Modeling Mass and Heat Transfer in Multiphase Coffee Aroma Extraction.
ABSTRACT: Instant coffee manufacture involves the aqueous extraction of soluble coffee components followed by drying to form a soluble powder. Loss of volatile aroma compounds during concentration through evaporation can lower product quality. One method of retaining aroma is to steam-strip volatiles from the coffee and add them back to a concentrated coffee solution before the final drying stage. A better understanding of the impact of process conditions on the aroma content of the stripped solution will improve product design stages. In this context, we present a multiscale model for aroma extraction describing (i) the release from the matrix, (ii) intraparticle diffusion, (iii) transfer into water and steam, and (iv) advection through the column mechanisms. Results revealed (i) the existence of three different types of compound behavior, (ii) how aroma physiochemistry determines the limiting kinetics of extraction, and (iii) that extraction for some aromas can be inhibited by the interaction with other coffee components.
Project description:Morels (<i>Morchella</i> spp.) are valuable medicinal and edible mushrooms. In this study, chemical profiles of aromas and lipophilic extracts of black morel (<i>Morchella importuna</i>) grown in China were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, along with the evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities for the lipophilic extracts. Sixty-five compounds in total were identified from the aromas, and 1-octen-3-ol was the main component for aromas of fresh (34.40%) and freeze-dried (68.61%) black morels, while the most abundant compound for the aroma of the oven-dried sample was 2(5<i>H</i>)-furanone (13.95%). From the lipophilic extracts, 29 compounds were identified with linoleic acid as the main compound for fresh (77.37%) and freeze-dried (56.46%) black morels and steroids (92.41%) as the main constituent for an oven-dried sample. All three lipophilic extracts showed moderate antioxidant activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) with the IC<sub>50</sub> values ranging 7.56???17.52?mg/mL and 5.75???9.73?mg/mL, respectively, and no obvious antimicrobial activity was observed for lipophilic extracts. The drying methods affect the chemical profile of black morel, and freeze-drying was favorable for retaining nutrients and morel smell. This is the first report on the aroma and lipophilic extracts of <i>M. importuna</i> grown in China.
Project description:Wine aroma is the result of complex interactions between volatile compounds and non-volatile ones and individual perception phenomenon. In this work, an aroma network approach, that links volatile composition (chromatographic data) with its corresponding aroma descriptors was used to explain the wine aroma properties. This concept was applied to six monovarietal wines from Bairrada Appellation (Portugal) and used as a case study. A comprehensive determination of the wines' volatile composition was done (71 variables, i.e., volatile components), establishing a workflow that combines extraction techniques and gas chromatographic analysis. Then, a bipartite network-based approach consisting of two different nodes was built, one with 19 aroma descriptors, and the other with the corresponding volatile compound(s). To construct the aroma networks, the odor active values were calculated for each determined compound and combined with the bipartite network. Finally, the aroma network of each wine was compared with sensory descriptive analysis. The analysis of the specific aroma network of each wine revealed that Sauvignon Blanc and Arinto white wines present higher fruity (esters) and sweet notes (esters and C13 norisoprenoids) than Bical wine. Sauvignon Blanc also exhibits higher toasted aromas (thiols) while Arinto and Bical wines exhibit higher flowery (C13 norisoprenoids) and herbaceous notes (thiols), respectively. For red wines, sweet fruit aromas are the most abundant, especially for Touriga Nacional. Castelão and Touriga Nacional wines also present toasted aromas (thiols). Baga and Castelão wines also exhibit fusel/alcohol notes (alcohols). The proposed approach establishes a chemical aroma fingerprint (aroma ID) for each type of wine, which may be further used to estimate wine aroma characteristics by projection of the volatile composition on the aroma network.
