The ?v?6 integrin in cancer cell-derived small extracellular vesicles enhances angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PrCa) cells crosstalk with the tumour microenvironment by releasing small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). sEVs, as well as large extracellular vesicles (LEVs), isolated via iodixanol density gradients from PrCa cell culture media, express the epithelial-specific ?v?6 integrin, which is known to be induced in cancer. In this study, we show sEV-mediated protein transfer of ?v?6 integrin to microvascular endothelial cells (human microvascular endothelial cells 1 - HMEC1) and demonstrate that de novo ?v?6 integrin expression is not caused by increased mRNA levels. Incubation of HMEC1 with sEVs isolated from PrCa PC3 cells that express the ?v?6 integrin results in a highly significant increase in the number of nodes, junctions and tubules. In contrast, incubation of HMEC1 with sEVs isolated from ?6 negative PC3 cells, generated by shRNA against ?6, results in a reduction in the number of nodes, junctions and tubules, a decrease in survivin levels and an increase in a negative regulator of angiogenesis, pSTAT1. Furthermore, treatment of HMEC1 with sEVs generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated down-regulation of ?6, causes up-regulation of pSTAT1. Overall, our findings suggest that ?v?6 integrin in cancer sEVs regulates angiogenesis during PrCa progression.
Project description:The ability of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) to reprogram cancer cells is well established. However, the specific sEV components able to mediate aberrant effects in cancer cells have not been characterized. Integrins are major players in mediating sEV functions. We have previously reported that the ?V?3 integrin is detected in sEVs of prostate cancer (PrCa) cells and transferred into recipient cells. Here, we investigate whether sEVs from ?V?3-expressing cells affect tumour growth differently than sEVs from control cells that do not express ?V?3. We compared the ability of sEVs to stimulate tumour growth, using sEVs isolated from PrCa C4-2B cells by iodixanol density gradient and characterized with immunoblotting, nanoparticle tracking analysis, immunocapturing and single vesicle analysis. We incubated PrCa cells with sEVs and injected them subcutaneously into nude mice to measure in vivo tumour growth or analysed in vitro their anchorage-independent growth. Our results demonstrate that a single treatment with sEVs shed from C4-2B cells that express ?V?3, but not from control cells, stimulates tumour growth and induces differentiation of PrCa cells towards a neuroendocrine phenotype, as quantified by increased levels of neuroendocrine markers. In conclusion, the expression of ?V?3 integrin generates sEVs capable of reprogramming cells towards an aggressive phenotype.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-cell communication due to their cargo content of proteins, lipids, and RNAs. We previously reported that small EVs (SEVs) called exosomes promote directed and random cell motility, invasion, and serum-independent growth. In contrast, larger EVs (LEVs) were not active in those assays, but might have unique functional properties. In order to identify protein cargos that may contribute to different functions of SEVs and LEVs, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) on EVs isolated from a colon cancer cell line. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that SEVs are enriched in proteins associated with cell-cell junctions, cell-matrix adhesion, exosome biogenesis machinery, and various signaling pathways. In contrast, LEVs are enriched in proteins associated with ribosome and RNA biogenesis, processing, and metabolism. Western blot analysis of EVs purified from two different cancer cell types confirmed the enrichment of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion proteins in SEVs. Consistent with those data, we found that cells exhibit enhanced adhesion to surfaces coated with SEVs compared to an equal protein concentration of LEVs. These data suggest that a major function of SEVs is to promote cellular adhesion.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from nearly all mammalian cells and different EV populations have been described. Microvesicles represent large EVs (LEVs) released from the cellular surface, while exosomes are small EVs (SEVs) released from an intracellular compartment. As it is likely that different stimuli promote the release of distinct EV populations, we analyzed EVs from human lymphocytes considering the respective release stimuli (activation Vs. apoptosis induction). We could clearly separate two EV populations, namely SEVs (average diameter <200?nm) and LEVs (diameter range between 200 and 1000?nm). Morphology and size were analyzed by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Apoptosis induction caused a massive release of LEVs, while activated T-cells released SEVs and LEVs in considerably lower amounts. The release of SEVs from apoptotic T-cells was comparable with LEV release from activated ones. LEVs contained signaling proteins and proteins of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. SEVs carried cytoplasmic/endosomal proteins like the 70-kDa heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) or tumor susceptibility 101 (TSG101), microtubule-associated proteins, and ubiquitinated proteins. The protein expression profile of SEVs and LEVs changed substantially after the induction of apoptosis. After apoptosis induction, HSP70 and TSG101 (often used as exosome markers) were highly expressed within LEVs. Interestingly, in contrast to HSP70 and TSG101, gelsolin and eps15 homology domain-containing protein 3 (EHD3) turned out to be specific for SEVs irrespective of the stimulus causing the EV release. Finally, we detected several subunits of the proteasome (PSMB9, PSMB10) as well as the danger signal HMGB1 exclusively within apoptotic cell-released LEVs. Thus, we were able to identify new marker proteins that can be useful to discriminate between distinct LEV subpopulations. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009074.
