Root Extracts From Ononis spinosa Inhibit IL-8 Release via Interactions With Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Lipopolysaccharide.
ABSTRACT: Extracts from the roots of Ononis spinosa L. (restharrow roots) are traditionally used for the treatment of patients with urinary tract infections due to its mild diuretic activity, caused by the inhibition of renal human hyaluronidase-1 by isoflavonoids. Preliminary studies also indicated anti-inflammatory effects. The following study aimed at investigating potential anti-inflammatory effects of restharrow extracts, prepared with solvents of different polarity. A dichloromethane extract (OS1), mainly composed of isoflavonoids and triterpenes as characterized by LC-MS, showed a concentration-dependent (25-100 ?g/ml) inhibition of IL-8 and TNF-? release from LPS-stimulated human neutrophils. Significant inhibition was also found for the triterpene ?-onocerin and the norneolignan clitorienolactone B, isolated from OS1. Further, OS1 and both compounds significantly decreased the expression of the adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 and conversely increased the expression of CD62L in LPS-stimulated human neutrophils. This finding corresponds to a reduced inflammatory response by the inhibition of adhesion and migration of immune cells. As all of the observed effects are potentially mediated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, TLR4 transfected HEK293 cells were incubated with OS1. LPS-induced IL-8 secretion was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming TLR4 antagonism. This inhibition, however, was in part caused by an interaction of OS1 with LPS. In addition, also an aqueous extract containing high amounts of isoflavonoid glycosides and saponins from the roots of O. spinosa showed anti-inflammatory effects by interacting with the TLR4 signaling pathway. This study rationalizes the traditional use of extracts from O. spinosa for therapy of urinary tract infections, due to its potential anti-inflammatory effects that are mediated via TLR4 receptor antagonism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gentian roots have been used as a herbal medicine because of their anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms of these anti-inflammatory effects remain to be completely explained.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Here, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of gentian roots and showed that root extracts from Gentiana triflora inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of TNF-? in RAW264.7 cells. The extracts also contained swertiamarin and gentiopicroside, which are the major active compounds of gentian roots; however, neither compound had any effect on LPS-induced TNF-? production in our test system. We isolated gentiolactone as an inhibitor of TNF-? production from the extracts. Gentiolactone also inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression at the mRNA level. Moreover, gentiolactone suppressed NF-?B transcriptional activity without inhibition of I?B degradation or NF-?B nuclear transport.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that inhibition of TNF-?, iNOS and Cox-2 expression by gentiolactone is one of the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory properties of gentian roots.
Project description:Aegle marmelos (Bilva) is being used in Ayurveda for the treatment of several inflammatory disorders. The plant is a member of a fixed dose combination of Dashamoola in Ayurveda. However, the usage of roots/root bark or stems is associated with sustainability concerns.The present study is aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts of young roots (year wise) and mature parts of Bilva plants collected from different geographical locations in India, so as to identify a sustainable source for Ayurvedic formulation.A total of 191 extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous) of roots, stems and leaves of A. marmelos (collected from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh region) were tested for anti-inflammatory effects in vitro on isolated target enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA), cytokine profiling in LPS induced mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell line and in vivo carrageenan induced paw edema in mice.Of 191 extracts, 44 extracts showed COX-2 inhibition and 38 extracts showed COX-1 inhibition, while none showed 5-LOX inhibition. Cytokine analysis of the 44 extracts showing inhibition of COX-2 suggested that only 17 extracts modulated the cytokines by increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-2 and reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1?, MIP1-? and IL-6. The young (2 and 3 years) roots of Bilva plants from Gujarat and young (1 yr) roots from Odisha showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines. These three extracts have also shown in vivo anti-inflammatory activity comparable to that in adult stem and root barks.The present study reveals that young roots of Bilva plants from Gujarat and Odisha region could form a sustainable source for use in Ayurvedic formulations with anti-inflammatory activities. The present study also indicates that the region in which the plants are grown and the age of the plants play an important role in exhibiting the anti-inflammatory effect.
Project description:Prostatitis is an inflammatory condition that is related to multiple infectious agents, including bacteria and fungi. Traditional herbal extracts proved efficacious in controlling clinical symptoms associated with prostatitis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to explore the efficacy of extracts from Solidago virga-aurea, Ononis spinosa, Peumus boldus, Epilobium angustifolium, and Phyllanthus niruri against bacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus) and fungi strains (Candida albicans; C. tropicalis) involved in prostatitis. Additionally, anti-mycotic effects were tested against multiple species of dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. erinacei, Arthroderma crocatum, A. quadrifidum, A. gypseum, A. currey, and A. insingulare). Antioxidant effects were also evaluated in isolated rat prostates challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phytochemical analyses were conducted to identify and quantify selected phenolic compounds, in the extracts. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was conducted to predict putative human and microbial enzymes targeted by extracts' phytocompounds and underlying the observed bio-pharmacological effects. The phytochemical analysis highlighted that rutin levels could be crucial for explaining the highest antibacterial activity of P. boldus extract, especially against E. coli and B. cereus. On the other hand, in the E. angustifolium extract, catechin concentration could partially explain the highest efficacy of this extract in reducing lipid peroxidation, in isolated rat prostates stimulated with LPS. Concluding, the results of the present study showed moderate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects induced by water extracts of S. virga-aurea, P. boldus, E. angustifolium, P. niruri, and O. spinosa that could be related, at least partially, to the phenolic composition of the phytocomplex.
