OsPLS4 Is Involved in Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis and Affects Leaf Senescence in Rice.
ABSTRACT: Leaf senescence is one of the most common factors that affects the growth and yield of rice. Although numerous genes affecting leaf senescence have been identified, few involved in cuticular wax synthesis have been described for rice premature leaf senescence. Here, we cloned and characterized Premature Leaf Senescence 4 (PLS4) in rice (Oryza sativa), which encodes a putative 3-oxoacyl-reductase in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular localization of OsPLS4 was observed in the chloroplast. A single nucleotide substitution in OsPLS4 reduced leaf cuticular wax, and the expression levels of most wax biosynthesis-associated genes were downregulated. TEM showed chloroplast development were defective in the pls4 mutant. Further investigation revealed that the chlorophyll (Chl) content was reduced in the pls4 mutant compared with the WT and that the photosynthesis rate was lower, which caused ROS dramatic accumulation at the heading stage. These results confirmed premature leaf senescence in pls4 plants. Cold treatment indicated that the mutant was more sensitive than the WT was to cold stress. Together, all the above results indicate that the OsPLS4 mutation affects cuticular wax biosynthesis and chloroplast development in rice, causing reduced cuticular wax and premature leaf senescence.
Project description:Leaf blade width, curvature, and cuticular wax are important agronomic traits of rice. Here, we report the rice Oschr4-5 mutant characterized by pleiotropic phenotypes, including narrow and rolled leaves, enhanced cuticular wax deposition and reduced plant height and tiller number. The reduced leaf width is caused by a reduced number of longitudinal veins and increased auxin content. The cuticular wax content was significantly higher in the Oschr4-5 mutant, resulting in reduced water loss rate and enhanced drought tolerance. Molecular characterization reveals that a single-base deletion results in a frame-shift mutation from the second chromodomain of OsCHR4, a CHD3 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding) family chromatin remodeler, in the Oschr4-5 mutant. Expressions of seven wax biosynthesis genes (GL1-4, WSL4, OsCER7, LACS2, LACS7, ROC4 and BDG) and four auxin biosynthesis genes (YUC2, YUC3, YUC5 and YUC6) was up-regulated in the Oschr4-5 mutant. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the transcriptionally active histone modification H3K4me3 was increased, whereas the repressive H3K27me3 was reduced in the upregulated genes in the Oschr4-5 mutant. Therefore, OsCHR4 regulates leaf morphogenesis and cuticle wax formation by epigenetic modulation of auxin and wax biosynthetic genes expression.
Project description:Cuticular wax covers aerial organs of plants and functions as the outermost barrier against non-stomatal water loss. We reported here the functional characterization of the Glossy1(GL1)-homologous gene OsGL1-3 in rice using overexpression and RNAi transgenic rice plants. OsGL1-3 gene was ubiquitously expressed at different level in rice plants except root and its expression was up-regulated under ABA and PEG treatments. The transient expression of OsGL1-3-GFP fusion protein indicated that OsGL1-3 is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Compared to the wild type, overexpression rice plants exhibited stunted growth, more wax crystallization on leaf surface, and significantly increased total cuticular wax load due to the prominent changes of C30-C32 aldehydes and C30 primary alcohols. While the RNAi knockdown mutant of OsGL1-3 exhibited no significant difference in plant height, but less wax crystallization and decreased total cuticular wax accumulation on leaf surface. All these evidences, together with the effects of OsGL1-3 on the expression of some wax synthesis related genes, suggest that OsGL1-3 is involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. Overexpression of OsGL1-3 decreased chlorophyll leaching and water loss rate whereas increased tolerance to water deficit at both seedling and late-tillering stages, suggesting an important role of OsGL1-3 in drought tolerance.
Project description:Premature leaf senescence negatively impacts the grain yield in the important monocot rice (Oryza sativa L.); to understand the molecular mechanism we carried out a screen for mutants with premature senescence leaves in a mutant bank generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of elite indica rice ZhongJian100. Five premature senescence leaf (psl15, psl50, psl89, psl117 and psl270) mutants were identified with distinct yellowish phenotypes on leaves starting from the tillering stage to final maturation. Moreover, these mutants exhibited significantly increased malonaldehyde content, decreased chlorophyll content, reduced numbers of chloroplast and grana thylakoid, altered photosynthetic ability and expression of photosynthesis-related genes. Furthermore, the expression of senescence-related indicator OsI57 was significantly up-regulated in four mutants. Histochemical analysis indicated that cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation occurred in the mutants with altered activities of ROS scavenging enzymes. Both darkness and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments could induce leaf senescence and resulted in up- or down-regulation of ABA metabolism-related genes in the mutants. Genetic analysis indicated that all the premature senescence leaf mutants were controlled by single non-allelic recessive genes. The data suggested that mechanisms underlying premature leaf senescence are likely different among the mutants. The present study would facilitate us to further fine mapping, cloning and functional characterization of the corresponding genes mediating the premature leaf senescence in rice.
