Verbal Aggression Against Teacher and Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Pain.
ABSTRACT: Background:This study investigated the relationship between verbal aggression against school teachers and upper extremity (neck, shoulder, upper limb, and/or upper back) musculoskeletal pain. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 525 elementary school teachers from Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Northeast Brazil. Results:The prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal pain among teachers who reported verbal aggression in the past six months (67.7%) was higher than that among those who did not report verbal aggression (51.7%): (prevalence ratio = 1.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.40). The prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal pain was associated with verbal aggression, sex, and common mental disorders, controlled by skin color, age, monthly income, teachers' education, years working as a teacher, workload, and obesity. Furthermore, the measure of the association between verbal aggression and upper extremity musculoskeletal pain was modified by sex and common mental disorders, considered altogether. Teachers who suffered verbal aggression, of the feminine sex, and also having common mental disorders reported high prevalence (85.4%) of upper extremity musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion:The association between verbal violence in the school and complaints of upper extremity musculoskeletal pain was strong and modified by teachers' sex and common mental disorders.
Project description:Musculoskeletal pain is common in childhood and adolescence, and may be long-lasting and recurrent. Musculoskeletal problems tend to follow adolescents into adulthood, and therefore it is important to design better prevention strategies and early effective treatment. To this end, we need in-depth knowledge about the epidemiology of musculoskeletal extremity problems in this age group, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, frequency and course of musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower extremities in a cohort of Danish school children aged 8-14 years at baseline.This was a prospective 3-year school-based cohort study, with information about musculoskeletal pain collected in two ways. Parents answered weekly mobile phone text messages about the presence or absence of musculoskeletal pain in their children, and a clinical consultation was performed in a subset of the children.We found that approximately half the children had lower extremity pain every study year. This pain lasted on average for 8 weeks out of a study year, and the children had on average two and a half episodes per study year. Approximately one quarter of the children had upper extremity pain every study year that lasted on average 3 weeks during a study year, with one and a half episodes being the average. In general, there were more non-traumatic pain episodes compared with traumatic episodes in the lower extremities, whereas the opposite was true in the upper extremities. The most common anatomical pain sites were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'.Lower extremity pain among children and adolescents is common, recurrent and most often of non-traumatic origin. Upper extremity pain is less common, with fewer and shorter episodes, and usually with a traumatic onset. Girls more frequently reported upper extremity pain, whereas there was no sex-related difference in the lower extremities. The most frequently reported locations were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Despite evidence of physical (illness) and mental (stress) health problems, there appears to be a lack of studies or concern regarding occupational safety and health among educators in Malaysia.<h4>Objective</h4>To review the prevalence of illness, stress, and corresponding risk factors among educators in Malaysia.<h4>Method</h4>Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CAB, and other computerized databases were searched according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify studies published between January 2013 and April 2019 on the prevalence and associated risk factors of illness and stress among educators (S1 Checklist). The keywords used included educator, teacher, lecturer, academic staff, teaching profession, university staff, academician, faculty, illness, injury, disease, pain, WMSD, dysphonia, hoarseness, stress, mental health, strain, health problem, disorder, and/or Malaysia. Selected studies were evaluated by quality assessment.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-two articles fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The prevalence of illness and stress was determined for low back pain (33.3-72.9%); upper back pain (33.33-56.4%); neck/shoulder pain (40.4-80.1%); upper arm discomfort (91.3%); forearm pain (89.6%); wrist pain (16.7-93.2%); hip pain (13.2-40.9%); thigh discomfort (91.8%); lower leg discomfort (90.5%); knee pain (23.7-88.0%); ankle/feet pain (19.3-87.7%); elbow pain (3.5-13.0%); voice disorder (10.4-13.0%) and stress (5.5-25.9%). Sex, education level, teaching experience, quality of life, anxiety, depression, coping styles, and others were reported as associated risk factors across the studies.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There appears to be a cause for concern regarding musculoskeletal disorders, voice disorder, and stress reported among educators in Malaysia. While most risk factors matched those reported in studies elsewhere, others such as school characteristics (school level, government or private school, and location [rural/urban]) have not been investigated.
