Influence of Oyster Mushroom Waste on Growth Performance, Immunity and Intestinal Morphology Compared With Antibiotics in Broiler Chickens.
ABSTRACT: Oyster mushroom waste (OMW) is a by-product of the agriculture industry with valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, and prebiotic properties. This by-product might be a useful alternative to antibiotic growth stimulators in poultry nutrition. The purpose of this research was to test the impact of OMW on the immune responses and on the morphology of intestine of broiler chickens. Four dietary therapies with five replicas of 15 birds in each, totalling 300 day- Ross 308 broiler chickens, were utilized in this study. Control chickens were fed a mixed diet that included a maize-soybean meal complemented by 1 and 2% OMW in addition to the basal diet. Furthermore, Enramycin (125 g/kg) was added to the control diet as an antibiotic. Throughout this experiment, performance was studied as well as the immune response to the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and intestinal morphological traits. A substantial surge was noted in body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) of chickens after the addition of 1% OMW (p ? 0.05). In contrast, feed supplementation with 2% OMW, compared with the control diet, produced no noteworthy increase in BWG or the feed conversion rate (FCR). Antibiotic addition, on the other hand, increased serum cholesterol (p ? 0.05). After 42 days, neither OMW nor antibiotic addition affected organ mass. In contrast, antibiotic addition reduced the small intestine percentage, crypt depth and villus height (p ? 0.05). The Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV) antibody titer improved after feed supplementation with 1% OMW comparing with the control and antibiotic diet group. Furthermore, OMW supplementation decreased the heterophil-to-lymphocyte H/L ratio (p ? 0.05). The use of OMW led to a reduction in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the breast and liver and an increase in glutathione peroxidase. It helped to reduce glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. In conclusion, the impact of OMW were dose-dependent, and the use of 1% OMW in broiler diets enhanced their growth and immunity. Nonetheless, supplementation with 2% OMW produced conflicting results.
Project description:We investigated the effects of a blend of organic acids (OAs) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) supplementation in 800 1-d-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens (42 ± 0.90 g) in a 7-week study. Broiler chicks were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments (16 birds per pen with 10 pens per treatment). Dietary treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal based basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with blend of OAs and MCFAs at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 g, and 1 g per kg of feed. In the current study, during the whole experimental period, the inclusion of the blend of OAs and MCFAs in the basal diet linearly improved (p < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and dry matter digestibility. The increasing inclusion of the blend of OA and MCFA levels in the diets linearly decreased (p = 0.002) feed intake during d 1 to 7. Broilers fed diets containing different levels of the blend of OAs and MCFAs showed a linear increase (p = 0.006) in Lactobacillus concentrations and decrease (p = 0.014) in ammonia (NH3) at the end of the experiment. However, the blend of OAs and MCFAs did not affect carcass quality, E. coli, and Salmonella counts, as well as hydrogen sulfide and total mercaptans gas emission (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the blend of OA and MCFA supplementation positively influenced growth performance, DM digestibility, excreta Lactobacillus counts, as well as NH3 gas emission in broiler chickens.
Project description:Due to antimicrobial resistance and the public health hazard of antibiotic growth promoters, there is a grave need to find potential alternatives for sustainable poultry production. Piper betle (PB) and Persicaria odorata (PO) are herbs, which have been reported for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of different dose supplementation of Piper betle leaf meal (PBLM) and Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and gut morphology of broilers chickens. A total of 210 one day-old broiler chicks were randomly grouped into 7 treatments, and each treatment group has 3 replicates (n = 10) with a total number of 30 chicks. The treatments included T1 control (basal diet (BD) with no supplementation), T2 (BD + 2 g/kg PBLM); T3 (BD + 4 g/kg PBLM), T4 (BD + 8 g/kg PBLM), T5 (BD + 2 g/kg POLM), T6 (BD + 4 g/kg POLM), T7 (BD + 8 g/kg POLM). Growth performance, gut morphology and ileal digestibility were measured. Except for T4 (8 g/kg PBLM), graded dose inclusion of PBLM and POLM increased (P < 0.05) the body weight gain (BWG), positively modulated the gut architecture and enhanced nutrient digestibility in both stater and finisher growth phases of broiler chickens. Birds fed on PBLM 4 g/kg (T3), and POLM 8 g/kg (T7) had significantly higher (P < 0.05) BWG with superior (P < 0.05) feed efficiency in the overall growth period. Chickens fed on diets T3 and T7 had longer (P < 0.05) villi for duodenum as well as for jejunum. Furthermore, the birds fed on supplementations T3 and T7 showed improved (P < 0.05) digestibility of ether extract (EE), and dry matter (DM) compared to the control group. However, least (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility was recorded for T4. In conclusion, dietary supplementations of PBLM 4 g/kg and POLM 8 g/kg were positively modulated the intestinal microarchitecture with enhanced nutrient digestibility, resulted in maximum body weight gain, thus improved the growth performance of broiler chickens.
