometry (MS). B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, Bacillus sp. NH 217 and B. subtilis NH-100 exhibited excellent biosurfactant and surface spreading activities, whereas B. atrophaeus 176s and Paenibacillus polymyxa C1225 showed moderate activity, and B. subtilis 168 showed no activity. Strains FZB42, NH-100, NH-217, 176s and CC125 exhibited excellent biofilm formation capabilities. Lipopeptide extracts displayed good antifungal activity against various phytopathogens and their associated diseases, such as Fusarium moniliforme (rice bakanae disease), Fusarium oxysporum (root rot), Fusarium solani (root rot) and Trichoderma atroviride (ear rot and root rot). Lipopeptide extracts of these strains also showed hemolytic activity, demonstrating their strong potential to produce surfactants. LCMS-ESI analyses identified the presence of surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the extracts of Bacillus strains. Thus, the strains assayed in this study show potential as biocontrol agents against various Fusarium and Trichoderma species.
Project description:Many species of bacteria secrete natural products that inhibit the growth or development of competing species. In turn, competitors may develop or acquire resistance to antagonistic molecules. Few studies have investigated the interplay of these countervailing forces in direct competition between two species. We have used an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) approach to track metabolites exchanged between Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces sp. Mg1 cultured together. Surfactin is a cyclic lipopeptide produced by B. subtilis that inhibits the formation of aerial hyphae by streptomycetes. IMS analysis exposed an addition of 18 mass units to surfactin in the agar proximal to Streptomyces sp. Mg1 but not other streptomycetes tested. The spatially resolved change in the mass of surfactin indicated hydrolysis of the molecule. We observed that the aerial growth of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 was resistant to inhibition by surfactin, which suggests that hydrolysis was a mechanism of resistance. To identify possible enzymes from Streptomyces sp. Mg1 with surfactin hydrolase activity, we isolated secreted proteins and identified candidates by mass spectrometry. We purified one candidate enzyme that hydrolyzed surfactin in vitro. We tested the role of this enzyme in surfactin resistance by deleting the corresponding gene from the S. Mg1 genome. We observed that aerial growth by the ?sfhA mutant strain was now sensitive to surfactin. Our results identify an enzyme that hydrolyzes surfactin and confers resistance to aerial growth inhibition, which demonstrates the effective use of an IMS approach to track natural product modifications during interspecies competition.
Project description:Two of our long term efforts are to discover compounds with synergistic antifungal activity from metabolites of marine derived microbes and to optimize the production of the interesting compounds produced by microorganisms. In this respect, new applications or mechanisms of already known compounds with a high production yield could be continually identified. Surfactin is a well-known lipopeptide biosurfactant with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial and antiviral activity; however, there is less knowledge on surfactin's antifungal activity. In this study, we investigated the synergistic antifungal activity of C(15)-surfactin and the optimization of its production by the response surface method.Using a synergistic antifungal screening model, we found that the combination of C(15)-surfactin and ketoconazole (KTC) showed synergistic antifungal effect on Candida albicans SC5314 when the concentrations of C(15)-surfactin and KTC were 6.25 µg/mL and 0.004 µg/mL, respectively. These concentrations were lower than their own efficient antifungal concentrations, which are >100 µg/mL and 0.016 µg/mL, respectively. The production of C(15)-surfactin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was optimized by the response surface methodology in shaker flask cultivation. The Plackett-Burman design found sucrose, ammonium nitrate and NaH(2)PO(4) x 2H(2)O to have significant effects on C(15)-surfactin production. The optimum values of the tested variables were 21.17 g/L sucrose, 2.50 g/L ammonium nitrate and 11.56 g/L NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O. A production of 134.2 mg/L, which were in agreement with the prediction, was observed in a verification experiment. In comparison to the production of original level (88.6 mg/L), a 1.52-fold increase had been obtained.This work first found that C(15)-surfactin was an efficient synergistic antifungal agent, and demonstrated that response surface methodology was an effective method to improve the production of C(15)-surfactin.
