Commensal-specific T cell plasticity promotes rapid tissue adaptation to injury.
ABSTRACT: Barrier tissues are primary targets of environmental stressors and are home to the largest number of antigen-experienced lymphocytes in the body, including commensal-specific T cells. We found that skin-resident commensal-specific T cells harbor a paradoxical program characterized by a type 17 program associated with a poised type 2 state. Thus, in the context of injury and exposure to inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-18, these cells rapidly release type 2 cytokines, thereby acquiring contextual functions. Such acquisition of a type 2 effector program promotes tissue repair. Aberrant type 2 responses can also be unleashed in the context of local defects in immunoregulation. Thus, commensal-specific T cells co-opt tissue residency and cell-intrinsic flexibility as a means to promote both local immunity and tissue adaptation to injury.
Project description:The intestinal mucosal surface is in direct contact with a vast beneficial microbiota. The symbiotic nature of this relationship is threatened when the surface epithelium is injured, yet little is known about how mucosal surfaces maintain homeostasis with commensal microbes following damage. Gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes (gammadelta IEL) reside at the gut epithelial surface, where they stimulate mucosal healing following acute injury. A genome-wide analysis of the gammadelta IEL response to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic damage revealed induction of a complex transcriptional program, including coordinate regulation of cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial factors. Studies in germfree mice demonstrated that commensal microbiota regulate key components of this transcriptional program, thus revealing a dialogue between commensal bacteria and gammadelta IEL in injured epithelia. Analysis of TCRdelta-deficient mice indicated that gammadelta T cells are essential for controlling mucosal penetration of commensal bacteria immediately following dextran sulfate sodium-induced damage, suggesting that a key function of gammadelta IEL is to maintain host-microbial homeostasis following acute mucosal injury. Taken together, these findings disclose a reciprocal relationship between gammadelta T cells and intestinal microbiota that promotes beneficial host-microbial relationships in the intestine.
Project description:Commensal intestinal microbes are collectively beneficial in preventing local tissue injury and augmenting systemic antimicrobial immunity. However, given the near-exclusive focus on bacterial species in establishing these protective benefits, the contributions of other types of commensal microbes remain poorly defined. Here, we show that commensal fungi can functionally replace intestinal bacteria by conferring protection against injury to mucosal tissues and positively calibrating the responsiveness of circulating immune cells. Susceptibility to colitis and influenza A virus infection occurring upon commensal bacteria eradication is efficiently overturned by mono-colonization with either Candida albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protective benefits of commensal fungi are mediated by mannans, a highly conserved component of fungal cell walls, since intestinal stimulation with this moiety alone overrides disease susceptibility in mice depleted of commensal bacteria. Thus, commensal enteric fungi safeguard local and systemic immunity by providing tonic microbial stimulation that can functionally replace intestinal bacteria.
Project description:An increase of Escherichia-Shigella was previously reported in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). We investigated whether Escherichia coli MG1655, an Escherichia commensal organism, increased intestinal injury and aggravated ANP in rats. ANP was induced by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Using gut microbiota-depleted rats, we demonstrated that gut microbiota was involved in the pancreatic injury and intestinal barrier dysfunction in ANP. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR, we found intestinal dysbiosis and a significant increase of E. coli MG1655 in ANP. Afterward, administration of E. coli MG1655 by gavage to gut microbiota-depleted rats with ANP was performed. We observed that after ANP induction, E. coli MG1655-monocolonized rats presented more severe injury in the pancreas and intestinal barrier function than gut microbiota-depleted rats. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAPK) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activation in intestinal epithelial cells were also increased more significantly in the MG1655-monocolonized ANP rats. In vitro, the rat ileal epithelial cell line IEC-18 displayed aggravated tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammation and loss of tight-junction proteins in coculture with E. coli MG1655, as well as TLR4, MyD88, and Bip upregulation. In conclusion, our study shows that commensal E. coli MG1655 increases TLR4/MyD88/p38 MAPK and ERS signaling-induced intestinal epithelial injury and aggravates ANP in rats. Our study also describes the harmful potential of commensal E. coli in ANP.IMPORTANCE This study describes the harmful potential of commensal E. coli in ANP, which has not been demonstrated in previous studies. Our work provides new insights into gut bacterium-ANP cross talk, suggesting that nonpathogenic commensals could also exhibit adverse effects in the context of diseases.
Project description:The skin represents the primary interface between the host and the environment. This organ is also home to trillions of microorganisms that play an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse and can be remodelled over time or in response to environmental challenges. How, in the context of this complexity, individual commensal microorganisms may differentially modulate skin immunity and the consequences of these responses for tissue physiology remains unclear. Here we show that defined commensals dominantly affect skin immunity and identify the cellular mediators involved in this specification. In particular, colonization with Staphylococcus epidermidis induces IL-17A(+) CD8(+) T cells that home to the epidermis, enhance innate barrier immunity and limit pathogen invasion. Commensal-specific T-cell responses result from the coordinated action of skin-resident dendritic cell subsets and are not associated with inflammation, revealing that tissue-resident cells are poised to sense and respond to alterations in microbial communities. This interaction may represent an evolutionary means by which the skin immune system uses fluctuating commensal signals to calibrate barrier immunity and provide heterologous protection against invasive pathogens. These findings reveal that the skin immune landscape is a highly dynamic environment that can be rapidly and specifically remodelled by encounters with defined commensals, findings that have profound implications for our understanding of tissue-specific immunity and pathologies.