Project description:Plantago major has been reported to have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, which plant parts are more suitable as starting materials has not been explored.To investigate the antiproliferative activity of P. major extracts against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cancer cell lines as well as their effects on inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 macrophages.The methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major from different plant parts and its chemical compounds, i.e., ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), and aucubin were tested in this experiment.Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity. The methanol extracts of seeds also demonstrated the highest inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable activities to those of leaves and petioles. Furthermore, UA exhibited stronger activities than OA and aucubin.The seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti-inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation of P. major derived products with respect to anti-inflammatory.Amongst the parts of Plantago major, seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cell lines as well as the highest inhibition on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ productionThe roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable antiproliferative and cytokines inhibition activities to those of leaves and petiolesUrsolic acid, a chemical compound of Plantago major, exhibited stronger activities than oleanolic acid and aucubinThe seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation of Plantago major derived products with respect to anti inflammatory. Abbreviations used: TNF: Tumor Necrosis Factor; IL: Interleukin; IFN: Interferon; HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; UA: Ursolic Acid; OA: Oleanolic Acid; AUC: Aucubin.
Project description:Background:Marantodes pumilum is traditionally used for dysentery, gonorrhea, and sickness in the bones. Previous studies revealed its antibacterial and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Objective:To evaluate the inhibitory effects of three M. pumilum varieties on the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced cytokines and plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vitro. Materials and Methods:The leaves and roots of M. pumilum var. alata (MPA), M. pumilum var. pumila (MPP), and M. pumilum var. lanceolata (MPL) were successively extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), methanol, and water. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ELISA technique were used for the cytokine assay, whereas human plasma and radioimmunoassay technique were used in the PGE2 assay. Flavonoids content was determined using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Results:DCM extract of MPL roots showed the highest inhibition of LPS-stimulated cytokine secretion with IC50 values of 29.87, 7.62, 5.84, 25.33, and 5.40 ?g/mL for interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, respectively; while that of plasma PGE2 secretion was given by DCM extract of MPP roots (IC50 31.10 ?g/mL). Similarly, the DCM extract of MPL roots demonstrated the highest inhibition against MSU-stimulated IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, and PGE2 secretion with IC50 values of 11.2, 8.92, 12.29, 49.51, 9.60, and 31.58 ?g/mL, respectively. Apigenin in DCM extracts of MPL (0.051 mg/g) and MPP (0.064 mg/g) roots could be responsible for the strong inhibitory activity against IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and PGE2. Conclusion:The results suggested that DCM extracts of MPL and MPP roots are potential anti-inflammatory agents by inhibiting the secretion of LPS- and MSU-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2. SUMMARY:Amongst 18 tested extracts, DCM extracts of MPL and MPP roots remarkably inhibited LPS- and MSU-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 secretionPhytochemical analysis was performed for the active extracts using RP-HPLC systemThe presence of flavonoids particularly apigenin could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. Abbreviations used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin, COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2, CPM: Count per minute, DAMP: Danger-associated molecular pattern, DCM: Dichloromethane, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, H2O: Water, HEPES: 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid, HMC-1: Human mast cell-1, HMGB1: High-mobility group box 1, ICAM: Intercellular adhesion molecule, IFN: Interferon, IgG: Immunoglobulin G, IKK: IkB kinase, IL: Interleukin, iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, MeOH: Methanol, MPA: Marantodes pumilum var. alata, MPL: Marantodes pumilum var. lanceolata, MPP: Marantodes pumilum var. pumila, MSU: Monosodium urate, MTT: Methylthiazole tetrazolium, NF-?B: Nuclear factor-kappa B, NLR: NOD-like receptor, NLRP3: NLR family pyrin domain containing protein 3, NO: Nitric oxide, NOD: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, NSAID: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PAMP: Pathogen-associated molecular pattern, PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell, PBS: Phosphate buffered saline, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, PMACI: Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionosphere A23187, PRR: Pathogen recognition receptor, PTFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene, RIA: Radioimmunoassay, RIG: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I, RLR: RIG I-like receptor, RP-HPLC: Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, RPMI-1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640, TLR: Toll-like receptor, TNF: Tumor necrosis factor, VCAM: Vascular cell adhesion molecule.
