Food Workers as a Reservoir of Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella Strains in Japan.
ABSTRACT: Dissemination of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella, especially extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, is a concern worldwide. Here, we assessed Salmonella carriage by food workers in Japan to clarify the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella harboring bla CTX-M We then characterized the genetic features, such as transposable elements, of bla CTX-M-harboring plasmids using whole-genome sequencing. A total of 145,220 stool samples were collected from food workers, including cooks and servers from several restaurants, as well as food factory workers, from January to October 2017. Isolated salmonellae were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method), and whole-genome sequencing was performed for Salmonella strains harboring bla CTX-M Overall, 164 Salmonella isolates (0.113%) were recovered from 164 samples, from which we estimated that at least 0.113% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.096 to 0.132%) of food workers may carry Salmonella Based on this estimation, 3,473 (95% CI = 2,962 to 4,047) individuals among the 3,075,330 Japanese food workers are likely to carry Salmonella Of the 158 culturable isolates, seven showed resistance to ESCs: three isolates harbored bla CMY-2 and produced AmpC ?-lactamase, while four ESBL-producing isolates harbored bla CTX-M-14 (n?=?1, Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg) or bla CTX-M-15 (n?=?3, S. enterica serovar Haardt). bla CTX-M-15 was chromosomally located in the S Haardt isolates, which also contained ISEcp1, while the S Senftenberg isolate contained an IncFIA(HI1)/IncHI1A/IncHI1B(R27) hybrid plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-14 along with ISEcp1 This study indicates that food workers may be a reservoir of ESBL-producing Salmonella and associated genes. Thus, these workers may contribute to the spread of bla CTX-M via plasmids or mobile genetic elements such as ISEcp1 IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella bacteria arise in farm environments through imprudent use of antimicrobials. Subsequently, these antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella, may be transmitted to humans via food animal-derived products. Here, we examined Salmonella carriage among food handlers in Japan. Overall, 164 of 145,220 fecal samples (0.113%) were positive for Salmonella Among the 158 tested isolates, four were identified as ESBL-producing isolates carrying ESBL determinants bla CTX-M-15 or bla CTX-M-14 In all cases, the genes coexisted with ISEcp1, regardless of whether they were located on the chromosome or on a plasmid. Our findings suggest that food workers may be a reservoir of ESBL-producing strains and could contribute to the spread of resistance genes from farm-derived Salmonella to other bacterial species present in the human gut.
Project description:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in chicken products indicates the need for the development of continuous monitoring strategies in the interests of public health.
Project description:Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(VEB), bla(OXA), bla(PER), and bla(GES), among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infection at two major university hospitals in Thailand from December 2004 to May 2005. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, patient demographics and the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were described. A total of 87.3% of isolates carried several bla genes. The prevalence of bla(CTX-M) was strikingly high: 99.6% for ESBL-producing E. coli (CTX-M-14, -15, -27, -40, and -55) and 99.2% for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (CTX-M-3, -14, -15, -27, and -55). ISEcp1 was found in the upstream region of bla(CTX-M) in most isolates. Up to 77.0% and 71.7% of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, respectively, carried bla(TEM); all of them encoded TEM-1. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carried bla(SHV) at 87.4% (SHV-1, -2a, -11, -12, -27, -71, and -75) but only at 3.8% for ESBL-producing E. coli (SHV-11 and -12). bla genes encoding VEB-1 and OXA-10 were found in both ESBL-producing E. coli (8.5% and 8.1%, respectively) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (10.2% and 11.8%, respectively). None of the isolates were positive for bla(PER) and bla(GES). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there was no major clonal relationship among these ESBL producers. This is the first study to report CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-40, SHV-27, SHV-71, and SHV-75 in Thailand and to show that CTX-M ESBL is highly endemic in the country.
Project description:Background:Polymyxins are currently regarded as a possible last-resort therapy to eradicate multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria. Meanwhile, the old antimicrobial agent fosfomycin has recently been reintroduced into clinical use for the treatment of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated a multidrug-resistant Salmonella 4,,12:i:- strain from a food catering handler, which had the potential to act as a vehicle for transmitting MDR foodborne pathogens. Methods:A Salmonella 4,,12:i:- YZU1189 strain was isolated from the fecal sample of a food catering worker according to the standard protocol of the Salmonella detection method from World Health Organization in 2003. Serotyping of YZU1189 was performed according to the Kauffmann-White scheme. The antimicrobial resistance phenotype of the strain was determined by the agar dilution method according to the instruction from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Plasmid conjugation was performed between the donor strain Salmonella 4,,12:i:- YZU1189 and the recipient strain Escherichia coli C600. The genetic locations of mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 genes were determined by the whole genome sequence analysis. Results:Salmonella 4,,12:i:- YZU1189 was an ESBL-producing stain isolated from a healthy catering worker. The strain displayed resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, polymyxins, fosfomycins, phenicols, trimethoprims, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Whole genome sequence analysis and plasmid conjugation revealed that the strain had a transferable IncHI2 plasmid carrying the mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 genes. Sequence homology analysis showed that this plasmid possessed high sequence similarity to previously reported mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 positive plasmids in China. Conclusion:This study reported a the multidrug-resistant Salmonella 4,,12:i:- isolate harboring mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 from human for the first time in China. The occurrence of mcr-1 and fosA3 genes in the transferable IncHI2 plasmid pYZU1189 from the ESBL-producing Salmonella 4,,12:i:- isolate showed a potential threat to public health. Great concern should be taken for the spread of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates from food catering workers to consumers.
