Fumonisin and Beauvericin Chemotypes and Genotypes of the Sister Species Fusarium subglutinans and Fusarium temperatum.
ABSTRACT: Fusarium subglutinans and Fusarium temperatum are common maize pathogens that produce mycotoxins and cause plant disease. The ability of these species to produce beauvericin and fumonisin mycotoxins is not settled, as reports of toxin production are not concordant. Our objective was to clarify this situation by determining both the chemotypes and genotypes for strains from both species. We analyzed 25 strains from Argentina, 13 F. subglutinans and 12 F. temperatum strains, for toxin production by ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). We used new genome sequences from two strains of F. subglutinans and one strain of F. temperatum, plus genomes of other Fusarium species, to determine the presence of functional gene clusters for the synthesis of these toxins. None of the strains examined from either species produced fumonisins. These strains also lack Fum biosynthetic genes but retain homologs of some genes that flank the Fum cluster in Fusarium verticillioides None of the F. subglutinans strains we examined produced beauvericin although 9 of 12 F. temperatum strains did. A complete beauvericin (Bea) gene cluster was present in all three new genome sequences. The Bea1 gene was presumably functional in F. temperatum but was not functional in F. subglutinans due to a large insertion and multiple mutations that resulted in premature stop codons. The accumulation of only a few mutations expected to disrupt Bea1 suggests that the process of its inactivation is relatively recent. Thus, none of the strains of F. subglutinans or F. temperatum we examined produce fumonisins, and the strains of F. subglutinans examined also cannot produce beauvericin. Variation in the ability of strains of F. temperatum to produce beauvericin requires further study and could reflect the recent shared ancestry of these two species.IMPORTANCE Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum are sister species and maize pathogens commonly isolated worldwide that can produce several mycotoxins and cause seedling disease, stalk rot, and ear rot. The ability of these species to produce beauvericin and fumonisin mycotoxins is not settled, as reports of toxin production are not concordant at the species level. Our results are consistent with previous reports that strains of F. subglutinans produce neither fumonisins nor beauvericin. The status of toxin production by F. temperatum needs further work. Our strains of F. temperatum did not produce fumonisins, while some strains produced beauvericin and others did not. These results enable more accurate risk assessments of potential mycotoxin contamination if strains of these species are present. The nature of the genetic inactivation of BEA1 is consistent with its relatively recent occurrence and the close phylogenetic relationship of the two sister species.
Project description:<i>Fusarium subglutinans</i> is a plant pathogenic fungus infecting cereal grain crops. In 2011, the species was divided in <i>Fusarium temperatum</i><i>sp. nov.</i> and <i>F. subglutinans sensu stricto</i>. In order to determine the occurrence and significance of <i>F. temperatum</i> and <i>F. subglutinans</i> on maize, a monitoring of maize ears and stalks was carried out in Germany in 2017 and 2018. Species identification was conducted by analysis of the translation elongation factor <i>1α</i> (<i>TEF-1α</i>) gene. Ninety-four isolates of <i>F. temperatum</i> and eight isolates of <i>F. subglutinans</i> were obtained during two years of monitoring from 60 sampling sites in nine federal states of Germany. Inoculation of maize ears revealed a superior aggressiveness for <i>F. temperatum</i>, followed by <i>Fusarium graminearum</i>, <i>Fusarium verticillioides</i>, and <i>F. subglutinans.</i> On maize stalks, <i>F. graminearum</i> was the most aggressive species while <i>F. temperatum</i> and <i>F. subglutinans</i> caused only small lesions. The optimal temperature for infection of maize ears with <i>F. temperatum</i> was 24 °C and 21 °C for <i>F. subglutinans</i>. All strains of <i>F. temperatum</i> and <i>F. subglutinans</i> were pathogenic on wheat and capable to cause moderate to severe head blight symptoms. The assessment of mycotoxin production of 60 strains of <i>F. temperatum</i> cultivated on rice revealed that all strains produced beauvericin, moniliformin, fusaric acid, and fusaproliferin. The results demonstrate a higher prevalence and aggressiveness of <i>F. temperatum</i> compared to <i>F. subglutinans</i> in German maize cultivation areas.