Project description:School-based violence is a current public concern in the United States. One factor that can impact school-based violence that has gained much attention is mental health status. To better inform public perceptions, this study provides new evidence concerning the association between mental health status and acting out violence in school-aged populations. We examined a diverse sample of sixth graders across 14 schools in Texas in 2011-2012 ( N = 721) who completed a self-administered survey assessing mental health symptoms and frequency of perpetration and/or receipt of different types of aggressive behaviors. Multinomial regression models tested whether adolescents with mental health symptoms (overall and by symptom types) are more predisposed to be actors only, recipients only, or both, of physical, verbal, and relational aggression. Across aggressive behavior types, symptomatic versus nonsymptomatic adolescents had consistently increased odds of being exclusively a recipient of aggression. When symptomatic adolescents did act out aggression, they participated concurrently as both an actor and recipient. Rarely were symptomatic adolescents more likely to be exclusively an actor of aggression. Moreover, symptomatic versus nonsymptomatic adolescents had five times the odds of being threatened by a weapon including a gun or knife. Compared to those who do not, youth who perceive having a mental health issue had twice the odds of being an actor only of verbal and relational aggression. These findings provide evidence for the need to change how the public associates mental health problems with aggressive behaviors among youth especially following national tragic events. Communities at large may benefit from evidence- and school-based interventions that improve awareness of and tolerance to mental health conditions among youth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shoulder and neck pain are reported as the most common occupational-related health problem and cause of morbidity, absenteeism from work among school teachers worldwide. School teachers represent an occupational group, who are exposed and appears to have prevalent shoulder and/or neck pain due to their daily work tasks and the nature of work. There is a scant epidemiological study regarding shoulder and neck pain among school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was set out to assess the prevalence and associated factors of shoulder and/or neck pain among school teachers of Gondar town in North West Ethiopia. METHOD:An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to January 2017, a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to 848 primary and secondary school teachers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. To assess the burden of shoulder and/neck pain, data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and physical measures like height and weight were also measured during data collection. Independent variables which had significant association were identified using logistic regression model. RESULT:A total of 754 teachers participated, with a mean age of 42?±?9.73?years (88.9% response rate). Previous 12?months self-reported prevalence of shoulder and/ neck pain among school teachers was 57.3% with 95%CI (53.4-61.0%). Regular physical exercise (OR?=?0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.42), teaching experience (OR?=?2.85, 95% CI: 1.09-7.42), static head down posture (OR?=?2.26, 95% CI: 1.55-3.33), elevated arm over shoulder (OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 1.86-3.95), prolonged sitting (OR?=?1.50,95% CI: 1.02-2.23) and hypertension (OR?=?2.18, 95% CI: 1.24-3.82) were factors found to be significantly associated with shoulder and/neck pain. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:More than half of the study participants self-reported to have suffered shoulder and neck pain in the previous 12?months. Teaching experience, static head down posture, elevated arm over shoulder, and hypertension are likely to be significantly associated with shoulder and/ neck pain among school teachers in Ethiopia. Engaging in regular physical exercise has a protective effect against the shoulder and/or neck pain. Therefore, school authorities are recommended to provide facilities to enhance physical activity among school teachers and also provide adjustable board and classroom materials.
Project description:The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity injuries in children.Prospective cohort study.10 public schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark.A total of 1259 school children aged 6-12 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark.School children were surveyed each week during 2.5 school-years. Musculoskeletal injuries were reported by parents answering automated mobile phone text questions (SMS-Track) on a weekly basis and diagnosed by clinicians. Data were analysed for prevalence and incidence rates over time with adjustments for gender and age.Injuries in the lower extremities were reported most frequently (n=1049). There was a significant seasonal variation in incidence and prevalence for lower extremity injuries and for lower and upper extremity injuries combined (n=1229). For the upper extremities (n=180), seasonal variation had a significant effect on the risk of prevalence. Analysis showed a 46% increase in injury incidence and a 32% increase in injury prevalence during summer relative to winter for lower and upper extremity injuries combined.There are clear seasonal differences in the occurrence of musculoskeletal extremity injuries among children with almost twice as high injury incidence and prevalence estimates during autumn, summer and spring compared with winter. This suggests further research into the underlying causes for seasonal variation and calls for preventive strategies to be implemented in order to actively prepare and supervise children before and during high-risk periods.