Project description:In this study, we focused on evaluating the occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in fecal samples of healthy ducks and environmental samples from a duck farm in South China. Duck cloacal swabs and pond water samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar plates supplemented with ceftiofur. Individual colonies were examined for ESBL production. Bacteria identified as E. coli were screened for the presence of ESBL and plasmid-borne AmpC genes. The genetic relatedness, plasmid replicon type, and genetic background were determined. Of 245 samples analyzed, 123 had E. coli isolates with ceftiofur MICs higher than 8 ?g/ml (116 [50.4%] from 230 duck samples and 7 [46.7%] from 15 water samples). bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV-12), bla(CMY-2), and bla(DHA-1) were identified in 108, 5, 9, and 1 isolates, respectively. The most common bla(CTX-M) genes were bla(CTX-M-27) (n = 34), bla(CTX-M-55) (n = 27), bla(CTX-M-24e) (n = 22), and bla(CTX-M-105) (n = 20), followed by bla(CTX-M-14a), bla(CTX-M-14b), bla(CTX-M-24a), and bla(CTX-M-24b). Although most of the CTX-M producers had distinct pulsotypes, clonal transmission between duck and water isolates was observed. bla(CTX-M) genes were carried by transferable IncN, IncF, and untypeable plasmids. The novel CTX-M gene bla(CTX-M-105) was flanked by two hypothetical protein sequences, partial ISEcp1 upstream and truncated IS903D, iroN, orf1, and a Tn1721-like element downstream. It is suggested that the horizontal transfer of bla(CTX-M) genes mediated by mobile elements and the clonal spread of CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates contributed to the dissemination of bla(CTX-M) in the duck farm. Our findings highlight the importance of ducks for the dissemination of transferable antibiotic resistance genes into the environment.
Project description:Global dissemination of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Kentucky has been observed over the past decades. In recent years, there have been reports of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing S. Kentucky. Routine surveillance at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) detected cases with a ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky with the ESBL-gene bla CTX-M-14b. Ensuing research identified 78 cases in 2013-2018 in eight European countries. Compared to other S. Kentucky and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections, reported to the European Surveillance System, these cases were more likely to be elderly and to present urinary-tract infections. Bayesian time-scaled phylogeny on whole genome sequences of isolates from these cases and supplementary isolates from public sequence databases was used to infer the origin and spread of this clone. We dated the origin of the bla CTX-M-14b clone to approximately 2005 in Northern Africa, most likely in Egypt. The geographic origin predicted by the phylogenetic analysis is consistent with the patients' travel history. Next to multiple introductions of the clone to Europe from Egypt, our analysis suggests that in some parts of Europe the clone might have formed a stable population, from which further spread has occurred. Comparative genomics indicated that the bla CTX-M-14b gene is present on the bacterial chromosome, within the type VI secretion system region. The bla CTX-M-14b gene is integrated downstream of the hcp1 gene, on a 2854 bp plasmid fragment containing also ISEcp1. This is the first report of a chromosomally integrated CTX-M gene in Salmonella spp. in Europe, previous studies having identified similar genes only on plasmids.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii isolates T23, W35, and H1 were isolated from three patients who had been injured in the Haiti earthquake in January 2010. Those isolates, corresponding to two distinct clones, were identified as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers and found to be bla(CTX-M-15)-positive. That ESBL gene was associated with ISEcp1, involved in its acquisition by a one-ended transposition mechanism. In all isolates, the ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15) compound transposon was apparently chromosomally located.