Project description:Coffee beans from the same origin were roasted using six time-temperature profiles, in order to identify volatile aroma compounds associated with five common roast coffee defects (light, scorched, dark, baked and underdeveloped). Thirty-seven volatile aroma compounds were selected on the basis that they had previously been identified as potent odorants of coffee and were also identified in all coffee brew preparations; the relative abundance of these aroma compounds was then evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with headspace solid phase micro extraction. Some of the 37 key aroma compounds were significantly changed in each coffee roast defect and changes in one marker compound was chosen for each defect type, that is, indole for light defect, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol for scorched defect, phenol for dark defect, maltol for baked defect and 2,5-dimethylfuran for underdeveloped defect. The association of specific changes in aroma profiles for different roast defects has not been shown previously and could be incorporated into screening tools to enable the coffee industry quickly identify if roast defects occur during production.
Project description:A "Laiyang" pear is a climacteric fruit with a special taste and nutritional value but is prone to a post-harvest aroma compound loss and a loss in fruit quality. In this study, pears were pretreated with 0.5 ?l L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 20°C for 12 h and then stored at 0 ± 1°C for 150 days to evaluate the influence of 1-MCP on fruit quality and the changes in components of volatile aromas. In addition, pears were further treated with 2 mmol L-1 ethephon. The effects of ethephon on the recovery of aroma production were investigated during the 150 day storage at 0 ± 1°C and the subsequent 7 day shelf life at 20 ± 1°C. Treatment with 1-MCP inhibited firmness loss, increased electrical conductivity, reduced respiration and ethylene production rates as well as the contents of soluble solids, and maintained the storage quality of the fruits. However, 1-MCP treatment inhibited the emission of volatile aromas in pear fruits by decreasing the activities of various enzymes, such as lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate carboxylase (PDC), and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT). During the shelf-life, activities of the above mentioned enzymes were significantly enhanced, and a higher content of volatile aromas were found in fruits treated with 1-MCP + ethephon, while other qualities were not compromised. These results showed that 1-MCP treatment could effectively maintain the quality of the "Laiyang" pear during cold storage, and the additional application of ethephon on fruits during shelf-life may be a promising way to restore volatile aromas in pear fruits after long-term storage.
Project description:Achieving a uniform extraction of soluble material from a porous matrix is a generic problem in various separation and filtration operations, with applications in the food processing, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This paper describes models of fluid flow and transport of soluble material within a packed granular bed in the context of coffee extraction. Coffee extraction is described by diffusion of soluble material from particles of one or more representative sizes into fluid flowing through the packed bed. One-dimensional flow models are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. A fine and a coarse coffee grind are considered. Model results are compared to experimental data for a packed cylindrical coffee bed and the influence of a change in geometry to a truncated cone is considered. Non-uniform flow in the truncated cone causes significant variation in the local extraction level. Coffee extraction levels during brewing are analysed using extraction maps and the degree of variation is represented on the industry standard coffee brewing control chart. A high variation in extraction yield can be expected to impart bitter flavours into the brew and thus is an important variable to quantify.
Project description:Feijoa is an aromatic fruit and the essential oil from feijoa peel could be a valuable by-product in the juicing industry. An initial comparison of the essential oil extraction methods, steam-distillation and hydro-distillation, was conducted. The volatile compounds in the essential oils from four feijoa cultivars were identified and semi-quantified by GC-MS and the aroma active compounds in each essential oil were characterized using SPME-GC-O-MS. Hydro-distillation, with a material to water ratio of 1:4 and an extraction time of 90 min, was the optimized extraction method for feijoa essential oil. The Wiki Tu cultivar produced the highest essential oil yield among the four selected cultivars. A total of 160 compounds were detected, among which 90 compounds were reported for the first time in feijoa essential oils. Terpenes and esters were dominant compounds in feijoa essential oil composition and were also major contributors to feijoa essential oil aroma. Key aroma active compounds in feijoa essential oils were ?-terpineol, ethyl benzoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, linalool, (E)-geraniol, 2-undecanone, 3-octanone, ?-cubebene, and germacrene D. This is the first report on the optimization of the extraction method and the establishment of the aroma profile of feijoa essential oils, with a comparison of four New Zealand grown cultivars.