Project description:Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is an important perennial crop in tropical and subtropical areas. It may be infected by various Fusarium species, contaminating the plant material with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fusarium species variability among the genotypes isolated from pineapple fruits displaying fungal infection symptoms and to evaluate their mycotoxigenic abilities. Forty-four isolates of ten Fusarium species were obtained from pineapple fruit samples: F. ananatum, F. concentricum, F. fujikuroi, F. guttiforme, F. incarnatum, F. oxysporum, F. polyphialidicum, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Fumonisins B1-B3, beauvericin (BEA) and moniliformin (MON) contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in pineapple fruit tissue. Fumonisins are likely the most dangerous metabolites present in fruit samples (the maximum FB1 content was 250 μg g(-1) in pineapple skin and 20 μg ml(-1) in juice fraction). In both fractions, BEA and MON were of minor significance. FUM1 and FUM8 genes were identified in F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Cyclic peptide synthase gene (esyn1 homologue) from the BEA biosynthetic pathway was identified in 40 isolates of eight species. Based on the gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, none of the isolates tested were found to be able to produce trichothecenes or zearalenone.
Project description:Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.
Project description:Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.
Project description:Maize expressing Cry1Ab insecticidal toxin (Bt maize) is an effective method to control <i>Sesamia nonagrioides</i> and <i>Ostrinia nubilalis</i>, the most damaging corn borers of southern Europe. In this area, maize is prone to <i>Fusarium</i> infections, which can produce mycotoxins that pose a serious risk to human and animal health, causing significant economic losses in the agrifood industry. To investigate the influence of corn borer damage on the presence of <i>Fusarium</i> species and their mycotoxins, Bt maize ears and insect-damaged ears of non-Bt maize were collected from commercial fields in three Bt maize growing areas in Spain, and differences in contamination were assessed. Additionally, larvae of both borer species were collected to evaluate their role as vectors of these molds. Non-Bt maize ears showed significantly higher presence of <i>F. verticillioides</i>, <i>F. proliferatum</i>, and <i>F. subglutinans</i> than Bt maize ears. For the first time, <i>Fusarium</i> species have been isolated from larvae of the two species. The most frequently found mycotoxins in ears were fumonisins, with non-Bt ears being significantly more contaminated than those of Bt maize. High levels of fumonisins were shown to correlate with the occurrence of corn borers in the ear and the presence of <i>F. verticillioides</i> and <i>F. proliferatum</i>.
Project description:In this study, twenty of the most common <i>Fusarium</i> species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of <i>F. proliferatum</i>, <i>F. verticillioides</i>, <i>F. fujikuroi</i> and <i>F. solani</i>, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including <i>F. temperatum</i>, <i>F. subglutinans</i>, <i>F. musae</i>, <i>F. tricinctum</i>, <i>F. oxysporum</i>, <i>F. equiseti</i>, <i>F. sacchari</i>, <i>F. concentricum</i>, <i>F. andiyazi</i>. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included <i>F. langsethiae</i>, <i>F. sporotrichioides</i>, <i>F. polyphialidicum</i>, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of <i>F. culmorum</i>, <i>F. poae</i>, <i>F. meridionale</i> and <i>F. graminearum</i>. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of <i>Fusarium</i> species and forecast the <i>Fusarium</i> infestation/mycotoxins contamination.
