Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of the fentanyl homologs cyclopropanoyl-1-benzyl-4´-fluoro-4-anilinopiperidine and furanoyl-1-benzyl-4-anilinopiperidine.
ABSTRACT: The two fentanyl homologs cyclopropanoyl-1-benzyl-4´-fluoro-4-anilinopiperidine (4F-Cy-BAP) and furanoyl-1-benzyl-4-anilinopiperidine (Fu-BAP) have recently been seized as new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drugs of abuse market. As their toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic characteristics are completely unknown, this study focused on elucidating their in vitro metabolic stability in pooled human liver S9 fraction (pHLS9), their qualitative in vitro (pHLS9), and in vivo (zebrafish larvae) metabolism, and their in vitro isozyme mapping using recombinant expressed isoenzymes. Their maximum-tolerated concentration (MTC) in zebrafish larvae was studied from 0.01 to 100 µM. Their µ-opioid receptor (MOR) activity was analyzed in engineered human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells. In total, seven phase I and one phase II metabolites of 4F-Cy-BAP and 15 phase I and four phase II metabolites of Fu-BAP were tentatively identified by means of liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, with the majority detected in zebrafish larvae. N-Dealkylation, N-deacylation, hydroxylation, and N-oxidation were the most abundant metabolic reactions and the corresponding metabolites are expected to be promising analytical targets for toxicological analysis. Isozyme mapping revealed the main involvement of CYP3A4 in the phase I metabolism of 4F-Cy-BAP and in terms of Fu-BAP additionally CYP2D6. Therefore, drug-drug interactions by CYP3A4 inhibition may cause elevated drug levels and unwanted adverse effects. MTC experiments revealed malformations and changes in the behavior of larvae after exposure to 100 µM Fu-BAP. Both substances were only able to produce a weak activation of MOR and although toxic effects based on MOR activation seem unlikely, activity at other receptors cannot be excluded.
Project description:Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is both an endocrine disruptor and a carcinogen. Aromatase (CYP19) is a key enzyme in steroidogenesis that is responsible for conversion of androgens to estrogens and thus plays a key role in steroid homeostasis. We hypothesized that some of the adverse outcomes of early developmental exposure to BaP are the result of reduced Cyp19a1b activity. Our goal was to investigate the role of estrogen homeostasis during early development and determine the role of aromatase inhibition as a relevant mechanism in BaP's developmental toxicities. One-cell zebrafish embryos were injected with a Cyp19a1b-morpholino (MO) or control-MO. Other non-injected embryos were exposed to waterborne BaP, fadrozole (a Cyp19 inhibitor), estradiol (E2), BaP?+?E2, Cyp19a1b MO?+?E2, or fadrozole?+?E2 for 96?hours post-fertilization (hpf). Adverse outcomes were compared between treatments, and the ability of E2 co-exposure to rescue each observed dysmorphology was assessed. BaP significantly decreased cyp19a1b gene expression in 96 hpf zebrafish larvae homogenates. Concentrations of E2 in 48 hpf larvae were significantly decreased by BaP, fadrozole and Cyp19a1b-MO. Cumulative mortality of zebrafish larvae was significantly increased following BaP or fadrozole exposure or Cyp19a1b knockdown compared to controls. E2 co-treatment rescued mortality caused by 10??g/L BaP, 10??g/L fadrozole, or Cyp19a1b-MO. In a treatment-blinded morphological assessment of larvae at 96 hpf, several phenotypes were negatively impacted by BaP, fadrozole, or Cyp19a1b knockdown and rescued by exogenous E2 co-treatment; these included body length, optic vesicle size, swim bladder inflation, pericardial and abdominal edema, and incidence of normal larval tail shape. Abnormal pectoral fins were caused by BaP exposure only. Uninflated swim bladders were caused by all treatments including E2 alone. Our results indicate that certain BaP-mediated adverse developmental outcomes were mechanistically in accordance with BaP-mediated Cyp19a1b inhibition.
Project description:Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmentally relevant carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting compound that causes immediate, long-term, and multigenerational health deficits in mammals and fish. Previously, we found that BaP alters DNA methylation patterns in developing zebrafish, which may affect gene expression. Herein, we performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis and discovered differential gene expression and splicing in developing zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to control or 42.0 ± 1.9 µg/l BaP for 7 days. Eggs were collected and raised in control conditions or continuously exposed to BaP until 3.3 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was conducted on zebrafish embryos and larvae. Data were analyzed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes (changed at the gene or transcript variant level) and genes with differential exon usage (DEU; changed at the exon level). At 3.3 hpf, BaP exposure resulted in 8 DE genes and 51 DEU genes. At 96 hpf, BaP exposure altered expression in 1153 DE genes and 159 DEU genes. Functional ontology analysis by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many disease pathways, including organismal death, growth failure, abnormal morphology of embryonic tissue, congenital heart disease, and adverse neuritogenesis, were significantly enriched for the DE and DEU genes, providing novel insights on the mechanisms of action of BaP-induced developmental toxicities. Collectively, we discovered substantial transcriptomic changes at the gene, transcript variant, and exon levels in developing zebrafish after early life BaP waterborne exposure, and these changes may lead to long-term adverse physiological consequences.
