A validated computational framework to predict outcomes in TAVI.
ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) still presents complications: paravalvular leakage (PVL) and onset of conduction abnormalities leading to permanent pacemaker implantation. Our aim was testing a validated patient-specific computational framework for prediction of TAVI outcomes and possible complications. Twenty-eight TAVI patients (14 SapienXT and 14 CoreValve) were retrospectively selected. Pre-procedural CT images were post-processed to create 3D patient-specific implantation sites. The procedures were simulated with finite element analysis. Simulations' results were compared against post-procedural clinical fluoroscopy and echocardiography images. The computational model was in good agreement with clinical findings: the overall stent diameter difference was 2.6% and PVL was correctly identified with a post-processing algorithm in 83% of cases. Strains in the implantation site were studied to assess the risk of conduction system disturbance and were found highest in the patient who required pacemaker implantation. This study suggests that computational tool could support safe planning and broadening of TAVI.
Project description:There has been no nation-wide data on the outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) after commercialization of TAVI in Korea. We report clinical features and outcomes of the first cohort of TAVI performed from Jun 2015 to Jun 2017 in Korea.The first cohort of Korean-TAVI (K-TAVI) registry includes 576 consecutive patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI from 17 Korean hospitals for 2 years.Most of TAVI procedures were performed for septuagenarians and octogenarians (90.8%) through transfemoral approach (98.3%). The rate of device success was 92.5% and permanent pacemaker was implanted in 5.6%. In successive years, incidences of paravalvular leakage (PVL) and major bleeding declined. Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score was 5.2 (3.0 to 9.0) and 34.7% of patients had high surgical risk (STS ?8). One-year all-cause death occurred in 8.9% and was significantly lower in low to intermediate risk one than in high risk (5.4% vs. 15.5%, p<0.001). The independent predictors of 1-year mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.087; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.036-1.141; p=0.001), moderate or severe PVL (HR, 4.631; 95% CI, 1.624-13.203; p=0.004) and end-stage renal disease (HR, 5.785; 95% CI, 2.717-12.316; p<0.001).K-TAVI registry showed favorable 1-year outcomes with decreasing complication rate over time in real-world Korean patients. Two-thirds of patients were low to intermediate surgical risk and showed a significantly lower mortality than the high-risk patients, suggesting the promising future on the expanded indications of TAVI.
Project description:TAVI is a percutaneous approach to aortic valve replacement in high surgical risk patients deemed inoperable.To evaluate the early and mid-term outcomes for an Irish TAVI cohort over a six-year period at St James's Hospital and Blackrock Clinic, Dublin, Ireland.In total 147 patients, 56% male with an average age of 82 underwent TAVI between December 2008 and December 2014. Thirty day, one year and two year survival was 90.5%, 83% and 71% respectively. Major vascular complications and renal failure were the biggest predictors of mortality at 30 days (p = 0.02). We observed a pacing rate of 13.5%, the majority in patients who had Medtronic Corevalve implants (p < 0.05). With increasing procedural experience there was a reduction in length of stay from 10 days to 7.5 days.This review, the first of its kind in Ireland showed favorable rates of 30 day and one year and two year survival post TAVI with procedural success and complication rates similar to international registry data.
Project description:Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)) notably increases the likelihood of the appearance of a complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) by direct lesion of the LBB of His. This block can lead to high-grade atrioventricular conduction disturbances responsible for a poorer prognosis. The management of this complication remains controversial.The screening of LBBB after TAVI persisting for more than 24?hours will be conducted by surface ECG. Stratification will be performed by post-TAVI intracardiac electrophysiological study. Patients at high risk of conduction disturbances (?70?ms His-ventricle interval (HV) or presence of infra-Hisian block) will be implanted with a pacemaker enabling the recording of disturbance episodes. Those at lower risk (HV <70?ms) will be implanted with a loop recorder device with remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Clinical, ECG and implanted device follow-up will also be performed at 3, 6 and 12?months. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of a decisional algorithm based on electrophysiological study and remote monitoring of CIEDs in the prediction of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI. The primary end point is to compare the incidence (rate and time to onset) of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI between the two groups at 12?months. Given the proportion of high-grade conduction disturbances (20-40%), a sample of 200 subjects will allow a margin of error of 6-7%. The LBBB-TAVI Study has been in an active recruiting phase since September 2015 (21 patients already included).Local ethics committee authorisation was obtained in May 2015. We will publish findings from this study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences.NCT02482844; Pre-results.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement.
Project description:Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a well-described treatment for symptomatic calcific severe aortic stenosis. However, TAVI technology is being increasingly used around the world to treat selected cases of severe aortic regurgitation (AR). One of the main limitations of using TAVI technology for AR is the lack of calcification, which is common in such cases. This makes anchoring of a TAVI prosthesis to the aortic annulus difficult and risks displacement or embolization. However, with the availability of recapturable and repositionable TAVI technologies, these limitations have been overcome to a large extent. This is the first Corevalve Evolut R device that was used in India and the first TAVI to treat AR in India.
