Impact of male circumcision on risk of HIV infection in men in a changing epidemic context - systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:WHO/UNAIDS recommended Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in 2007 based on systematic review of observational studies prior to 1999 and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To inform updated WHO guidance, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of impact of circumcision on the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men. METHODS:Studies in PubMed of HIV incidence and changes in prevalence in heterosexual men by circumcision status were identified. Pooled incidence rate ratios were computed using fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis and risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I tool. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:In three RCTs, the pooled incidence ratio was 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.56), with risk difference 10 (8 to 12) fewer infections per 1000 person-years (py). Pooled incidence ratios were 0.34 (0.24 to 0.49) in two post-RCT follow-up studies, 0.29 (0.19 to 0.43) in men at high HIV risk (five cohorts), 0.48 (0.33 to 0.70) in four community-based cohorts before circumcision scale-up, and 0.56 (0.49 to 0.64) (7 [6 to 8] fewer per 1000 py) in six community-based cohorts during circumcision and antiretroviral treatment scale-up. Heterogeneity between studies was low except in men at high HIV risk. We estimated 520,000 (425,000 to 605,000) fewer infections occurred in men by end of 2018 from 22.7 million circumcisions performed since 2008 and increasing by 155,000 (125,000 to 180,000) annually if epidemic conditions remain similar. After exclusion of studies with high risk of bias and those conducted outside Africa, pooled incidence ratios were similar. There was no evidence of confounding nor changes in risk behaviour following circumcision. In post-hoc exploratory analyses we observed a trend of decreasing effectiveness of circumcision in cohorts with lower HIV incidence. CONCLUSIONS:Efficacy of medical male circumcision on HIV incidence from randomized controlled trials was supported by effectiveness from observational studies in populations with diverse HIV risk and changing epidemic contexts. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision remains an important evidence-based intervention for control of generalized HIV epidemics.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Penile and cervical cancer rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on HR-HPV acquisition and clearance among heterosexual men. DESIGN:HR-HPV incidence and clearance were evaluated in 999 men (776 HIV-negative and 223 HIV-positive) aged 15-49 years who participated in male circumcision trials in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS:Penile swabs were tested for HR-HPV by Roche HPV Linear Array. A Poisson multivariable model was used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios (adjIRRs) and clearance risk ratios (adjRRs). RESULTS:HR-HPV incidence was 66.5/100 person-years in HIV-positive men and 32.9/100 person-years among HIV-negative men [IRR=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-2.44]. Incidence was higher in the unmarried men (adjIRR=1.73, 95% CI 1.19-2.52), and decreased with age (adjIRR for men >35 years=0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.94) and male circumcision (adjIRR=0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89). HR-HPV clearance was 114.7/100 person-years for HIV-positive men and 170.2/100 person-years for HIV-negative men (risk ratio=0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.77). HR-HPV clearance in HIV-negative men increased with circumcision (adjRR=1.48, 95% CI 1.26-1.74), HSV-2 infection (adjRR=1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.44), and symptoms of urethral discharge (adjRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73). Clearance of HR-HPV was significantly lower for unmarried men (adjRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.98). CONCLUSION:HR-HPV is common among heterosexual Ugandan men, particularly the HIV-infected. HIV infection increases HR-HPV acquisition and reduces HR-HPV clearance. Promotion of male circumcision and additional prevention measures, such as HPV vaccination, is critical in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. We aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes. METHODS:In this systematic review we searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature publications reporting associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes up to April 11, 2016. All biomedical (not psychological or social) outcomes in all study types were included. Searches were not restricted by year of publication, or to sub-Saharan Africa. Publications without primary data and not in English were excluded. We extracted data and assessed evidence on each outcome as high, medium, or low consistency on the basis of agreement between publications; outcomes found in fewer than three publications were indeterminate consistency. FINDINGS:60 publications were included in our assessment. High-consistency evidence was found for five