In Depth Analysis of the Contribution of Specific Glycoproteins to the Overall Bovine Whey N-Linked Glycoprofile.
ABSTRACT: The N-linked glycoprofile of bovine whey is the combined result of individual protein glycoprofiles. In this work, we provide in-depth structural information on the glycan structures of known whey glycoproteins, namely, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, ?-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin-G (IgG), and glycosylation-dependent cellular adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM-1, PP3). The majority (?95%) of N-glycans present in the overall whey glycoprofile were attributed to three proteins: lactoferrin, IgG, and GlyCAM-1. We identified specific signature glycans for these main proteins; lactoferrin contributes oligomannose-type glycans, while IgG carries fucosylated di-antennary glycans with Gal-?(1,4)-GlcNAc (LacNAc) motifs. GlyCAM-1 is the sole whey glycoprotein carrying tri- and tetra-antennary structures, with a high degree of fucosylation and sialylation. Signature glycans can be used to recognize individual proteins in the overall whey glycoprofile as well as for protein concentration estimations. Application of the whey glycoprofile analysis to colostrum samples revealed dynamic protein concentration changes for IgG, lactoferrin, and GlyCAM-1 over time.
Project description:Glycans are fundamental cellular building blocks, involved in many organismal functions. Advances in glycomics are elucidating the essential roles of glycans. Still, it remains challenging to properly analyze large glycomics datasets, since the abundance of each glycan is dependent on many other glycans that share many intermediate biosynthetic steps. Furthermore, the overlap of measured glycans can be low across samples. We address these challenges with GlyCompare, a glycomic data analysis approach that accounts for shared biosynthetic steps for all measured glycans to correct for sparsity and non-independence in glycomics, which enables direct comparison of different glycoprofiles and increases statistical power. Using GlyCompare, we study diverse N-glycan profiles from glycoengineered erythropoietin. We obtain biologically meaningful clustering of mutant cell glycoprofiles and identify knockout-specific effects of fucosyltransferase mutants on tetra-antennary structures. We further analyze human milk oligosaccharide profiles and find mother's fucosyltransferase-dependent secretor-status indirectly impact the sialylation. Finally, we apply our method on mucin-type O-glycans, gangliosides, and site-specific compositional glycosylation data to reveal tissues and disease-specific glycan presentations. Our substructure-oriented approach will enable researchers to take full advantage of the growing power and size of glycomics data.
Project description:EndoBI-1 is a recently isolated endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase, which cleaves the N-N'-diacetyl chitobiose moiety found in the N-glycan core of high mannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans. These N-glycans have selective prebiotic activity for a key infant gut microbe, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The broad specificity of EndoBI-1 suggests the enzyme may be useful for many applications, particularly for deglycosylating milk glycoproteins in dairy processing. To facilitate its commercial use, we determined kinetic parameters for EndoBI-1 on the model substrates ribonuclease B and bovine lactoferrin, as well as on concentrated bovine colostrum whey. Km values ranging from 0.25 to 0.49, 0.43 to 1.00 and 0.90 to 3.18 mg/mL and Vmax values ranging from 3.5×10(-3) to 5.09×10(-3), 4.5×10(-3) to 7.75×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-2)to 5.2×10(-2) mg/mL×min were determined for ribonuclease B, lactoferrin and whey, respectively. In general, EndoBI-1 showed the highest apparent affinity for ribonuclease B, while the maximum reaction rate was the highest for concentrated whey. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans were quantified by a phenol-sulphuric total carbohydrate assay and the resultant N-glycan structures monitored by nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS. The kinetic parameters and structural characterization of glycans released suggest EndoBI-1 can facilitate large-scale release of complex, bioactive glycans from a variety of glycoprotein substrates. Moreover, these results suggest that whey, often considered as a waste product, can be used effectively as a source of prebiotic N-glycans.