Project description:Chronic pain is influenced by biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. The current study investigated potential roles for combinations of genetic and psychological factors in the development and/or maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain. An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (ADRB2, COMT, OPRM1, AVPR1 A, GCH1, and KCNS1) and psychological (anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and kinesiophobia) factors were included as predictors. Pain phenotypes were shoulder pain intensity (5-day average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper extremity disability (5-day average and peak reported on the QuickDASH), and shoulder pain duration (in days). After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered as main effects and interaction terms in separate regression models for the different pain phenotypes. Results from the recruited cohort (N = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for interactions between the COMT diplotype and 1) pain catastrophizing for 5-day average upper extremity disability and 2) depressive symptoms for pain duration. There was moderate statistical evidence for interactions for other shoulder pain phenotypes between additional genes (ADRB2, AVPR1 A, and KCNS1) and depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, or kinesiophobia. These findings confirm the importance of the combined predictive ability of COMT with psychological distress and reveal other novel combinations of genetic and psychological factors that may merit additional investigation in other pain cohorts.Interactions between genetic and psychological factors were investigated as predictors of different exercise-induced shoulder pain phenotypes. The strongest statistical evidence was for interactions between the COMT diplotype and pain catastrophizing (for upper extremity disability) or depressive symptoms (for pain duration). Other novel genetic and psychological combinations were identified that may merit further investigation.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and health indicators among Bolivian school teachers.<h4>Design</h4>School-based cross-sectional study.<h4>Setting</h4>Sixty randomly selected schools from rural (33) and urban (27) schools in Chuquisaca, Bolivia.<h4>Participants</h4>A total of 1062 school teachers were invited to participate, of which 597 answered the questionnaire (response 56.2%).<h4>Exposure measure</h4>Psychosocial factors at work were explored through the short version of the Effort-Reward Questionnaire.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Health outcomes included self-rated overall health, mental distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire ?5) and the 7-day prevalence of low back pain (LBP) as well as neck or shoulder pain (Nordic Questionnaire). Crude and adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs for each health outcome were calculated using logistic regression models.<h4>Results</h4>The median value for the effort-reward ratio was 0.91 (range: 0.3-2.3) with higher values for teachers from rural versus urban schools. Overall, about 43% of the teachers reported their overall health as fair or poor; 45% suffered mental distress, 17% reported LBP and 29% neck or shoulder pain. Prevalences were higher for teachers employed at rural schools compared with those at urban schools. After adjusting for potential confounders and school location, ERI was statistically significantly associated with fair/poor self-rated health (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9); mental distress (1.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.1) and LBP (2.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.1).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results indicate the urgent need to improve psychosocial working conditions among Bolivian school teachers, in order to promote their health and well-being.
Project description:This study investigated the effect of a school-based violence prevention programme implemented in Grade 1 classrooms in Jamaican primary schools. Fourteen primary schools were randomly assigned to receive training in classroom behaviour management (n = 7 schools, 27 teachers/classrooms) or to a control group (n = 7 schools, 28 teachers/classrooms). Four children from each class were randomly selected to participate in the evaluation (n = 220 children). Teachers were trained through a combination of workshop and in-class support sessions, and received a mean of 11.5 h of training (range = 3-20) over 8 months. The primary outcomes were observations of (1) teachers' use of violence against children and (2) class-wide child aggression. Teachers in intervention schools used significantly less violence against children (effect size (ES) = -0.73); benefits to class-wide child aggression were not significant (ES = -0.20). Intervention teachers also provided a more emotionally supportive classroom environment (ES = 1.22). No benefits were found to class-wide prosocial behaviour, teacher wellbeing, or child mental health. The intervention benefited children's early learning skills, especially oral language and self-regulation skills (ES = 0.25), although no benefits were found to achievement in maths calculation, reading and spelling. A relatively brief teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and increased the quality of the classroom environment.
Project description:This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Muscle effects are the most common reported adverse effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins). However, in placebo-controlled trials the incidence of muscle pain is most often similar for placebo and active control groups. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether statin use was associated with a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Participants were 3,580 adults > or =40 years without arthritis who were interviewed at home and examined in a mobile examination center. Participants were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, medication use, and musculoskeletal pain. Height, weight, blood pressure, ankle brachial index, and cholesterol were measured. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of any musculoskeletal pain and musculoskeletal pain in 4 different anatomical regions (neck/upper back, upper extremities, lower back, and lower extremities) by statin use during the last 30 days. Among statin users (n = 402), 22.0% (95%CI 18.0-26.7%) reported musculoskeletal pain in at least 1 anatomical region during the last 30 days, compared with 16.7% (95%CI 15.1-18.4%) of those who did not use a statin. Compared to persons who did not use statins, those who used statins had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95%CI; p value) of 1.50 (1.07-2.11; p = .01) for any musculoskeletal pain, 1.59 (1.04-2.44, p = .03) for lower back pain, and 1.50 (1.02-2.22, p = .03) for lower extremity pain. CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal pain is common in adults > or =40 years without arthritis. In this nationally representative sample, statin users were significantly more likely to report musculoskeletal pain.