outcomes, with male circumcision protecting against cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, herpes simplex virus type 2, chlamydia, and syphilis. Medium-consistency evidence was found for male circumcision protecting against human papillomavirus and low-risk human papillomavirus. Although the evidence shows a protective association with HIV, it was categorised as low consistency, because one trial showed an increased risk to female partners of HIV-infected men resuming sex early after male circumcision. Seven outcomes including HIV had low-consistency evidence and six were indeterminate. INTERPRETATION:Scale-up of male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa has public health implications for several outcomes in women. Evidence that female partners are at decreased risk of several diseases is highly consistent. Synergies between male circumcision and women's health programmes should be explored. FUNDING:US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Jhpiego.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Young Southern African women have the highest HIV incidence globally. Pregnancy doubles the risk of HIV acquisition further, and maternal HIV acquisition contributes significantly to the paediatric HIV burden. Little data on combination HIV prevention interventions during pregnancy and lactation are available. We measured HIV incidence amongst pregnant and postpartum women receiving a community-based combination HIV prevention intervention in a high HIV incidence setting in South Africa. METHODS:A cohort study that included HIV-uninfected pregnant women was performed. Lay community-based workers provided individualized HIV prevention counselling and performed three-monthly home and clinic-based individual and couples HIV testing. Male partners were referred for circumcision, sexually transmitted infections or HIV treatment as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox's regression were used to estimate HIV incidence and factors associated with HIV acquisition. RESULTS:The 1356 women included (median age 22.5 years) received 5289 HIV tests. Eleven new HIV infections were detected over 828.3 person-years (PY) of follow-up, with an HIV incidence rate of 1.33 infections/100 PY (95% CI: 0.74-2.40). Antenatally, the HIV incidence rate was 1.49 infections/100 PY (95% CI: 0.64-2.93) and postnatally the HIV incidence rate was 1.03 infections/100 PY (95% CI: 0.33-3.19). 53% of male partners received HIV testing and 66% of eligible partners received referral for circumcision. Women within known serodiscordant couples, and women with newly diagnosed HIV-infected partners, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 32.7 (95% CI: 3.8-282.2) and aHR = 126.4 (95% CI: 33.8-472.2) had substantially increased HIV acquisition, respectively. Women with circumcised partners had a reduced risk of incident HIV infection, aHR = 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03-1.86). CONCLUSIONS:Maternal HIV incidence was substantially lower than previous regional studies. Community-based combination HIV prevention interventions may reduce high maternal HIV incidence in resource-poor settings. Expanded roll-out of home-based couples HIV testing and initiating pre-exposure prophylaxis for pregnant women within serodiscordant couples is needed in Southern Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Voluntary medical male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV heterosexual transmission in men, but its effect on male-to-male sexual transmission is uncertain. METHODS:Circumcision status of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China was evaluated by genital examination and self-report; anal sexual role was assessed by questionnaire interview. Serostatus for HIV and syphilis was confirmed. RESULTS:Among 1155 participants (242 were seropositive and 913 with unknown HIV status at enrollment), the circumcision rate by self-report (10.4%) was higher than confirmed by genital examination (8.2%). Male circumcision (by examination) was associated with 47% lower odds of being HIV seropositive [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27 to 1.02] after adjusting for demographic covariates, number of lifetime male sexual partners, and anal sex role. Among MSM who predominantly practiced insertive anal sex, circumcised men had 62% lower odds of HIV infection than those who were uncircumcised (aOR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.64). Among those whose anal sex position was predominantly receptive or versatile, circumcised men have 46% lower odds of HIV infection than did men who were not circumcised (aOR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.14). Compared to uncircumcised men reporting versatile or predominantly receptive anal sex positioning, those who were circumcised and reported practicing insertive sex had an 85% lower risk (aOR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.65). Circumcision was not associated clearly with lower syphilis risk (aOR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.61). CONCLUSIONS:Circumcised MSM were less likely to have acquired HIV, most pronounced among men predominantly practicing insertive anal intercourse. A clinical trial is needed.