Project description:Under steady-state conditions, the immune system is poised to sense and respond to the microbiota. As such, immunity to the microbiota, including T cell responses, is expected to precede any inflammatory trigger. How this pool of preformed microbiota-specific T cells contributes to tissue pathologies remains unclear. Here, using an experimental model of psoriasis, we show that recall responses to commensal skin fungi can significantly aggravate tissue inflammation. Enhanced pathology caused by fungi preexposure depends on Th17 responses and neutrophil extracellular traps and recapitulates features of the transcriptional landscape of human lesional psoriatic skin. Together, our results propose that recall responses directed to skin fungi can directly promote skin inflammation and that exploration of tissue inflammation should be assessed in the context of recall responses to the microbiota.
Project description:Translocation of bacteria and their products across the intestinal barrier is common in patients with liver disease, and there is evidence that experimental liver fibrosis depends on bacterial translocation. The purpose of our study was to investigate liver fibrosis in conventional and germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice. Chronic liver injury was induced by administration of thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water for 21 wk or by repeated intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Increased liver fibrosis was observed in GF mice compared with conventional mice. Hepatocytes showed more toxin-induced oxidative stress and cell death. This was accompanied by increased activation of hepatic stellate cells, but hepatic mediators of inflammation were not significantly different. Similarly, a genetic model using Myd88/Trif-deficient mice, which lack downstream innate immunity signaling, had more severe fibrosis than wild-type mice. Isolated Myd88/Trif-deficient hepatocytes were more susceptible to toxin-induced cell death in culture. In conclusion, the commensal microbiota prevents fibrosis upon chronic liver injury in mice. This is the first study describing a beneficial role of the commensal microbiota in maintaining liver homeostasis and preventing liver fibrosis.
Project description:Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined. Here we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Murine norovirus (MNV) infection of germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice restored intestinal morphology and lymphocyte function without inducing overt inflammation and disease. The presence of MNV also suppressed an expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells observed in the absence of bacteria, and induced transcriptional changes in the intestine associated with immune development and type I interferon (IFN) signalling. Consistent with this observation, the IFN-? receptor was essential for the ability of MNV to compensate for bacterial depletion. Importantly, MNV infection offset the deleterious effect of treatment with antibiotics in models of intestinal injury and pathogenic bacterial infection. These data indicate that eukaryotic viruses have the capacity to support intestinal homeostasis and shape mucosal immunity, similarly to commensal bacteria.
Project description:As the incidence of immune-mediated diseases has increased rapidly in developed societies, there is an unmet need for novel prophylactic practices to fight against these maladies. This study is the first human intervention trial in which urban environmental biodiversity was manipulated to examine its effects on the commensal microbiome and immunoregulation in children. We analyzed changes in the skin and gut microbiota and blood immune markers of children during a 28-day biodiversity intervention. Children in standard urban and nature-oriented daycare centers were analyzed for comparison. The intervention diversified both the environmental and skin Gammaproteobacterial communities, which, in turn, were associated with increases in plasma TGF-?1 levels and the proportion of regulatory T cells. The plasma IL-10:IL-17A ratio increased among intervention children during the trial. Our findings suggest that biodiversity intervention enhances immunoregulatory pathways and provide an incentive for future prophylactic approaches to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases in urban societies.
Project description:Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neutrophil development and function. The presence of a microbiota resulted in increased neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase expression, and altered neutrophil localization and migratory behaviours. These effects of the microbiota on neutrophil homeostasis were accompanied by an increased recruitment of neutrophils to injury. Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours. In vitro studies revealed that zebrafish cells respond to Saa exposure by activating NF-?B, and that Saa-dependent neutrophil migration requires NF-?B-dependent gene expression. These results implicate the commensal microbiota as an important environmental factor regulating diverse aspects of systemic neutrophil development and function, and reveal a critical role for a Saa-NF-?B signalling axis in mediating neutrophil migratory responses.
Project description:Immature mucosal defenses contribute to increased susceptibility of newborn infants to pathogens. Sparse knowledge of age-dependent changes in mucosal immunity has hampered improvements in neonatal morbidity because of infections. We report that exposure of neonatal mice to commensal bacteria immediately after birth is required for a robust host defense against bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of death in newborn infants. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (IL-22+ILC3) into the lungs of newborn mice. This influx was dependent on sensing of commensal bacteria by intestinal mucosal dendritic cells. Disruption of postnatal commensal colonization or selective depletion of dendritic cells interrupted the migratory program of lung IL-22+ILC3 and made the newborn mice more susceptible to pneumonia, which was reversed by transfer of commensal bacteria after birth. Thus, the resistance of newborn mice to pneumonia relied on commensal bacteria-directed ILC3 influx into the lungs, which mediated IL-22-dependent host resistance to pneumonia during this developmental window. These data establish that postnatal colonization by intestinal commensal bacteria is pivotal in the development of the lung defenses of newborns.