Project description:Surfactins are lipopeptide-type biosurfactants produced mainly by Bacillus species, consisting of a peptide loop of seven amino acids and a hydrophobic fatty acid chain (C12?C16). These molecules have been proven to exhibit various biological activities; thus, their therapeutic and environmental applications are considered. Within the surfactin lipopeptide family, there is a wide spectrum of different homologues and isomers; to date, more than 30 variants have been described. Since the newest members of these lipopeptides were described recently, there is no information that is available on their characteristic features, e.g., the dependence of their production from different cultivation parameters. This study examined the effects of both the different carbon sources and various metal ions on the surfactin production of a selected B. subtilis strain. Among the applied carbon sources, fructose and xylose had the highest impacts on the ratio of the different variants, regarding both the peptide sequences and the lengths of the fatty acids. Furthermore, the application of metal ions Mn2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ in the media completely changed the surfactin variant compositions of the fermenting broths leading to the appearance of methyl esterified surfactin forms, and resulted in the appearance of novel surfactin variants with fatty acid chains containing no more than 11 carbon atoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bacillus subtilis 916 has been identified as an effective biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal pathogen of rice sheath blight, under greenhouse and field conditions. HPLC analysis showed that surfactin, a member of the lipopeptide family produced by B. subtilis, was the major antimicrobial substance. RESULTS:Previously, we obtained a mutant strain of B. subtilis 916, Bs-H74, which produced significantly more surfactin than the wild type and presented 10% stronger inhibitory activity against R. solani. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the higher surfactin productivity in the mutant, high-throughput proteomic analysis was carried out to analyze the differential protein expression. Our results showed that several differentially expressed proteins are involved in OppA, DegU and Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR) regulatory pathways, which could be positively or negatively associated with surfactin biosynthesis. At both transcriptional and translational levels, we suggested that OppA may play a key role in surfactin synthesis regulation. Based on the above findings, we proposed the hypothesis that a point mutation in the oppA gene may lead to changes in oligopeptides acquisition in B. subtilis, and then the changed oligopeptides may activate or suppress the global regulatory protein, CcpA in the CCR pathway, and ComA and DegU may indirectly regulate surfactin synthesis in Bs-H74. To further explore the regulatory mechanisms in Bs-H74, metabolomics analysis was performed in this study. Interestingly, only 16 metabolites showed changes in abundance in Bs-H74 compared to Bs-916. Neohesperidin, a type of natural flavanone glycosides from citrus with a range of biological activities, increased by 18 times over the wild type Bs-916. This result implied exciting findings in regulatory mechanisms by OppA protein. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, this study has revealed the mechanisms underlying the improved antagonistic property with increased surfactin production in Bs-H74 at the gene, protein and metabolic levels, which may help to comprehend the map of the regulatory networks in B. subtilis. Findings from our work have provided a solid physical and theoretical basis for practically applying metabolic and genetic engineering to achieve improved and high-yielding biocontrol strains.
Project description:The antibacterial activity against bacterial plant pathogens and its relationships with the presence of the cyclic lipopeptide (cLP) biosynthetic genes ituC (iturin), bmyB (bacillomycin), fenD (fengycin) and srfAA (surfactin), and their corresponding antimicrobial peptide products have been studied in a collection of 64 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from plant environments. The most frequent antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes were bmyB, srfAA and fenD (34-50% of isolates). Most isolates (98.4%) produced surfactin isoforms, 90.6% iturins and 79.7% fengycins. The antibacterial activity was very frequent and generally intense among the collection of strains because 75% of the isolates were active against at least 6 of the 8 bacterial plant pathogens tested. Hierarchical and correspondence analysis confirmed the presence of two clearly differentiated groups. One group consisted of Bacillus strains that showed a strong antibacterial activity, presented several cLPs genes and produced several isoforms of cLPs simultaneously, mainly composed of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, although the last one was exclusive to this group. Another group was characterized by strains with very low or none antibacterial activity, that showed one or none of the cLP genes and produced a few or none of the corresponding cLPs, and was the most heterogenous group including B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, although the last two were exclusive to this group. This work demonstrated that the antagonistic capacity of plant-associated Bacillus against plant pathogenic bacteria is related to the presence of cLP genes and to the production of the corresponding cLPs, and it is mainly associated to the species B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings would help to increase the yield and efficiency of screening methods to obtain candidate strains to biocontrol agents with a mechanism of action relaying on the production of antimicrobial cLPs.