Project description:The key aroma compounds and the organoleptic quality of two Chinese Syrah wines from the Yunnan Shangri-La region and Ningxia Helan mountain region were characterized. The most important eighty aroma-active compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry. In both Syrah samples, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2- and 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-phenethyl acetate, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, ?-damascenone, guaiacol, 2-phenylethanol, trans-whiskylactone, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, and sotolon were detected to have the highest odor intensities. In the chemical analysis, 72 compounds were quantitated by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction combined with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Based on the Odor Activity Value (OAV), the aromas were reconstituted by combining aroma compounds in the synthetic wine, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to verify the chemical data. Fatty acid ethyl esters, acetate esters, and ?-damascenone were found with higher OAVs in the more fruity-smelling sample of Helan Mountain rather than Shangri-La.
Project description:The potential of using the bio-based solvent 2-methyloxolane, also known as 2-methyltetrahydrofuran or 2-MeTHF, as an alternative to petroleum solvents such as hexane, was investigated for the extraction of volatile compounds from hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.). Lab scale extractions were coupled with in silico prediction of solutes solubility to assess the technical potential of this bio-based solvent. The predictive approach was performed using the simulation software COSMO-RS (conductor like screening model for real solvants) and showed that the 2-methyloxolane is as good as or better than hexane to solubilize the majority of aromas from hop cones. The experimental results indicated that the highest aroma yield was obtained with 2-methyloxolane with 20.2% while n-hexane was only able to extract 17.9%. The characterization of aromas extracted by the two solvents showed a similar composition, where lupulone was the main component followed by humulone. No selectivity of the solvents was observed for any of the major analytes. Finally, a sensory analysis was performed on the extracts, showing that both concretes using 2-methyloxolane and hexane have similar olfactory profiles. The results indicate that 2-methyloxolane could be a promising bio-based extraction solvent for hexane substitution.
Project description:Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated.Ninety-two healthy adults (mean age, 58.0 years; 79.3% women) were randomly assigned to three aroma groups (lavender, perceptible placebo [coconut], and nonperceptible placebo [water] and to two prime subgroups (primed, with a suggestion of inhaling a powerful stress-reducing aroma, or no prime). Participants' performance on a battery of cognitive tests, physiologic responses, and subjective stress were evaluated at baseline and after exposure to a stress battery during which aromatherapy was present. Participants also rated the intensity and pleasantness of their assigned aroma.Pharmacologic effects of lavender but not placebo aromas significantly benefited post-stress performance on the working memory task (F(2,?86)?=?5.41; p?=?0.006). Increased expectancy due to positive prime, regardless of aroma type, facilitated post-stress performance on the processing speed task (F(1,?87)?=?8.31; p?=?0.005). Aroma hedonics (pleasantness and intensity) played a role in the beneficial lavender effect on working memory and physiologic function.The observable aroma effects were produced by a combination of mechanisms involving aroma-specific pharmacologic properties, aroma hedonic properties, and participant expectations. In the future, each of these mechanisms could be manipulated to produce optimal functioning.
Project description:We present an in-depth analysis of aroma profiles and sensory attributes, employing solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) to identify the key compounds driving consumer preference in 19 unfamiliar cultivars. In combination with popular cultivars, we identified a total of 100 compounds in all table grapes, of which 26 key volatiles were correlated with consumer liking. Based on this relationship, five aroma combinations (AC) were formulated, wherein 33 compounds contributed to aroma intensity, and thus, were viewed as active volatiles. The fruity, floral, and sweet aromas were further divided into secondary aromatic series, of which the apple, citrus, orange, rose, geranium, violet, and honey aromas constituted the predominant series in unfamiliar cultivars. Xiangyue and Heikuixiang emerged as the preferred table grapes according to our analysis. By comparison, the popular cultivars showed relatively fewer volatiles, but their contents were much greater than the large number of volatiles identified in the unfamiliar cultivars.