Project description:In this research, we used MeDIP-sequencing technology to detect genome-wide methylation changes in benzo[a]pyrene(BaP)-exposed zebrafish larvae. We identified differentially methylated genes are associated with many diseases, including development of brain, and central nervous system.This high-throughput sequencing could help us to understand new mechanisms of BaP toxicity. Overall design: Examination of different methylation in zebrafish larvae after BaP exposure.
Project description:DNA methylation is important for gene regulation and is vulnerable to early-life exposure to environmental contaminants. We found that direct waterborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure at 24?g/L from 2.5 to 96hpf to zebrafish embryos significantly decreased global cytosine methylation by 44.8% and promoter methylation in vasa by 17%. Consequently, vasa expression was significantly increased by 33%. In contrast, BaP exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations did not change CpG island methylation or gene expression in cancer genes such as ras-association domain family member 1 (rassf1), telomerase reverse transcriptase (tert), c-jun, and c-myca. Similarly, BaP did not change gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) and glycine N-methyltransferase (gnmt). While total DNMT activity was not affected, GNMT enzyme activity was moderately increased. In summary, BaP is an epigenetic modifier for global and gene specific DNA methylation status in zebrafish larvae.
Project description:The new psychoactive substances (NPS) market continues to be very dynamic. A large number of compounds belonging to diverse chemical groups continue to emerge. This makes their detection in biological samples challenging for clinical and forensic toxicologists. Knowledge of the metabolic fate of NPS is crucial for developing comprehensive screening procedures. As human studies are not feasible due to ethical concerns, the current study aimed to compare the NPS' metabolic pattern in incubations with pooled human liver S9 fraction (pHLS9), human liver HepaRG cells, and zebrafish larvae. The latter model was recently shown to be a promising preclinical surrogate for human hepatic metabolism of a synthetic cannabinoid. However, studies concerning other NPS classes are still missing and therefore an amphetamine-based N-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) compound, a synthetic cathinone, a pyrrolidinophenone analog, a lysergamide, as well as another synthetic cannabinoid were included in the current study. Liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap-based high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze metabolic data. Zebrafish larvae were found to produce the highest number of phase I but also phase II metabolites (79 metabolites in total), followed by HepaRG cells (66 metabolites). Incubations with pHLS9 produced the least metabolites (57 metabolites). Furthermore, the involvement of monooxygenases and esterases in the metabolic phase I transformations of 4F-MDMB-BINACA was elucidated using single-enzyme incubations. Several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes were shown to contribute, and CYP3A5 was involved in all CYP-catalyzed reactions, while amide and ester hydrolysis were catalyzed by the human carboxylesterase (hCES) isoforms hCES1b and/or hCES1c. Finally, metabolites were compared to those present in human biosamples if data were available. Overall, the metabolic patterns in HepaRG cells provided the worst overlap with that in human biosamples. Zebrafish larvae experiments agreed best with data found in human plasma and urine analysis. The current study underlines the potential of zebrafish larvae as a tool for elucidating the toxicokinetics of NPS in the future.
Project description:Purpose: This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes and transcripts in zebrafish embryos and larvae following benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure. Methods: Adult zebrafish (2 males × 4 females, N=6 replicate tanks for each treatment) were acclimated for 7 days in an 818 Low Temp Illuminated Incubator (Precision Scientific, Chennai, India) at 28.5°C. Next, adult fish were waterborne exposed to control or 50 μg/L (ppb) BaP for 7 days; ethanol was used as vehicle solvent, and final ethanol concentration was 0.1 mL/L (100 ppm) in all treatment groups. This dose of ethanol is not teratogenic to zebrafish. Water was changed and/or re-dosed daily. From day 7 to 11 of the parental exposure, eggs were collected, counted, and raised in normal conditions (control) or continuously exposed to 50 μg/L BaP until 3.3 and 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). At 3.3 or 96 hpf, embryos (200/pool) or larvae (10/pool) were collected and pooled. Total RNA was isolated for transcriptomic RNA sequencing with Illumina HiSeq2000 (2X100bp). RNA-seq reads were uploaded to the galaxy platform https://main.g2.bx.psu.edu/. RNA-seq reads were trimmed, filtered, and aligned to the zebrafish genome (Danio_rerio.Zv9.68) with the Tophat for Illumina tool. Counting and annotation of RNA-seq reads were performed with Partek Genomics Suite version 6.11. Refseq Transcripts (2013-04-10) and Ensembl Transcripts release 70 databases were used for gene and transcript annotation. Differential expression of gene and transcript reads between treatments was analyzed with R package EdgeR. Genes/transcripts with false discovery rate (FDR) less than 0.05 and absolute fold change greater than 1.5 were considered as significant. Differentially expressed genes were defined as genes with altered expression at either gene or transcript level. Results: Differential expression analysis with EdgeR revealed that gene expression was vastly different between 3.3 hpf zebrafish embryos and 96 hpf larvae. Using Refseq annotation, we found that 10644 out of 13950 transcribed zebrafish genes were differentially expressed between the two developmental time-points, with 5961 up-regulated genes and 4683 down-regulated genes in 96 hpf larvae compared with 3.3 hpf embryos. Similarly, using Ensembl annotation, 16529 out of 19886 transcribed zebrafish genes were differentially expressed, with 9318 up-regulated genes and 7211 down-regulated genes in 96 hpf larvae compared with 3.3 hpf embryos. In 3.3 hpf embryos, four genes and seven transcripts were differentially expressed after BaP exposure. In 96 hpf larvae, 447 and 484 zebrafish genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, by BaP exposure. Conclusions: Parental and developmental BaP exposure caused gene expression changes in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Illumina HiSeq2000 deep sequencing was used to generate transcriptomic profiles for BaP-exposed 3.3 hpf zebrafish embryos (n=3 for control, n=3 for BaP) and 96 hpf larvae (n=2 for control, n=2 for BaP).