Project description:Natural isolates of Bacillus subtilis are often difficult to transform due to their low genetic competence levels. Here we describe two methods that stimulate natural transformation. The first method uses plasmid pGSP12, which expresses the competence transcription factor ComK and stimulates competence development about 100-fold. The second method stimulates Campbell-type recombination of DNA ligation mixtures in B. subtilis by the addition of polyethylene glycol. We employed these novel methods to study the regulation of the synthetases for the lipopeptide antibiotics mycosubtilin (myc) and surfactin (srfA) in B. subtilis strain ATCC 6633. By means of lacZ reporter fusions, it was shown that the expression of srfA is >100 times lower in strain ATCC 6633 than in the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168. Expression of the myc operon was highest in rich medium, whereas srfA expression reached maximal levels in minimal medium. Further genetic analyses showed that the srfA operon is mainly regulated by the response regulator ComA, while the myc operon is primarily regulated by the transition-state regulator AbrB. Although there is in vitro evidence for a synergistic activity of mycosubtilin and surfactin, the expression of both lipopeptide antibiotics is clearly not coordinated.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis strain PB2-L1 produces the lipopeptide surfactin, a highly potent biosurfactant synthesized by a large multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). In the present study, the modules SrfA-A-Leu, SrfA-B-Asp, and SrfA-B-Leu from surfactin NRPS in B. subtilis BP2-L1 were successfully knocked-out using a temperature-sensitive plasmid, pKS2-mediated-based, homologous, recombination method.Three novel surfactin products were produced, individually lacking amino acid Leu-3, Asp-5, or Leu-6. These surfactins were detected, isolated, and characterized by HPLC and LC-FTICR-MS/MS. In comparison with native surfactin, [?Leu(3)]surfactin and [?Leu(6)]surfactin showed evidence of reduced toxicity, while [?Asp(5)]surfactin showed stronger inhibition than native surfactin against B. pumilus and Micrococcus luteus. These results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of [?Leu(6)]surfactin for Fusarium moniliforme was 50 ?g/mL, such that [?Leu(6)]surfactin could lead to mycelium projection, cell damage, and leakage of nucleic acids and protein. These factors all contributed to stimulating apoptosis in F. moniliforme.The present results revealed that [?Leu(6)]surfactin showed a significant antifungal activity against F. moniliforme and might successfully be employed to control fungal food contamination and improve food safety.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis subsp. krictiensis ATCC55079 produces the cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics iturin A-F as well as several surfactins. Here, we analyzed and characterized the biosynthetic genes associated with iturin and surfactin production in this strain. We aligned the sequences of each iturin and surfactin synthetase ORF obtained from a genomic library screen and next generation sequencing. The resulting 37,249-bp and 37,645-bp sequences associated with iturin and surfactin production, respectively, contained several ORFs that are predicted to encode proteins involved in iturin and surfactin biosynthesis. These ORFs showed higher sequence homologies with the respective iturin and surfactin synthetase genes of B. methylotrophicus CAU B946 than with those of B. subtilis RB14 and B. subtilis ATCC6633. Moreover, comparative analysis of the secondary metabolites produced by the wild-type and surfactin-less mutant (with a spectinomycin resistance cassette inserted into the srfAB gene within the putative surfactin gene region) strains demonstrated that the mutant strain showed significantly higher antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum than the wild-type strain. In addition, the wild-type strain-specific surfactin high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks were not observed in the surfactin-less mutant strain. In contrast, the iturin A peak detected by HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) in the surfactin-less mutant strain was 30% greater than that in the wild-type strain. These results suggested that the gene cluster we identified is involved in surfactin biosynthesis, and the biosynthetic pathways for iturin and surfactin in Bacillus strains producing both iturin and surfactin may utilize a common pathway.