Project description:Although male circumcision reduces the heterosexual HIV transmission risk, its effect may be attenuated if circumcised men increase sexual risk behaviours (SRB) due to perceived low risk. In Uganda information about the protective effects of circumcision has been publicly disseminated since 2007. If increased awareness of the protection increases SRB among circumcised men, it is likely that differences in prevalence of SRB among circumcised versus uncircumcised men will change over time. This study aimed at comparing SRBs and HIV sero-status of circumcised and uncircumcised men before and after the launch of the safe male circumcision programme.Data from the 2004 and 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Surveys (UAIS) were used. The analyses were based on generalized linear models, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) as measures of association between circumcision status and multiple sexual partners, transactional sex, sex with non-marital partners, condom use at last non-marital sex, and HIV infection. In addition we conducted multivariate analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, and the multivariate models for HIV status were also adjusted for SRB.Twenty six percent of men were circumcised in 2004 and 28% in 2011. Prevalence of SRB was higher among circumcised men in both surveys. In the unadjusted analysis, circumcision was associated with having multiple sexual partners and non-marital partners. Condom use was not associated with circumcision in 2004, but in 2011 circumcised men were less likely to report condom use with the last non-marital partner. The associations between the other sexual risk behaviours and circumcision status were stable across the two surveys." In both surveys, circumcised men were less likely to be HIV positive (Adj PR 0.55; CI: 0.41-0.73 in 2004 and Adj PR 0.64; CI: 0.49-0.83 in 2011).There was higher prevalence of SRBs among circumcised men in both surveys, but the only significant change from 2004 to 2011 was a lower prevalence of condom use among the circumcised. Nevertheless, HIV prevalence was lower among circumcised men. Targeted messages for circumcised men and their sexual partners to continue using condoms even after circumcision should be enhanced to avoid risk compensation.
Project description:The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful.We searched Medline, Embase and psycINFO databases for studies reporting prevalence, incidence, and clearance of oral HPV infection in MSM. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression on prevalence estimates and summarised within-study risk factors for oral HPV DNA detection and incidence/clearance rates. We also performed a meta-analysis of the effect of MSM on oral HPV prevalence compared to heterosexual men.26 publications were identified. The pooled prevalence of oral HPV16 from twelve estimates was 3.0% (95%CI 0.5-5.5) in HIV-negative and 4.7% (95%CI 2.1-7.3) in HIV-positive MSM. Median age of study participants explained 38% of heterogeneity (p<0.01) in HPV prevalence estimates (pooled = 17% and 29% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive, respectively; 22 estimates). Nine studies compared MSM to heterosexual men and found no difference in oral HPV prevalence (pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.65-1.74)). The clearance rate was higher than incidence within studies. Type-specific concordance between oral and anogenital sites was rare.There was substantial heterogeneity between estimates of oral HPV prevalence in MSM populations that was partly explained by HIV status and median age.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among heterosexual men by at least half. METHODS: One year after the launch of a national Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision program in Kenya, this study conducted 12 focus group discussions among uncircumcised men in Nyanza Province to assess the revealed, non-hypothetical, facilitators and barriers to the uptake of MC. RESULTS: The primary barriers to MC uptake included time away from work; culture and religion; possible adverse events; and the post-surgical abstinence period. The primary facilitators of MC uptake included hygiene; social pressure; protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; and improved sexual performance and satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Some activities which might increase MC uptake include dispelling MC misconceptions; increasing involvement of religious leaders, women's groups, and peer mobilizers for MC promotion; and increasing the relevance of MC among men who are already practicing an HIV prevention method.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) heterosexual transmission can raise the potential for a more diffuse and generalized epidemic. In response to the paucity of data on HIV incidence among heterosexuals in China, we conducted a large-scale, population-based cohort study located in rural southwest China. METHODS:Baseline enrollment for the study was conducted from 2013 to 2014 and follow-up at 12 months was from 2014 to 2015 among adults 20 years or older in 3 rural counties of Southwest China. Study participants were informed of the study by brochures and leaflets distributed in outreach activities. Interviews and blood collection were conducted in private rooms. Blood samples were tested for HIV infection. RESULTS:The HIV prevalence of the sample was 0.29% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.30) (2063 of 722,795) among the total adult population of 1,090,296 potential participants 20 years or older at baseline. Of the 720,732 individuals who tested HIV-negative at baseline, 493,990 (69%) completed the follow-up. Overall HIV incidence was 2.73 (95% CI, 2.38-3.08) per 10,000 person-years (PY) (235 of 860,627 PY). Human immunodeficiency virus incidence was associated with males, older age, less than secondary schooling and not currently being married. Human immunodeficiency virus incidence was 71.28 (95% CI, 35.21-107.35) per 10,000 PY among males aged 50 to 69 years who had less than secondary schooling and were divorced or widowed. Heterosexual sex was the dominant transmission mode for HIV seroconversions (99.0%). CONCLUSIONS:Older heterosexual males were at disproportionate risk of HIV infection. Health authorities in China need to develop and implement innovative interventions suitable for the broader population of older heterosexuals.