Project description:Consumer interest in cosmetic industry products that produce whitening effects has increased demand for agents that decrease melanin production. Many such anti-melanogenic agents are associated with side effects, such as contact dermatitis and high toxicity, and also exhibit poor skin penetration. Considerable recent research has focused on plant-derived products as alternatives to chemotherapeutic agents that possess fewer side effects. In the current study, we investigated the anti-melanogenic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) extracted from leaves and stems of Dendropanax morbifera. Using spectrophotometric and biochemical approaches, we found that leaf-derived extracellular vesicles (LEVs) and stem-derived extracellular vesicles (SEVs) reduced melanin content and tyrosinase (TYR) activity in the B16BL6 mouse melanoma cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. An electron microscopy analysis further confirmed that LEVs and SEVs induce a concentration-dependent decrease in melanin content in melanoma cells. Both LEVs and SEVs exerted a greater whitening effect on melanoma cells than arbutin, used as a positive control, with LEVs producing the greater effect. Notably, neither LEVs nor SEVs induced significant cytotoxicity. We also examined the effects of plant-derived EVs on the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs) in melanoma cells. LEVs inhibited expression of melanogenesis-related genes and proteins, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), TYR, TRP-1 and TRP-2. In a human epidermis model, LEVs exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than arbutin. Collectively, our data suggest that LEVs from D. morbifera may be a novel candidate natural substance for use as an anti-melanogenic agent in cosmeceutical formulations.
Project description:Identifying biomarkers is essential for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Large (LEVs) and small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) are extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes and biological functions transported in blood and they may be valid biomarkers for NDs. The aim of our study was to investigate common and different miRNA signatures in plasma derived LEVs and SEVs of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients. LEVs and SEVs were isolated from plasma of patients and healthy volunteers (CTR) by filtration and differential centrifugation and RNA was extracted. Small RNAs libraries were carried out by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). MiRNAs discriminate all NDs diseases from CTRs and they can provide a signature for each NDs. Common enriched pathways for SEVs were instead linked to ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways and for LEVs to neurotrophin signaling and Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway. LEVs and SEVs are involved in different pathways and this might give a specificity to their role in the spreading of the disease. The study of common and different miRNAs transported by LEVs and SEVs can be of great interest for biomarker discovery and for pathogenesis studies in neurodegeneration.
Project description:The ?1 integrins, known to promote cancer progression, are abundant in extracellular vesicles (EVs). We investigated whether prostate cancer (PrCa) EVs affect anchorage-independent growth and whether ?1 integrins are required for this effect. Specifically using a cell-line-based genetic rescue and an in vivo PrCa model, we show that gradient-purified small EVs (sEVs) from either cancer cells or blood from tumor-bearing TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mice promote anchorage-independent growth of PrCa cells. In contrast, sEVs from cultured PrCa cells harboring a short hairpin RNA to ?1, from wild-type mice or from TRAMP mice carrying a ?1 conditional ablation in the prostatic epithelium (?1pc-/-), do not. We find that sEVs, from cancer cells or TRAMP blood, are functional and co-express ?1 and sEV markers; in contrast, sEVs from ?1pc-/-/TRAMP or wild-type mice lack ?1 and sEV markers. Our results demonstrate that ?1 integrins in tumor-cell-derived sEVs are required for stimulation of anchorage-independent growth.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are widely investigated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for their involvement in regulating GBM pathobiology as well as for their use as potential biomarkers. EVs, through cell-to-cell communication, can deliver proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that are able to reprogram tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). This research is aimed to concentrate, characterize, and identify molecular markers of EVs subtypes released by temozolomide (TMZ)-treated and non TMZ-treated four diverse GBM cells. Morphology, size distribution, and quantity of small (sEVs) and large (lEVs) vesicles were analyzed by cryo-TEM. Quality and quantity of EVs surface markers were evaluated, having been obtained by Western blotting. GBM cells shed a large amount of EVs, showing a cell line dependent molecular profile A comparative analysis distinguished sEVs and lEVs released by temozolomide (TMZ)-treated and non TMZ-treated GBM cells on the basis of quantity, size and markers expression. Finally, the GBM-derived sEVs and lEVs, irrespective of TMZ treatment, when challenged with macrophages, modulated cell activation toward a tendentially M2b-like phenotype.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells. Adipocyte-derived EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation of conditioned media collected from 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured for 24 h in serum-free conditions. Based on morphological and biochemical properties, as well as quantification of secreted EVs, we distinguished two subpopulations of adipocyte-derived EVs, namely small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and large extracellular vesicles (lEVs). Proteomic analyses revealed that lEVs and sEVs exhibit specific protein signatures, allowing us not only to define novel markers of each population, but also to predict their biological functions. Despite similar phospholipid patterns, the comparative lipidomic analysis performed on these EV subclasses revealed a specific cholesterol enrichment of the sEV population, whereas lEVs were characterised by high amounts of externalised phosphatidylserine. Enhanced secretion of lEVs and sEVs is achievable following exposure to different biological stimuli related to the chronic low-grade inflammation state associated with obesity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of primary murine adipocytes to secrete sEVs and lEVs, which display physical and biological characteristics similar to those described for 3T3-L1. Our study provides additional information and elements to define EV subtypes based on the characterisation of adipocyte-derived EV populations. It also underscores the need to distinguish EV subpopulations, through a combination of multiple approaches and markers, since their specific composition may cause distinct metabolic responses in recipient cells and tissues.