Project description:We previously showed that the expression of (Gal alpha 1-4Gal)-bearing glycoproteins among birds is related to their phylogeny. However, precise structures of (Gal alpha 1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans were only known for pigeon egg white glycoproteins and IgG. To compare structural features of (Gal alpha 1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans from other species, we analyzed N-glycans of gull egg white (GEW)-glycoproteins, ovomucoid, and ovotransferrin, and gull egg yolk IgG by HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS), and MS/MS analyses. GEW-glycoproteins included neutral, monosialyl, and disialyl N-glycans, and some of them contained Gal alpha 1-4Gal sequences. Bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary oligosaccharides that lacked bisecting GlcNAc were the major core structures, and incomplete alpha-galactosylation and sialylation as well as the presence of diLacNAc on the branches generated microheterogeneity of the N-glycan structures. Moreover, unlike pigeon egg white glycoproteins, the major sialylation in GEW-glycoproteins is alpha2,3-, but not alpha2,6-linked sialic acids (NeuAc). In addition to the complex-type oligosaccharide, hybrid-type oligosaccharides that lack bisecting GlcNAc were also abundant in GEW-glycoproteins. Gull egg yolk IgG also contained Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1- sequences, but unlike pigeon IgG, no Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta 1-4Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1- sequence was detected. Bi- and tri-antennary complex-type oligosaccharides with bisecting GlcNAc and with core fucosylation as well as high-mannose-type oligosaccharides were the major structures in gull IgG. Our data indicated that some N-glycans from both GEW-glycoproteins and gull IgG contain the Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1- sequence, but the ratio of alpha-Gal-capped residues to non-alpha-Gal-capped residues in the nonreducing termini of N-glycans is much lower than that in those of pigeon glycoproteins.
Project description:Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference. Lactalbumin decreased weight and fat gain. Notably, lactoferrin produced sustained weight and fat loss, and attenuated the reduction in energy expenditure associated with calorie restriction. Lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased plasma leptin and insulin, and lactalbumin increased peptide YY. Whey, lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved glucose clearance partly through differential upregulation of glucoregulatory transcripts in the liver and skeletal muscle. Interestingly, lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased hepatic lipidosis partly through downregulation of lipogenic and/or upregulation of ?-oxidation transcripts, and differentially modulated cecal bacterial populations. Our findings demonstrate that protein quantity and quality are important for improving energy balance. Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved energy balance and metabolism, and decreased adiposity, with the effects of lactoferrin being partly independent of caloric intake.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The glycoprofile of pathological prion protein (PrP(res)) is widely used as a diagnosis marker in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and is thought to vary in a strain-specific manner. However, that the same glycoprofile of PrP(res) always accumulates in the whole brain of one individual has been questioned. We aimed to determine whether and how PrP(res) glycosylation is regulated in the brain of patients with sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.<h4>Methods</h4>PrP(res) glycoprofiles in four brain regions from 134 patients with sporadic or variant CJD were analyzed as a function of the genotype at codon 129 of PRNP and the Western blot type of PrP(res).<h4>Results</h4>The regional distribution of PrP(res) glycoforms within one individual was heterogeneous in sporadic but not in variant CJD. PrP(res) glycoforms ratio significantly correlated with the genotype at codon 129 of the prion protein gene and the Western blot type of PrP(res) in a region-specific manner. In some cases of sCJD, the glycoprofile of thalamic PrP(res) was undistinguishable from that observed in variant CJD.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Regulations leading to variations of PrP(res) pattern between brain regions in sCJD patients, involving host genotype and Western blot type of PrP(res) may contribute to the specific brain targeting of prion strains and have direct implications for the diagnosis of the different forms of CJD.
Project description:Changes in the abundance of antennary fucosylated glycans in human total plasma N-glycome (TPNG) have been associated with several diseases ranging from diabetes to various forms of cancer. However, it is challenging to address this important part of the human glycome. Most commonly, time-consuming chromatographic separations are performed to differentially quantify core and antenna fucosylation. Obtaining sufficient resolution for larger, more complex glycans can be challenging. We introduce a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) assay for the relative quantitation of antennary fucosylation in TPNG. N-linked glycans are released from plasma by PNGase F and further treated with a core fucosidase before performing a linkage-informative sialic acid derivatization. The core fucosylated glycans are thus depleted while the remaining antennary fucosylated glycans are quantitated. Simultaneous quantitation of ?2,3-linked sialic acids and antennary fucosylation allows an estimation of the sialyl-Lewis x motif. The approach is feasible using either ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry or time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The assay was used to investigate changes of antennary fucosylation as clinically relevant marker in 14 colorectal cancer patients. In accordance with a previous report, we found elevated levels of antennary fucosylation pre-surgery which decreased after tumor resection. The assay has the potential for revealing antennary fucosylation signatures in various conditions including diabetes and different types of cancer.
