Boosting the sterile insect technique with pyriproxyfen increases tsetse flies Glossina palpalis gambiensis sterilization in controlled conditions.
ABSTRACT: Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the main vectors of animal and human trypanosomoses in Africa. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has proven effective in controlling tsetse flies when applied to isolated populations but necessitates the production of large numbers of sterile males. A new approach, called boosted SIT, combining SIT with the contamination of wild females by sterile males coated with biocides has been proposed for large-scale control of vector populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate this new approach using pyriproxyfen on the riverine species Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Vanderplank, 1949) in the laboratory. The contamination dose and persistence of pyriproxyfen on sterile males, the impact of pyriproxyfen on male survival, and the dynamics of pyriproxyfen transfer from a sterile male to a female during mating, as well as the impact of pyriproxyfen on pupal production and adult emergence, were evaluated in the laboratory. For this purpose, a method of treatment by impregnating sterile males with a powder containing 40% pyriproxyfen has been developed. The results showed that the pyriproxyfen has no impact on the survival of sterile males. Pyriproxyfen persisted on sterile males for up to 10 days at a dose of 100?ng per fly. In addition, the horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen from a treated sterile male to a female during mating could be measured with an average of 50?ng of pyriproxyfen transferred. After contacts without mating, the average quantity transferred was more than 10?ng. Finally, the pyriproxyfen powder was very effective on G. p. gambiensis leading to 0% emergence of the pupae produced by contaminated females. These promising results must be confirmed in the field. A large-scale assessment of this boosted pyriproxyfen-based SIT approach will be carried out against tsetse flies in Senegal (West Africa).
Project description:Tsetse eradication continues to be a top priority for African governments including that of Senegal, which embarked on a project to eliminate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, following an area-wide integrated pest management approach with an SIT component. A successful SIT programme requires competitive sterile males of high biological quality. This may be hampered by handling processes including irradiation and the release mechanisms, necessitating continued improvement of these processes, to maintain the quality of flies. A new prototype of an automated chilled adult release system (Bruno Spreader Innovation, (BSI™)) for tsetse flies was tested for its accuracy (in counting) and release rate consistency. Also, its impact on the quality of the released sterile males was evaluated on performance indicators, including flight propensity, mating competitiveness, premating and mating duration, insemination rate of mated females and survival of male flies. The BSITM release system accurately counted and homogenously released flies at the lowest motor speed set (0.6 rpm), at a consistent rate of 60±9.58 males/min. Also, the release process, chilling (6 ± 1°C) and passing of flies through the machine) had no significant negative impact on the male flight propensity, mating competitiveness, premating and mating durations and the insemination rates. Only the survival of flies was negatively affected whether under feeding or starvation. The positive results of this study show that the BSI™ release system is promising for use in future tsetse SIT programmes. However, the negative impact of the release process on survival of flies needs to be addressed in future studies and results of this study confirmed under operational field conditions in West Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5' end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.
Project description:Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT) where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia), without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo)) females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt)) males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can be used successfully as a gene driver. This lays the foundation for new disease control methods including a population replacement approach with parasite resistant flies. Alternatively, the availability of males that are reproductively incompatible with natural populations can enhance the efficacy of the ongoing sterile insect technique (SIT) applications by eliminating the need for chemical irradiation.
Project description:Tsetse flies are cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomosis and nagana or African Animal Trypanosomosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Insectarium de Bobo-Dioulasso (IBD) was created and equipped in the frame of Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) with the main goal to provide sterile males for the different eradication programs in West Africa which is already the case with the ongoing eradication program in Senegal. The aim of this study was to identify the best feeding regime in mass-rearing colonies of Glossina palpalis gambiensis to optimize the yield of sterile males. We investigated the mortality and fecundity for various feeding regimes and day alternation (3×: Monday-Wednesday-Friday, 4×: Monday-Wednesday-Friday-Saturday, 4×: Monday-Wednesday-Thursday-Friday and 6×: all days except Sunday) on adult tsetse flies in routine rearing over 60 days after emergence. The day alternation in the 4 blood meals per week (feeding regimes 2 and 3) had no effect on tsetse fly mortality and fecundity. The best feeding regime was the regime of 4 blood meals per week which resulted in higher significant fecundity (PPIF = 2.5; P = 0.003) combined with lower mortality of females (P = 0.0003) than the 3 blood meals per week (PPIF = 2.0) and in similar fecundity (PPIF = 2.6; P = 0.70) and mortality (P = 0.51) than the 6 blood meals per week. This feeding regime was extended to the whole colonies, resulting in an improved yield of sterile males for the ongoing eradication program in Senegal and would be more cost-effective for the implementation of the next-coming sterile insect technique (SIT) programs in West Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the cyclical vectors of the causative agents of African Trypanosomosis, which has been identified as a neglected tropical disease in both humans and animals in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has shown to be a powerful method to manage tsetse fly populations when used in the frame of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) program. To date, the release of sterile males to manage tsetse fly populations has only been implemented in areas to reduce transmission of animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT). The implementation of the SIT in areas with Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) would require additional measures to eliminate the potential risk associated with the release of sterile males that require blood meals to survive and hence, might contribute to disease transmission. Paratransgenesis offers the potential to develop tsetse flies that are refractory to trypanosome infection by modifying their associated bacteria (Sodalis glossinidius) here after referred to as Sodalis. Here we assessed the feasibility of