Project description:Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including cardiothoracic surgeons, interventional cardiologists, anaesthetists, imaging experts and specialist nurses. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, CT and MRI plays a pivotal role in the selection and planning process; however, echocardiography remains the primary imaging modality used for patient selection, intra-procedural guidance, post-procedural assessment and long-term follow-up. The contribution that contemporary transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography make to the selection and planning of TAVI is described in this article.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an effective alternative to conventional surgical valve replacement in high-risk patients afflicted by severe aortic stenosis. Despite newer-generation devices enhancements, post-procedural complications such as paravalvular leakage (PVL) and related thromboembolic events have been hindering TAVR expansion into lower-risk patients. Computational methods can be used to build and simulate patient-specific deployment of transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) and help predict the occurrence and degree of PVL. In this study finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics were used to investigate the influence of procedural parameters on post-deployment hemodynamics on three retrospective clinical cases affected by PVL. Specifically, TAV implantation depth and balloon inflation volume effects on stent anchorage, degree of paravalvular regurgitation and thrombogenic potential were analyzed for cases in which Edwards SAPIEN and Medtronic CoreValve were employed. CFD results were in good agreement with corresponding echocardiography data measured in patients in terms of the PVL jets locations and overall PVL degree. Furthermore, parametric analyses demonstrated that positioning and balloon over-expansion may have a direct impact on the post-deployment TAVR performance, achieving as high as 47% in PVL volume reduction. While the model predicted very well clinical data, further validation on a larger cohort of patients is needed to verify the level of the model's predictions in various patient-specific conditions. This study demonstrated that rigorous and realistic patient-specific numerical models could potentially serve as a valuable tool to assist physicians in pre-operative TAVR planning and TAV selection to ultimately reduce the risk of clinical complications.
Project description:Paravalvular leak (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is challenging to quantitate. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the main tool used for the assessment of PVL but is modestly reproducible. We sought to develop a reproducible echocardiographic approach to assess PVL in the post-TAVI setting. Four observers independently analyzed eleven parameters of PVL severity in 50 pre-discharge TTE studies performed after TAVI. The parameters included color-Doppler parameters [jet circumferential extent (CE) and planimetered vena contracta area in the short-axis view and jet breadth and qualitative features in the long-axis views], continuous-wave Doppler parameters [jet velocity time integral (VTI) and pressure half time (PHT)], quantitative Doppler parameters (regurgitation volume and fraction and effective regurgitant orifice area), aortic diastolic flow reversal and valve stent eccentricity. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) for numerical parameters and kappa coefficient (?) for categorical parameters were calculated for inter- and intra-observer comparisons. Inter-observer ICC was highest and CV lowest for CE (0.88 and 0.36), jet origin breadth (0.82 and 0.39), jet qualitative features in long-axis views (0.87 and 0.26), jet VTI (0.87 and 0.04) and PHT (0.73 and 0.10). Similar results were found in intra-observer comparisons. A 2-step granular approach combining the most reproducible parameters was used to grade PVL by the four observers. Inter-observer agreement was achieved in 86?% of cases (??=?0.79). Combining color Doppler and continuous wave Doppler parameters in a granular algorithm yields excellent reproducibility of PVL assessment by TTE.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been demonstrated to be an alternative treatment for severe aortic stenosis in patients considered as high surgical risk. Since its first human implantation by Cribier et al., TAVI has been shown to increase survival rate and quality of life for high surgical risks patients. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of TAVI registries and the reporting clinical outcomes based on the VARC-2 definitions. In addition, the comparability and adherence of VARC-2 reporting within the identified TAVI registries was reviewed.A systematic review of TAVI registries reporting VARC-2 definitions has been performed in line with PRISMA guidelines in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus databases and EMBASE. Based on VARC-2, patients' characteristics and procedure characteristics, 30-day clinical outcomes, 1-year mortality and composited endpoints were extracted from each registry's publications.This review identified 466 studies that were potentially relevant, and 20 TAVI registries reported VARC-2 definitions involved in our present review. Of all 20 registries, an overall sample size of 12,583 patients was involved. The 30-day all-cause mortality ranged from 0 to 12.7%. From 20 registries, 14 registries reported the cardiovascular mortality at 30 days. 9 registries reported myocardial infarction (MI) rate based on VARC-2 definitions, and 7 registries reported peri-procedural MI rate (<72h). In our review, most of registries presented MI rates ranging from 0.5% to 2%. The majority of registries have reported complications such as bleeding, vascular complications and new pacemaker implantation.Since the introduction of VARC definitions from 2011, VARC and VARC-2 definitions are still not systematically used by all TAVI studies. These endpoint definitions warrant a concise and systemic analysis of outcome measures. Reporting TAVI-outcome uniformly makes study result comparison feasible. This definitely will increase patient safety, additionally to provide sufficient evidence to support decision makers like regulatory bodies, HTA agencies, payers.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the predictive value of CT-derived measurements of the aortic annulus for prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and to calculate optimal cutoff values for the selection of various prosthesis sizes. METHODS:The local IRB waived approval for this single-center retrospective analysis. Of 441 consecutive TAVI-patients, 90 were excluded (death within 30 days: 13; more than mild aortic regurgitation: 10; other reasons: 67). In the remaining 351 patients, the CoreValve (Medtronic) and the Edwards Sapien XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences) were implanted in 235 and 116 patients. Optimal prosthesis size was determined during TAVI by inflation of a balloon catheter at the aortic annulus. All patients had undergone CT-angiography of the heart or body trunk prior to TAVI. Using these datasets, the diameter of the long and short axis as well as the circumference and the area of the aortic annulus were measured. Multi-Class Receiver-Operator-Curve analyses were used to determine the predictive value of all variables and to define optimal cutoff-values. RESULTS:Differences between patients who underwent implantation of the small, medium or large prosthesis were significant for all except the large vs. medium CoreValve (all p's<0.05). Furthermore, mean diameter, annulus area and circumference had equally high predictive value for prosthesis size for both manufacturers (multi-class AUC's: 0.80, 0.88, 0.91, 0.88, 0.88, 0.89). Using the calculated optimal cutoff-values, prosthesis size is predicted correctly in 85% of cases. CONCLUSION:CT-based aortic root measurements permit excellent prediction of the prosthesis size considered optimal during TAVI.