Project description:The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of nano-selenium on growth performance, antioxidative status, and immune function in broiler chickens reared under thermoneutral (22±1°C) or high ambient temperature (35±1°C) conditions. Thirty-six broiler chicks at 15d old were randomly divided into 6 treatments in a 3×2 factorial design. The main factors included the dietary supplementation (basal diet without Se supplementation [control], basal diet with 0.3 mg of nano-elemental Se per kilogram of diet [nano-Se], and basal diet with 0.3 mg of sodium selenite per kilogram of diet [SSe]) and the ambient temperature challenge (22±1°C or 35±1°C). The birds were given the experimental diets from 15 to 30 d of age. High ambient temperature significantly depressed body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, breast muscle weight, and abdominal fat weight, while feeding nano-Se clearly alleviated these negative effects of high ambient temperature. In addition, feeding nano-Se increased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in liver and alleviated the negative effects of high ambient temperature via reducing the malondialdehyde content in liver and breast muscle. Furthermore, feeding nano-Se increased mRNA expression of cytokine genes (interleukins 2 and 6) under both thermoneutral and high ambient temperature conditions. Under both thermoneutral and high-temperature conditions, broiler chickens fed nano-Se had higher Se and vitamin E concentrations in breast muscle than broiler chickens fed the control diet. In contrast, feeding SSe at the same dose as nano-Se did not alleviate the negative effects of high ambient temperature on broiler chickens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with nano-Se at 0.3 mg/kg diet might enhance growth performance by improving antioxidative or immune properties in broilers reared under high ambient temperature.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 60 Ross 308 broilers were treated for two weeks. The three dietary treatments were: (CON) basal diet; (T1) basal diet + 0.1% exogenous emulsifier, and (T2) basal diet + 0.2% exogenous emulsifier. In Period 1 (0-7 days), broilers in the T2 group showed significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) (p < 0.05) and broilers in the T1 and T2 treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) (p < 0.05). In Period 2 (8-14 days), broilers in the T2 treatment group had significantly higher feed intake (FI) (p < 0.05). Therefore, in this experiment (from days 0 to 19), BWG and FCR were affected (p < 0.05) by the T1 and T2 treatments. Additionally, the T1 and T2 treatments with added exogenous emulsifier in the broiler feed showed significantly higher energy digestibility (p < 0.05) than the CON treatment. Broilers fed the T2 diet had higher water-holding capacity (WHC) (p < 0.05) and cooking loss than the broilers fed the CON and T1 diets. Moreover, the shearing force in the meat was decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed the T2 diet. In conclusion, supplementation with exogenous emulsifier to broiler diets improved growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality. The optimal amount of exogenous emulsifier supplementation requires further investigation.
Project description:This research evaluated the effects of de-oiled lecithin (DOL) as an exogenous emulsifier in broilers. Totally, 480 male broilers (1-d-old, Ross308) were raised for a 35-day feeding experiment. Broilers were randomly divided into three dietary groups including the addition of 0, 61.80%de-oiled lecithin (DOL-60), 97.16%de-oiled lecithin (DOL-97) into the basal diet. Broiler chickens fed with DOL-60 and DOL-97diets had greater body weight gain (BWG) during 1-7 days, 8-21 days, and the overall experimental period (p< 0.05),greater(p < 0.05) breast muscle percentages, and lower (p < 0.05) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL/C) concentrations. Furthermore, broiler chickens fed with DOL-97 diet showed the highest (p< 0.05)BWG during 22-35 days and feed intake during 8-21 days, lowest (p< 0.05) feed conversion ratio during 22-35 days and overall period, highest (p< 0.05) concentration of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL/C), lowest (p < 0.05) concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL/C),excreta population of Escherichia coli (E. coli), and highest(p < 0.05) value of breast muscle redness. In summary, broiler diets inclusion of DOL-97 decreased the excreta E. coli counts, improved the growth performance, increased breast muscle percentage and redness, and enhanced concentrations of serum HDL/C and LDL/C.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i.e., salinomycin and monensin supplementation, were conducted. The following treatments were applied: experiment 1: NA-no additives, SAL-salinomycin (60 mg/kg diet), NIS-nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet), SAL+NIS-salinomycin (60 mg/kg diet) and nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet); experiment 2: NA-no additives, MON-monensin (100 mg/kg diet), NIS-nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet) and MON+NIS-monensin (100 mg/kg diet) and nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet). The addition of nisin with or without ionophores to the birds' diet improved broiler growth performance in terms of BWG and FCR (days 1 to 14) and BWG and FI (15 to 35 d; 1 to 35 d). Salinomycin showed effects similar to those of nisin influence on growth performance (1 to 35 d), while monensin supplementation resulted in lower BWG. Moreover, no additive effect between nisin and ionophores was observed. Nisin and salinomycin had no influence on the serum concentration of selected hormones and other blood biochemical parameters except glucose, which was reduced by nisin. A decrease in lipase activity was observed during nisin and salinomycin supplementation, while the apparent ileal digestibility of fat was not affected. However, the digestibility of crude protein increased with nisin administration. Additionally, the effects of nisin on decreasing the weight and length of GIT segments were observed. Supplementation with nisin and monensin was not associated with a negative impact on tibiotarsus mineralization and the immune organ index. This study suggests that nisin may be used in broiler nutrition as a growth promotor, with no negative influence on the bird's metabolism or immune status.
Project description:Background:This study evaluated the effects of Eimeria spp. challenge and dietary supplementation with free methionine or methionine dipeptide on animal performance; expression of genes associated with the immune system, antioxidant system, and amino acid transport in the jejunum; and redox status of the jejunum of broiler chickens. Methods:A randomized, 2?×?3 factorial design was used, in which Eimeria spp. challenge was the first factor (Eimeria-challenged, EC, or unchallenged, UC, broilers) and methionine supplementation was the second factor (non-supplemented, NS; free dl-methionine, dl-Met; and methionine dipeptide, dl-methionyl-dl-methionine, dl-MMet). At 14?days of age, chickens were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria mitis. Birds were killed by cervical dislocation 144?h post-inoculation (PI), and the jejunum was collected for biochemical and molecular analyses. Results:EC broilers had a 13% lower feed intake (FI), 37% lower body weight gain (BWG), and 39% higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) than UC broilers. Chickens fed the dl-Met diet had higher BWG (about 12% higher) and better FCR (about 12% lower) than chickens fed the NS diet. EC chickens had lower relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius (51.8%) and higher relative weights of the spleen and whole intestine (53.6% and 26.3%, respectively) than UC chickens. Eimeria spp. challenge led to an increase in the levels of oxidative substances, such as nitrite and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), in the jejunum of chickens 144?h PI. Among UC chickens, those fed the dl-Met diet had higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lower catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. EC chickens that received the NS diet had higher carbonylated protein content (CP). This result was associated with their lower TAC and catalase activity. The lower TAC in EC chickens might have been due to reduced expression of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genes. Chickens fed the dl-Met and dl-MMet diets had lower nitrite content. Eimeria spp. challenge suppressed neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B 0 AT1), peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), interleukin 2 (IL2), and occludin (OCLN) gene expression and enhanced cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) and interferon gamma (IFNG) gene expression. The highest PEPT1 expression level was observed in broilers fed the dl-MMet diet, and the lowest TLR5 expression level was found in broilers fed the NS diet. Conclusion:Our results show for the first time that supplementation with methionine as free amino acid or dipeptide helps protect the intestinal cells of broilers under Eimeria spp. challenge from the oxidative damage induced by free radicals, mainly through modulation of the antioxidant system.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary 3 kinds of sweeteners supplementation on growth performance, serum biochemicals, and jejunal physiological functions of broiler chickens for 21 D. A total of one hundred ninety-two 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates for each treatment. The treatments were basal diet (CON), a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg stevioside (STE), a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg sucralose (SUC), and a basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg saccharin sodium (SAC). All birds were housed in 3-level battery cages. The results showed that dietary STE supplementation increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, serum total protein, serum albumin, and jejunal antioxidant capacity of broiler chickens. Both SUC and SAC supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) serum total protein and albumin. Dietary SAC supplementation impaired the intestinal integrity, permeability, and mucus layer of the jejunum in broiler chickens. In addition, SAC supplementation elevated (P < 0.05) the transcription expression level of jejunal bitter taste receptors and induced excessive jejunal apoptosis. Our data suggest that STE could be potentially applied as a growth-promoting and antioxidant feed additive in broiler chickens. Whereas, dietary supplementation with high level SAC has side-effects on the jejunal physiological functions of broiler chickens.
Project description:This research was conducted to estimate the effects of Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on haematological indices, serum biochemical attributes, and internal organs parameters, including histomorphological features of the liver, in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. The dietary treatments were basal diet (BD), which served as the control (C), along with BD + 2 g/kg POLM (Po2), BD + 4 g/kg POLM (Po4), BD + 8 g/kg POLM (Po8), which were the supplemented groups. The body weight gain (BWG) showed a linear increase and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a linear decrease with increasing POLM dosage at day 42 (p ? 0.05) and for the overall growth performance period (p ? 0.01). On day 21 and day 42, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), and packed cell volume (PCV) showed linear increases (p ?0.05) as the dosage of POLM increased in the diet. On day 21, dietary supplementation of POLM linearly decreased (p ? 0.05) the serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), and serum levels of urea and creatinine. On the other hand, serum levels of total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin showed a linear increase (p ? 0.05) as the POLM dosage increased. On day 42, the serum activity of AST and ALT and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and creatinine showed linear decreases (p ? 0.05) with increased levels of POLM in the diet. However, POLM supplementation linearly increased (p ? 0.05) the serum levels of TP and globulin. Dietary inclusion of POLM did not influence the organ parameters and showed no adverse effects on the liver histomorphology. In conclusion, supplementation of POLM increased the growth performance, improving haematological indices and serum biochemistry profiles of broiler chickens without any deleterious effects on the liver histomorphology. The results of the present study provide evidence that POLM can be safely used at a dose rate of 8 g/kg of feed as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs).
Project description:Objective:High ambient temperature in poultry is a challenging and fatal stress among environmental factors. It affects the production quality, damages the liver, and increases mortality in broilers. The present study is focused to explore appropriate utilization of Selenium (Se) as a feed additive in broiler chickens against high temperature. Materials and Methods:Day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) (n = 200) were grouped according to the supplements used in their basal diets such as: corn-soybean basal diet as control (Con), a basal diet containing sodium selenite, basal diet with probiotics, and a basal diet containing selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). At the end of the experimental period of 42 days, the liver was isolated and was used to determine the antioxidant capacity through a spectrophotometer. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines production in the liver was measured through a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results:Hepatic analyses revealed the decreased level of malondialdehyde, whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase levels were increased in the SP group. Furthermore, supplementation of SP significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), GPx4, IL6, and IL10 and down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion:It is thus concluded that SP as a potential nutritive supplement may facilitate hepatic protection by suppressing hepatic oxidation, inflammation, and necrosis during the high ambient temperature of summer.