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E-cigarette-induced pulmonary inflammation and dysregulated repair are mediated by nAChR ?7 receptor: role of nAChR ?7 in SARS-CoV-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor regulation.


ABSTRACT: Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping is increasing rapidly in the United States, as e-cigs are considered less harmful than combustible cigarettes. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the possible mechanisms that mediate toxicity and pulmonary health effects of e-cigs. We hypothesized that sub-chronic e-cig exposure induces inflammatory response and dysregulated repair/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur through the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR?7). Adult wild-type (WT), nAChR?7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChR?7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChR?7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP2, MMP8 and MMP9, were altered both at the protein and mRNA transcript levels in female and male KO mice, but WT mice exposed to PG alone showed a sex-dependent phenotype. Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChR?7-dependent manner. Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChR?7 gene. Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChR?7 in a sex-dependent manner.

SUBMITTER: Wang Q 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7301079 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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