Project description:In 2017-2018, extensive symptoms of sudden decline and fruit rot were observed on date palms in southern Tunisia. Samples of diseased plants were randomly collected in six localities. Based on morphological identification, <i>Fusarium</i> was the most frequent fungal genus detected. A sequencing of translation elongation factor, calmodulin, and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II genes was used to identify 63 representative <i>Fusarium</i> strains at species level and investigate their phylogenetic relationships. The main species detected was <i>Fusarium</i> <i>proliferatum</i>, and at a much lesser extent, <i>Fusarium</i> <i>brachygibbosum</i>, <i>Fusarium</i> <i>caatingaense</i>, <i>Fusarium</i> <i>clavum</i>, <i>Fusarium</i> <i>incarnatum</i><i>,</i> and <i>Fusarium</i> <i>solani</i>. Pathogenicity on the <i>Deglet</i> <i>Nour</i> variety plantlets and the capability to produce mycotoxins were also assessed. All <i>Fusarium</i> species were pathogenic complying Koch's postulates. <i>Fusarium</i> <i>proliferatum</i> strains produced mainly fumonisins (FBs), beauvericin (BEA), and, to a lesser extent, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON). All <i>F.</i> <i>brachygibbosum</i> strains produced low levels of BEA, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol; two strains produced also T-2 toxin, and a single strain produced HT-2 toxin. <i>Fusarium</i> <i>caatingaense</i>, <i>F.</i> <i>clavum</i>, <i>F.</i> <i>incarnatum</i> produced only BEA. <i>Fusarium</i> <i>solani</i> strains produced MON, BEA, and ENNs. This work reports for the first time a comprehensive multidisciplinary study of <i>Fusarium</i> species on date palms, concerning both phytopathological and food safety issues.
Project description:Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F. proliferatum or F. poae-colonized ones suggesting that T. molitor can tolerate or metabolize those toxins.
Project description:Apart from causing serious yield losses, various kinds of mycotoxins may be accumulated in plant tissues infected by Fusarium strains. Fusarium mycotoxin contamination is one of the most important concerns in the food safety field nowadays. However, limited information on the causal agents, etiology, and mycotoxin production of this disease is available on pepper in China. This research was conducted to identify the Fusarium species causing pepper fruit rot and analyze their toxigenic potential in China. Forty-two Fusarium strains obtained from diseased pepper from six provinces were identified as F. equiseti (27 strains), F. solani (10 strains), F. fujikuroi (five strains). This is the first report of F. equiseti, F. solani and F. fujikuroi associated with pepper fruit rot in China, which revealed that the population structure of Fusarium species in this study was quite different from those surveyed in other countries, such as Canada and Belgium. The mycotoxin production capabilities were assessed using a well-established liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method. Out of the thirty-six target mycotoxins, fumonisins B1 and B2, fusaric acid, beauvericin, moniliformin, and nivalenol were detected in pepper tissues. Furthermore, some mycotoxins were found in non-colonized parts of sweet pepper fruit, implying migration from colonized to non-colonized parts of pepper tissues, which implied the risk of mycotoxin contamination in non-infected parts of food products.
Project description:A survey on 120 cereal samples (barley, maize, rice and wheat) from Algerian markets has been carried out to evaluate the presence of 15 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, fusarenon X, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, enniatins A, A1, B and B1, and beauvericin). With this purpose, a QuEChERS-based extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) were used. Analytical results showed that 78 cereal samples (65%) were contaminated with at least one toxin, while 50% were contaminated with three to nine mycotoxins. T-2 toxin, citrinin, beauvericin and deoxynivalenol were the most commonly found mycotoxins (frequency of 50%, 41.6%, 40.8% and 33.3%, respectively). Fumonisins (B1 + B2), enniatins B and B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone registered high concentrations (289-48878 µg/kg, 1.2-5288 µg/kg, 15-4569 µg/kg, 48-2055 µg/kg and 10.4-579 µg/kg, respectively). Furthermore, concentrations higher than those allowed by the European Union (EU) were observed in 21, 8 and 1 samples for fumonisins, zearalenone and deoxinivalenol, respectively. As a conclusion, the high levels of fumonisins (B1 + B2) in maize and deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and HT-2 + T-2 toxins in wheat, represent a health risk for the average adult consumer in Algeria. These results pointed out the necessity of a consistent control and the definition of maximum allowed levels for mycotoxins in Algerian foodstuffs.