Project description:Exosomes, cell-derived vesicles of endosomal origin, are continuously released in the extracellular environment and play a key role in intercellular crosstalk. In this study, we have investigated whether transfer of integrins through exosomes between prostate cancer (PrCa) cells occurs and whether transferred integrins promote cell adhesion and migration. Among others, we have focused on the ?v?6 integrin, which is not detectable in normal human prostate but is highly expressed in human primary PrCa as well as murine PrCa in Pten(pc-/-) mice. After confirming the fidelity of the exosome preparations by electron microscopy, density gradient, and immunoblotting, we determined that the ?v?6 integrin is actively packaged into exosomes isolated from PC3 and RWPE PrCa cell lines. We also demonstrate that ?v?6 is efficiently transferred via exosomes from a donor cell to an ?v?6-negative recipient cell and localizes to the cell surface. De novo ?v?6 expression in an ?v?6-negative recipient cell is not a result of a change in mRNA levels but is a consequence of exosome-mediated transfer of this integrin between different PrCa cells. Recipient cells incubated with exosomes containing ?v?6 migrate on an ?v?6 specific substrate, latency-associated peptide-TGF?, to a greater extent than cells treated with exosomes in which ?v?6 is stably or transiently down-regulated by shRNA or siRNA, respectively. Overall, this study shows that exosomes from PrCa cells may contribute to a horizontal propagation of integrin-associated phenotypes, which would promote cell migration, and consequently, metastasis in a paracrine fashion.
Project description:Pleural effusion is a common respiratory disease worldwide; however, rapid and accurate diagnoses of tuberculosis pleural effusion (TPE) and malignancy pleural effusion (MPE) remain challenging. Although extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been confirmed as promising sources of disease biomarkers, little is known about the metabolite compositions of its subpopulations and their roles in the diagnosis of pleural effusion. Here, we performed metabolomics and lipidomics analysis to investigate the metabolite characteristics of two EV subpopulations derived from pleural effusion by differential ultracentrifugation, namely large EVs (lEVs, pelleted at 20,000 × g) and small EVs (sEVs, pelleted at 110,000 × g), and assessed their metabolite differences between tuberculosis and malignancy. A total of 579 metabolites, including amino acids, acylcarnitines, organic acids, steroids, amides and various lipid species, were detected. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of lEVs and sEVs overlapped with and difference from each other but significantly differed from those of pleural effusion. Additionally, different type of vesicles and pleural effusion showed unique metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, lEVs displayed more significant and larger metabolic alterations between the tuberculosis and malignancy groups, and their differential metabolites were more closely related to clinical parameters than those of sEV. Finally, a panel of four biomarker candidates, including phenylalanine, leucine, phosphatidylcholine 35:0, and sphingomyelin 44:3, in pleural lEVs was defined based on the comprehensive discovery and validation workflow. This panel showed high performance for distinguishing TPE and MPE, particularly in patients with delayed or missed diagnosis, such as the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) >0.95 in both sets. We conducted comprehensive metabolic profiling analysis of EVs, and further explored the metabolic reprogramming of tuberculosis and malignancy at the level of metabolites in lEVs and sEVs, providing insight into the mechanism of pleural effusion, and identifying novel biomarkers for diagnosing TPE and MPE.