Project description:Herbal extracts represent an ample source of natural compounds, with potential to be used in improving human health. There is a growing interest in using natural extracts as possible new treatment strategies for inflammatory diseases. We therefore aimed at identifying herbal extracts that affect inflammatory signaling pathways through toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2 and TLR4. Ninety-nine ethanolic extracts were screened in THP-1 monocytes and HeLa-TLR4 transfected reporter cells for their effects on stimulated TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. The 28 identified anti-inflammatory extracts were tested in comparative assays of stimulated HEK-TLR2 and HEK-TLR4 transfected reporter cells to differentiate between direct TLR4 antagonistic effects and interference with downstream signaling cascades. Furthermore, the ten most effective anti-inflammatory extracts were tested on their ability to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) translocation in HeLa-TLR4 transfected reporter cell lines and for their ability to repolarize M1-type macrophages. Ethanolic extracts which showed the highest anti-inflammatory potential, up to a complete inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production were Castanea sativa leaves, Cinchona pubescens bark, Cinnamomum verum bark, Salix alba bark, Rheum palmatum root, Alchemilla vulgaris plant, Humulus lupulus cones, Vaccinium myrtillus berries, Curcuma longa root and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaves. Moreover, all tested extracts mitigated not only TLR4, but also TLR2 signaling pathways. Seven of them additionally inhibited translocation of NF-?B into the nucleus. Two of the extracts showed impact on repolarization of pro-inflammatory M1-type to anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. Several promising anti-inflammatory herbal extracts were identified in this study, including extracts with previously unknown influence on key TLR signaling pathways and macrophage repolarization, serving as a basis for novel lead compound identification.
Project description:Mycobacteria develop strategies to evade the host immune system. Among them, mycobacterial LAM or PIMs inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages. Here, using synthetic PIM analogues, we analyzed the mode of action of PIM anti-inflammatory effects. Synthetic PIM(1) isomer and PIM(2) mimetic potently inhibit TNF and IL-12 p40 expression induced by TLR2 or TLR4 pathways, but not by TLR9, in murine macrophages. We show inhibition of LPS binding to TLR4/MD2/CD14 expressing HEK cells by PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues. More specifically, the binding of LPS to CD14 was inhibited by PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues. CD14 was dispensable for PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues functional inhibition of TLR2 agonists induced TNF, as shown in CD14-deficient macrophages. The use of rough-LPS, that stimulates TLR4 pathway independently of CD14, allowed to discriminate between CD14-dependent and CD14-independent anti-inflammatory effects of PIMs on LPS-induced macrophage responses. PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues inhibited LPS-induced TNF release by a CD14-dependent pathway, while IL-12 p40 inhibition was CD14-independent, suggesting that PIMs have multifold inhibitory effects on the TLR4 signalling pathway.
Project description:Excessive activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway is critical for inflammation-associated disorders, while negative regulators play key roles in restraining TLR4 from over-activation. Naringenin is a citrus flavonoid with remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanisms underlying its inhibition of LPS/TLR4 signalling are less clear. This study investigated the molecular targets and therapeutic effects of naringenin in vitro and in vivo. In LPS-stimulated murine macrophages, naringenin suppressed the expression of TNF-?, IL-6, TLR4, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2). Naringenin also inhibited NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, it did not affect the IRF3 signalling pathway or interferon production, which upregulate activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an inducible negative regulator of TLR4 signalling. Naringenin was demonstrated to directly increase ATF3 expression. Inhibition of AMPK and its upstream calcium-dependent signalling reduced ATF3 expression and dampened the anti-inflammatory activity of naringenin. In murine endotoxaemia models, naringenin ameliorated pro-inflammatory reactions and improved survival. Furthermore, it induced AMPK activation in lung tissues, which was required for ATF3 upregulation and the enhanced anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism of naringenin through AMPK-ATF3-dependent negative regulation of the LPS/TLR4 signalling pathway, which thereby confers protection against murine endotoxaemia.
Project description:Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%-7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, ?-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases.
Project description:Ethnopharmacological surveys on Portuguese flora reveal that Genista tridentata L. is a shrub used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various inflammation-related health problems, although scientific support of its benefits is still necessary. In order to establish the anti-inflammatory potential of G. tridentata and support its traditional use, ethanolic extracts of three sections of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) were subjected to in vitro evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulates macrophages as an inflammation model. Simultaneously, we also aimed to establish the extracts' flavonoids profile. The ethanolic extracts, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, profile of the three sections confirmed their richness in flavonoids, being three prenylated flavonoids isolated and characterized in the root, including a new natural compound, the 3-methoxymundulin. The extracts from the three plant sections showed strong antioxidant activity at the cellular level and significantly inhibit the LPS-triggered NO production by downregulating Nos2 gene transcription and consequently iNOS expression. Additionally, root and stem extracts also decreased the LPS-induced transcription of the pro-inflammatory genes Il1b, Il6, and Ptgs2. Thus, the results support the anti-inflammatory properties attributed to G. tridentate preparations. Relevantly, the roots of the shrub, plant part not used, is an unexplored source of compounds with pharmacological and nutraceutical value.