Project description:We studied the incidence and prevalence of, and co-factors for depression in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.Depression-specific items were introduced in 2010 and prospectively collected at semiannual cohort visits. Clinical, laboratory and behavioral co-factors of incident depression among participants free of depression at the first two visits in 2010 or thereafter were analyzed with Poisson regression. Cumulative prevalence of depression at the last visit was analyzed with logistic regression.Among 4,422 participants without a history of psychiatric disorders or depression at baseline, 360 developed depression during 9,348 person-years (PY) of follow-up, resulting in an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100 PY (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-4.3). Cumulative prevalence of depression during follow-up was recorded for 1,937/6,756 (28.7%) participants. Incidence and cumulative prevalence were higher in injection drug users (IDU) and women. Older age, preserved work ability and higher physical activity were associated with less depression episodes. Mortality (0.96 per 100 PY, 95% CI 0.83-1.11) based upon 193 deaths over 20,102 PY was higher among male IDU (2.34, 1.78-3.09), female IDU (2.33, 1.59-3.39) and white heterosexual men (1.32, 0.94-1.84) compared to white heterosexual women and homosexual men (0.53, 0.29-0.95; and 0.71, 0.55-0.92). Compared to participants free of depression, mortality was slightly elevated among participants with a history of depression (1.17, 0.94-1.45 vs. 0.86, 0.71-1.03, P = 0.033). Suicides (n = 18) did not differ between HIV transmission groups (P = 0.50), but were more frequent among participants with a prior diagnosis of depression (0.18 per 100 PY, 95%CI 0.10-0.31; vs. 0.04, 0.02-0.10; P = 0.003).Depression is a frequent co-morbidity among HIV-infected persons, and thus an important focus of care.
Project description:We measured HIV incidence rate, trend and risk factors in 564 HIV-negative young people (< 30 years) who inject drugs (PWID) in San Francisco between 2000 and 2014. HIV incidence was 0.93/100 person-years (PY; 95% CI 0.50, 1.73). Incidence varied between 0.62/100 PY in 2000-2002 and 1.06/100 PY in 2012-2014 (P for trend = 1.0). HIV incidence varied significantly (P < 0.01) by race/ethnicity: among Hispanics it was 8.19/100 PY (95% CI 3.41, 19.68), African-Americans 4.59/100 PY (95% CI 1.15, 18.37), and Whites 0.26/100 PY (95% CI 0.06, 1.03). Male participants who reported sex with men (MSM) had higher HIV incidence (2.63/100 PY; 95% CI 1.31, 5.25) compared to males who did not report MSM (0.50/100 PY; 95% CI 0.12, 1.99) (P = 0.01). Despite an overall stable HIV incidence trend, incidence was elevated among African-American and Hispanic PWID, and men who have sex with men. Addressing prevention needs in these key populations is critical for the goal of eliminating HIV transmission.