Project description:Glycosylation is a protein post translational modification which plays important role in protein function, stabilization, trafficking, and turnover. Alteration of protein glycosylation is a common phenomenon during tumor progression, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, as well as metastasis. Hence, aberrant glycan structures and the induced corresponding anti-carbohydrate antibodies are potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, serum N-glycomes and anti-carbohydrate antibodies from normal populations and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were investigated. Total serum proteins were lyophilized and subjected to chemical reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion. The N-glycans were released, purified, permethylated, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-Mass spectrometry. In addition, the serum anti-carbohydrate antibody profiles were also investigated by carbohydrate microarray. We found that the relative abundances of seven N-glycans were decreased or increased in serum of OSCC with diagnostic accuracy greater than 75%. The relative abundances of total tri-antennary and tetra-antennary glycans with varying degrees of fucosylation and sialylation were also increased in serum N-glycomes of OSCC. In an independent validation group of forty-eight OCCC patients, most of the high-molecular weight serum N-glycans showed significantly high sensitivity and specificity according to the identified cutoff values. Furthermore, the serum levels of two IgM antibodies were elevated accompanied with the decreased levels of nine IgG antibodies in patient serum. Taken together, these serum N-glycans and antibodies identified in this study should be considered as the candidates of potential biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS), with unresolved aetiology. Previous studies have implicated N-glycosylation, a highly regulated enzymatic attachment of complex sugars to targeted proteins, in MS pathogenesis. We investigated individual variation in N-glycosylation of the total plasma proteome and of IgG in MS. Both plasma protein and IgG N-glycans were chromatographically profiled and quantified in 83 MS cases and 88 age- and sex-matched controls. Comparing levels of glycosylation features between MS cases and controls revealed that core fucosylation (p = 6.96 × 10-3) and abundance of high-mannose structures (p = 1.48 × 10-2) were the most prominently altered IgG glycosylation traits. Significant changes in plasma protein N-glycome composition were observed for antennary fucosylated, tri- and tetrasialylated, tri- and tetragalactosylated, high-branched N-glycans (p-value range 1.66 × 10-2-4.28 × 10-2). Classification performance of N-glycans was examined by ROC curve analysis, resulting in an AUC of 0.852 for the total plasma N-glycome and 0.798 for IgG N-glycome prediction models. Our results indicate that multiple aspects of protein glycosylation are altered in MS, showing increased proinflammatory potential. N-glycan alterations showed substantial value in classification of the disease status, nonetheless, additional studies are warranted to explore their exact role in MS development and utility as biomarkers.
Project description:The importance of multivalency for N-glycan-protein interactions has primarily been studied by attachment of minimal epitopes to artificial multivalent scaffold and not in the context of multi-antennary glycans. N-glycans can be modified by bisecting GlcNAc, core xylosides and fucosides, and extended N-acetyl lactosamine moieties. The impact of such modifications on glycan recognition are also not well understood. We describe here a chemoenzymatic methodology that can provide N-glycans expressed by the parasitic worm S. mansoni having unique epitopes at each antenna and containing core xyloside. NMR, computational and electron microscopy were employed to investigate recognition of the glycans by the human lectin DC-SIGN. It revealed that core xyloside does not influence terminal epitope recognition. The multi-antennary glycans bound with higher affinity to DC-SIGN compared to mono-valent counterparts, which was attributed to proximity-induced effective concentration. The multi-antennary glycans cross-linked DC-SIGN into a dense network, which likely is relevant for antigen uptake and intracellular routing.
Project description:In human serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), a rare modification of biantennary complex N-glycans lead to a β1,4-galactosylated bisecting GlcNAc branch. We found that the bisecting GlcNAc on a biantennary core-fucosylated N-glycan was enzymatically galactosylated under stringent reaction conditions. Further optimizations led to an efficient enzymatic approach to this particular modification for biantennary substrates. Notably, tri- and tetra-antennary complex N-glycans were not converted by bovine galactosyltransferase. An N-glycan with a galactosylated bisecting GlcNAc was linked to a lanthanide binding tag. The pseudo-contact shifts (PCS) obtained from the corresponding Dy-complex were used to calculate the conformational preferences of the rare N-glycan. Besides two extended conformations only a single folded conformation was found.