Project description:Beside their analgesic properties, opiates exert beneficial effects on the intestinal wound healing response. In this study, we investigated the role of ?-opioid receptor (MOR) signaling on the unfolded protein response (UPR) using a novel zebrafish model of NSAID-induced intestinal injury. The NSAID glafenine was administered to zebrafish larvae at 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for up to 24 hours in the presence or absence of the MOR-specific agonist DALDA. By analysis with histology, transmission electron microscopy and vital dye staining, glafenine-treated zebrafish showed evidence of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress, with disrupted intestinal architecture and halted cell stress responses, alongside accumulation of apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells in the lumen. Although the early UPR marker BiP was induced with glafenine-induced injury, downstream atf6 and s-xbp1 expression were paradoxically not increased, explaining the halted cell stress responses. The ?-opioid agonist DALDA protected against glafenine-induced injury through induction of atf6-dependent UPR. Our findings show that DALDA prevents glafenine-induced epithelial damage through induction of effective UPR.
Project description:Neurological drugs are often associated with serious side effects, yet drug screens typically focus only on efficacy. We demonstrate a novel paradigm utilizing high-throughput in vivo electrophysiology and brain activity patterns (BAPs). A platform with high sensitivity records local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from many zebrafish larvae over extended periods. We show that BAPs from larvae experiencing epileptic seizures or drug-induced side effects have substantially reduced complexity (entropy), similar to reduced LFP complexity observed in Parkinson's disease. To determine whether drugs that enhance BAP complexity produces positive outcomes, we used light pulses to trigger seizures in a model of Dravet syndrome, an intractable genetic epilepsy. The highest-ranked compounds identified by BAP analysis exhibit far greater anti-seizure efficacy and fewer side effects during subsequent in-depth behavioral assessment. This high correlation with behavioral outcomes illustrates the power of brain activity pattern-based screens and identifies novel therapeutic candidates with minimal side effects.
Project description:Cancer is as unique as the person fighting it. With the exception of a few biomarker-driven therapies, patients go through rounds of trial-and-error approaches to find the best treatment. Using patient-derived cell lines, we show that zebrafish larvae xenotransplants constitute a fast and highly sensitive in vivo model for differential therapy response, with resolution to reveal intratumor functional cancer heterogeneity. We screened international colorectal cancer therapeutic guidelines and determined distinct functional tumor behaviors (proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis) and differential sensitivities to standard therapy. We observed a general higher sensitivity to FOLFIRI [5-fluorouracil(FU)+irinotecan+folinic acid] than to FOLFOX (5-FU+oxaliplatin+folinic acid), not only between isogenic tumors but also within the same tumor. We directly compared zebrafish xenografts with mouse xenografts and show that relative sensitivities obtained in zebrafish are maintained in the rodent model. Our data also illustrate how KRAS mutations can provide proliferation advantages in relation to KRASWT and how chemotherapy can unbalance this advantage, selecting for a minor clone resistant to chemotherapy. Zebrafish xenografts provide remarkable resolution to measure Cetuximab sensitivity. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of using primary patient samples to generate zebrafish patient-derived xenografts (zPDX) and provide proof-of-concept experiments that compare response to chemotherapy and biological therapies between patients and zPDX. Altogether, our results suggest that zebrafish larvae xenografts constitute a promising fast assay for precision medicine, bridging the gap between genotype and phenotype in an in vivo setting.
Project description:Novel imidazole derivatives were designed, prepared, and evaluated in vitro for antitumor activity. The majority of the tested derivatives showed improved antiproliferative activity compared to the positive control drugs 5-FU and MTX. Among them, compound 4f exhibited outstanding antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines and was considerably more potent than both 5-FU and MTX. In particular, the selectivity index indicated that the tolerance of normal L-02 cells to 4f was 23-46-fold higher than that of tumor cells. This selectivity was significantly higher than that exhibited by the positive control drugs. Furthermore, compound 4f induced cell apoptosis by increasing the protein expression levels of Bax and decreasing those of Bcl-2 in a time-dependent manner. Therefore, 4f could be a potential candidate for the development of a novel antitumor agent.