Project description:The importance of the cuticular layer in regulating a plant's water status and providing protection from environmental challenges has been recognized for a long time. The cuticular layer in plants restricts non-stomatal water loss and protects plants against damage from pathogen infection and UV radiation. Much genetic and biochemical research has been done about cutin and wax transportation in Arabidopsis thaliana, but little is known about it in rice. Here, we report that a rice ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, OsABCG9, is essential for normal development during vegetative growth and could play a critical role in the transportation of epicuticular wax in rice. Rice phenotypes with mutated OsABCG9 exhibited growth retardation and sensitivity to low humidity. The total amount of cuticular wax on the leaves of the osabcg9-1 mutant diminished by 53% compared with the wild type, and wax crystals disappeared completely in osabcg9-2 mutant leaves. However, OsABCG9 does not seem to be involved in cutin transportation, even though its ortholog in Arabidopsis, AtABCG11, transports both wax and cutin. Furthermore, the osabcg9-1 mutant had increased leaf chlorophyll leaching and more severe drought susceptibility. This study provides new insights about differences between rice and A. thaliana in wax and cutin transportation associated with the ABCG family during evolution.
Project description:Premature senescence greatly affects the yield production and the grain quality in plants, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel rice premature senescence leaf 85 (psl85) mutant from ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of cultivar Zhongjian100 (the wild-type, WT). The psl85 mutant presented a distinct dwarfism and premature senescence leaf phenotype, starting from the seedling stage to the mature stage, with decreasing level of chlorophyll and degradation of chloroplast, declined photosynthetic capacity, increased content of malonaldehyde (MDA), upregulated expression of senescence-associated genes, and disrupted reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system. Moreover, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level was significantly increased in psl85 at the late aging phase, and the detached leaves of psl85 showed more rapid chlorophyll deterioration than that of WT under ABA treatment, indicating that PSL85 was involved in ABA-induced leaf senescence. Genetic analysis revealed that the premature senescence leaf phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene which was finally mapped in a 47 kb region on the short arm of chromosome 7, covering eight candidate open reading frames (ORFs). No similar genes controlling a premature senescence leaf phenotype have been identified in the region, and cloning and functional analysis of the gene is currently underway.
Project description:The sfr3 mutation causes freezing sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mapping, sequencing, and transgenic complementation showed sfr3 to be a missense mutation in ACC1, an essential gene encoding homomeric (multifunctional) acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Cuticle permeability was compromised in the sfr3 mutant when plants were grown in the cold but not in the warm. Wax deposition on the inflorescence stem of cold-grown sfr3 plants was inhibited and the long-chain components of their leaf cuticular wax were reduced compared with wild-type plants. Thus, freezing sensitivity of sfr3 appears, from these results, to be due to cuticular deficiencies that develop during cold acclimation. These observations demonstrated the essential role of the cuticle in tolerance to freezing and drought.
Project description:Cuticular wax is a class of organic compounds that comprises the outermost layer of plant surfaces. Plant cuticular wax, the last barrier of self-defense, plays an important role in plant growth and development. The OsGL1-6 gene, a member of the fatty aldehyde decarbonylase gene family, is highly homologous to Arabidopsis CER1, which is involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. However, whether OsGL1-6 participates in cuticular wax biosynthesis remains unknown. In this study, an OsGL1-6 antisense-RNA vector driven by its own promoter was constructed and introduced into the rice variety Zhonghua11 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to obtain several independent transgenic plants with decreased OsGL1-6 expression. These OsGL1-6 antisense-RNA transgenic plants showed droopy leaves at the booting stage, significantly decreased leaf cuticular wax deposition, thinner cuticle membrane, increased chlorophyll leaching and water loss rates, and enhanced drought sensitivity. The OsGL1-6 gene was constitutively expressed in all examined organs and was very highly expressed in leaf epidermal cells and vascular bundles. The transient expression of OsGL1-6-GFP fusion indicated that OsGL1-6 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a significantly reduced total cuticular wax load on the leaf blades of the OsGL1-6 antisense-RNA transgenic plants as well as markedly decreased alkane and aldehyde contents. Their primary alcohol contents increased significantly compared with those in the wild type plants, suggesting that OsGL1-6 is associated with the decarbonylation pathways in wax biosynthesis. We propose that OsGL1-6 is involved in the accumulation of leaf cuticular wax and directly impacts drought resistance in rice.
Project description:A premature senescence and death 128 (psd128) mutant was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate-induced rice IR64 mutant bank. The premature senescence phenotype appeared at the six-leaf stage and the plant died at the early heading stage. psd128 exhibited impaired chloroplast development with significantly reduced photosynthetic ability, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, root vigor, soluble protein content and increased malonaldehyde content. Furthermore, the expression of senescence-related genes was significantly altered in psd128. The mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using map-based strategy, the mutation Oryza sativa cell division cycle 48 (OsCDC48) was isolated and predicted to encode a putative AAA-type ATPase with 809 amino-acid residuals. A single base substitution at position C2347T in psd128 resulted in a premature stop codon. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype. In addition, RNA interference resulted in the premature senescence and death phenotype. OsCDC48 was expressed constitutively in the root, stem, leaf and panicle. Subcellular analysis indicated that OsCDC48:YFP fusion proteins were located both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. OsCDC48 was highly conserved with more than 90% identity in the protein levels among plant species. Our results indicated that the impaired function of OsCDC48 was responsible for the premature senescence and death phenotype.
Project description:Cuticular wax formation on the surface of plant leaves is associated with drought-stress tolerance. The identification of wax biosynthesis-related genes will contribute to the genetic improvement of drought resistance in plants. In this study, we characterize a novel Dianthus spiculifolius mutant with increased cuticular wax. The mutant exhibited stronger drought resistance as indicated by less leaf wilting and death, higher leaf relative water content and water retention capacity, and slower water loss and chlorophyll extraction than did the wild type during drought treatment. In the mutant leaves, 2 730 upregulated and 2 151 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by transcriptome sequencing. A wax biosynthesis pathway of the identified DEGs was significantly enriched. Finally, three key genes (DsCER1, DsMAH1, and DsWSD1) involved in wax biosynthesis were identified and verified by qPCR. These results suggest that differential expression of DEGs involved in wax biosynthesis may be associated with the increase in cuticular wax in the mutant. Taken together, our results help elucidate wax formation patterns in D. spiculifolius. Furthermore, the DEGs involved in wax biosynthesis identified here may be valuable genetic resources for improving plant stress tolerance through increased accumulation of cuticular wax.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Spotted-leaf mutants are important to reveal programmed cell death and defense-related pathways in rice. We previously characterized the phenotype performance of a rice spotted-leaf mutant spl21 and narrowed down the causal gene locus spl21(t) to an 87-kb region in chromosome 12 by map-based cloning. RESULT:We showed that a single base substitution from A to G at position 836 in the coding sequence of Oryza sativa beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OsGCNT), effectively mutating Tyr to Cys at position 279 in the translated protein sequence, was responsible for the spotted-leaf phenotype as it could be rescued by functional complementation. Compared to the wild type IR64, the spotted-leaf mutant spl21 exhibited loss of chlorophyll, breakdown of chloroplasts, down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes, and up-regulation of senescence associated genes, which indicated that OsGCNT regulates premature leaf senescence. Moreover, the enhanced resistance to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes and increased level of jasmonate which suggested that OsGCNT is a negative regulator of defense response in rice. OsGCNT was expressed constitutively in the leaves, sheaths, stems, roots, and panicles, and OsGCNT-GFP was localized to the Golgi apparatus. High throughput RNA sequencing analysis provided further evidence for the biological effects of loss of OsGCNT function on cell death, premature leaf senescence and enhanced disease resistance in rice. Thus, we demonstrated that the novel OsGCNT regulated rice innate immunity and immunity-associated leaf senescence probably by changing the jasmonate metabolic pathway. CONCLUSIONS:These results reveal that a novel gene Oryza sativa beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OsGCNT) is responsible for the spotted-leaf mutant spl21, and OsGCNT acts as a negative-regulator mediating defense response and immunity-associated premature leaf senescence probably by activating jasmonate signaling pathway.