combining the paratransgenesis approach with SIT by analyzing the impact of ionizing radiation on the copy number of Sodalis and the vectorial capacity of sterilized tsetse males. RESULTS:Adult Glossina morsitans morsitans that emerged from puparia irradiated on day 22 post larviposition did not show a significant decline in Sodalis copy number as compared with non-irradiated flies. Conversely, the Sodalis copy number was significantly reduced in adults that emerged from puparia irradiated on day 29 post larviposition and in adults irradiated on day 7 post emergence. Moreover, irradiating 22-day old puparia reduced the copy number of Wolbachia and Wigglesworthia in emerged adults as compared with non-irradiated controls, but the radiation treatment had no significant impact on the vectorial competence of the flies. CONCLUSION:Although the radiation treatment significantly reduced the copy number of some tsetse fly symbionts, the copy number of Sodalis recovered with time in flies irradiated as 22-day old puparia. This recovery offers the opportunity to combine a paratransgenesis approach - using modified Sodalis to produce males refractory to trypanosome infection - with the release of sterile males to minimize the risk of disease transmission, especially in HAT endemic areas. Moreover, irradiation did not increase the vector competence of the flies for trypanosomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the vectors of African trypanosomosis, the causal agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is one of the most important tsetse vectors of sleeping sickness, particularly in Central Africa. Due to the development of resistance of the trypanosomes to the commonly used trypanocidal drugs and the lack of effective vaccines, vector control approaches remain the most effective strategies for sustainable management of those diseases. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an effective, environment-friendly method for the management of tsetse flies in the context of area-wide integrated pest management programs (AW-IPM). This technique relies on the mass-production of the target insect, its sterilization with ionizing radiation and the release of sterile males in the target area where they will mate with wild females and induce sterility in the native population. It has been shown that Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) infection causes a decrease in fecundity and fertility hampering the maintenance of colonies of the tsetse fly G. pallidipes. This virus has also been detected in different species of tsetse files. In this study, we evaluated the impact of GpSGHV on the performance of a colony of the heterologous host G. f. fuscipes, including the flies' productivity, mortality, survival, flight propensity and mating ability and insemination rates. RESULTS:Even though GpSGHV infection did not induce SGH symptoms, it significantly reduced all examined parameters, except adult flight propensity and insemination rate. CONCLUSION:These results emphasize the important role of GpSGHV management strategy in the maintenance of G. f. fuscipes colonies and the urgent need to implement measures to avoid virus infection, to ensure the optimal mass production of this tsetse species for use in AW-IPM programs with an SIT component.
Project description:The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae) is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae) collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics) and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.
Project description:Tsetse flies are vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in sub-Saharan Africa and are the target of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) is a riverine species that is still present as an isolated metapopulation in the Niayes area of Senegal. It is targeted by a national eradication campaign combining a population reduction phase based on insecticide-treated targets (ITTs) and cattle and an eradication phase based on the sterile insect technique. In this study, we used species distribution models to optimize control operations. We compared the probability of the presence of G. p. gambiensis and habitat suitability using a regularized logistic regression and Maxent, respectively. Both models performed well, with an area under the curve of 0.89 and 0.92, respectively. Only the Maxent model predicted an expert-based classification of landscapes correctly. Maxent predictions were therefore used throughout the eradication campaign in the Niayes to make control operations more efficient in terms of deployment of ITTs, release density of sterile males, and location of monitoring traps used to assess program progress. We discuss how the models' results informed about the particular ecology of tsetse in the target area. Maxent predictions allowed optimizing efficiency and cost within our project, and might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns in the framework of the PATTEC and, more generally, other vector or insect pest control programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) display unique reproductive biology traits. Females reproduce through adenotrophic viviparity, nourishing the growing larva into their modified uterus until parturition. Males transfer their sperm and seminal fluid, produced by both testes and male accessory glands, in a spermatophore capsule transiently formed within the female reproductive tract upon mating. Both sexes are obligate blood feeders and have evolved tight relationships with endosymbionts, already shown to provide essential nutrients lacking in their diet. However, the partnership between tsetse and its symbionts has so far been investigated, at the molecular, genomic and metabolomics level, only in females, whereas the roles of microbiota in male reproduction are still unexplored. RESULTS:Here we begin unravelling the impact of microbiota on Glossina m. morsitans (G. morsitans) male reproductive biology by generating transcriptomes from the reproductive tissues of males deprived of their endosymbionts (aposymbiotic) via maternal antibiotic treatment and dietary supplementation. We then compared the transcriptional profiles of genes expressed in the male reproductive tract of normal and these aposymbiotic flies. We showed that microbiota removal impacts several male reproductive genes by depressing the activity of genes in the male accessory glands (MAGs), including sequences encoding seminal fluid proteins, and increasing expression of genes in the testes. In the MAGs, in particular, the expression of genes related to mating, immunity and seminal fluid components' synthesis is reduced. In the testes, the absence of symbionts activates genes involved in the metabolic apparatus at the basis of male reproduction, including sperm production, motility and function. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings mirrored the complementary roles male accessory glands and testes play in supporting male reproduction and open new avenues for disentangling the interplay between male insects and endosymbionts. From an applied perspective, unravelling the metabolic and functional relationships between tsetse symbionts and male reproductive physiology will provide fundamental information useful to understanding the biology underlying improved male reproductive success in tsetse. This information is of particular importance in the context of tsetse population control via Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and its impact on trypanosomiasis transmission.