Project description:Among 235 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL) isolates collected from a nationwide surveillance performed in Taiwan, 102 (43.4%) were resistant to amikacin. Ninety-two of these 102 (90.2%) isolates were carrying CTX-M-type beta-lactamases individually or concomitantly with SHV-type or CMY-2 beta-lactamases. The armA and rmtB alleles were individually detected in 44 and 37 of these 92 isolates, respectively. One isolate contained both armA and rmtB. The coexistence of the aac(6')-Il and rmtB genes was detected in three isolates. CTX-M-type beta-lactamase genes belonging to either group 1 (CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15) or group 9 (CTX-M-14) were found in all armA- or rmtB-bearing ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, and all were conjugatively transferable. All except one of the isolates bearing armA produced CTX-M enzymes of group 1, and the remaining isolate bearing armA produced a group 9 CTX-M-type beta-lactamase. On the contrary, in the majority of rmtB carriers, the CTX-M-type beta-lactamase belonged to group 9 (62.2%). Molecular typing revealed that the amikacin-resistant ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were epidemiologically unrelated, indicating that the acquisition of resistance was not through the spread of a resistant clone or a resistance plasmid. A tandem repeat or multiple copies of bla(CTX-M-3) were found in some armA-bearing isolates. An ISEcp1 insert was found in all CTX-M ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates carrying armA or rmtB. In conclusion, the concomitant presence of a 16S rRNA methylase gene (armA or rmtB) and bla(CTX-M) among amikacin-resistant ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is widespread in Taiwan.
Project description:Of 15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying bla(CTX-M) genes revealed that they harbored three different bla(CTX-M) genes, bla(CTX-M-9) (5 isolates), bla(CTX-M-13) (1 isolate), and bla(CTX-M-14) (6 isolates). These genes have 98% nucleotide homology with bla(Toho-2). The bla(CTX-M) genes were carried on plasmids that ranged in size from 35 to 150 kb. Plasmid fingerprints and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the dissemination of the bla(CTX-M) genes through transfer of different antibiotic resistance plasmids to different bacteria, suggesting that these resistance determinants are highly mobile. Insertion sequence ISEcp1, found on the upstream region of these genes, may be involved in the translocation of the bla(CTX-M) genes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SHV-12 and CTX-M ESBLs in China. The presence of strains with these ESBLs shows both the evolution of bla(CTX-M) genes and their dissemination among at least three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae, isolated within a single hospital. The predominance of CTX-M type enzymes seen in this area of China appears to be similar to that seen in South America but is different from those seen in Europe and North America, suggesting different evolutionary routes and selective pressures. A more comprehensive survey of the ESBL types from China is urgently needed.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates in Shanghai, China from 2005 to 2014. We found the first isolates with resistance to the fourth-generation cephalosporin cefepime starting in 2010. Furthermore, we analyzed the epidemic characteristics and mechanisms of underlying cefepime resistance in S. Enteritidis isolates found from 2010. In total, 38 of 2,914 (1.30%) isolates were identified as cefepime-resistant S. Enteritidis (CRSE) isolates by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Two isolates were from animal derived food sources; 36 isolates were from fecal samples of human patients with salmonellosis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the agar dilution method revealed that all CRSE isolates showed additional resistances at least to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ampicillin. Additionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles indicated that 89.47% of CRSE isolates also displayed similar PFGE patterns. Five types of ?-lactamase genes, bla CTX-M (100.00%, 38/38), bla SHV (65.79%, 25/38), bla TEM (52.63%, 20/38), bla ACC (18.42%, 7/38), and bla PSE (5.26%, 2/38) were detected by PCR and sequencing. Among bla CTX-M genes, bla CTX-M-55 was the dominant type (84.21%, 32/38). Conjugation and transformation experiments along with plasmid replicon typing revealed that bla CTX-M-55 was located on plasmids of various replicon types with sizes ranging from 76.8 to 138.9 kb. Plasmid sequence analysis also showed that the bla CTX-M-55 gene was mobilized mainly by the ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-ORF477 transposition unit and had its own ISEcp1-based promoter, which accelerated the expression and transmission of bla CTX-M-55. Analysis of whole genome sequences (Illumina) of one selected transformant SH12G706-C showed high similarity of the bla CTX-M-55 carrying plasmid with the IncI1 plasmid backbone p628-CTX-M of Klebsiella pneumoniae detected in 2010 in China. The present study demonstrated that the bla CTX-M-55 gene mobilized by ISEcp1- bla CTX-M-55-ORF477 was the main feature shared by CRSE isolates and seems to play an important role for transmission of cefepime resistance. The number of CRSE isolates is rising annually, and the strong dissemination ability of ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-ORF477-harboring plasmids among different species represents an important threat to the therapeutic effectiveness of cefepime.
Project description:We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for bla(TEM-1b) and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for bla(CTX-M-1-group) and bla(CTX-M-9-group), and all isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of bla(CTX-M-55) within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates.