ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Lissencephaly is a brain malformation characterized by smooth and thickened cerebral surface, which may result in structural epilepsy. Lissencephaly is not common in veterinary medicine. Here, we characterize the first cases of lissencephaly in four Shih Tzu dogs, including clinical presentations and findings of magnetic resonance imaging of lissencephaly and several concomitant brain malformations. CASE PRESENTATION:Early-onset acute signs of forebrain abnormalities were observed in all dogs, which were mainly cluster seizures and behavioral alterations. Based on neurological examination, the findings were consistent with symmetrical and bilateral forebrain lesions. Metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging for three dogs showed diffuse neocortical agyria and thickened gray matter while one dog had mixed agyria and pachygyria. Other features, such as internal hydrocephalus, supracollicular fluid accumulation, and corpus callosum hypoplasia, were detected concomitantly. Antiepileptic drugs effectively controlled cluster seizures, however, sporadic isolated seizures and signs of forebrain abnormalities, such as behavioral alterations, central blindness, and strabismus persisted. CONCLUSIONS:Lissencephaly should be considered an important differential diagnosis in Shih Tzu dogs presenting with early-onset signs of forebrain abnormalities, including cluster seizures and behavioral alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging was appropriate for ante-mortem diagnosis of lissencephaly and associated cerebral anomalies.
Project description:Type I lissencephaly or agyria-pachygyria is a rare developmental disorder which results from a defect of neuronal migration. It is characterized by the absence of gyri and a thickening of the cerebral cortex and can be associated with other brain and visceral anomalies. Since the discovery of the first genetic cause (deletion of chromosome 17p13.3), six additional genes have been found to be responsible for agyria-pachygyria. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge concerning these genetic disorders including clinical, neuropathological and molecular results. Genetic alterations of LIS1, DCX, ARX, TUBA1A, VLDLR, RELN and more recently WDR62 genes cause migrational abnormalities along with more complex and subtle anomalies affecting cell proliferation and differentiation, i.e., neurite outgrowth, axonal pathfinding, axonal transport, connectivity and even myelination. The number and heterogeneity of clinical, neuropathological and radiological defects suggest that type I lissencephaly now includes several forms of cerebral malformations. In vitro experiments and mutant animal studies, along with neuropathological abnormalities in humans are of invaluable interest for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, highlighting the central role of cytoskeletal dynamics required for a proper achievement of cell proliferation, neuronal migration and differentiation.
Project description:Background: Pituitary tumours are common neoplasms of the sellar region in small animals. However, detailed information regarding the spectrum and severity of possible neurological signs are lacking. Objective: To retrospectively describe the neurological abnormalities in a population of dogs with a detectable pituitary mass (DPM) and relate them with the size of the mass and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of brain compression (BC). Client-owned dogs were included in the study if they had MRI showing a DPM and a detailed neurological examination. The neurological signs were evaluated in relation to the pituitary height/brain ratio (P:B ratio) and the presence/absence of brain compression. Results: Ninety-seven dogs were enrolled. Besides abnormal mentation and behaviour (77%), gait (61%) and cranial nerve abnormalities (44%), other unreported neurological signs observed included postural abnormalities (21%), pain and/or hyperesthesia (25%) and abnormal postural and proprioceptive reactions (49%). The majority of dogs with DPM had signs of BC. The presence of a high pituitary height/brain area and BC represented a risk factor for developing mental status abnormalities. Conclusion: Neurological signs recorded in DPM-affected dogs include not only the typical forebrain signs but also gait disturbances and hyperesthesia. Neurological signs are positively associated with increased P:B ratio and MRI signs of brain compression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Enzymatic activity of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) is important in maintaining the telomere length and has been implicated in cancer and aging related pathology. Since cancer susceptibility as well as longevity of dogs vary between breeds, this study involved sequencing the entire TERT gene of Canis familiaris from DNA samples obtained from forty dogs, with ten dogs each of four breeds: Shih Tzu, Dachshund, Irish Wolfhound, and Newfoundland, each with different life expectancies and susceptibility to cancer. RESULTS: We compared the sequences of all forty individuals amongst one another and with the published sequence of canine TERT, and analyzed relationships between members of the same or different breeds. Two separate phylogenetic trees were generated and analyzed from these individuals. Polymorphisms were found most frequently in intronic regions of the gene, although exonic polymorphisms also were observed. In many locations genotypes were observed that were either homozygous for the reference sequence or heterozygous, but the variant homozygous genotype was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that these homozygous variants are likely to have adverse effects in dogs. It was also found that the polymorphisms did not segregate by breed. Because the four breeds chosen come from geographically and physiologically distinct backgrounds, it can be inferred that the polymorphic diversification of TERT preceded breed derivation.
Project description:The term meningoencephalocele (MEC) describes a herniation of cerebral tissue and meninges through a defect in the cranium, whereas a meningocele (MC) is a herniation of the meninges alone.To describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and outcomes of dogs with cranial MC and MEC.Twenty-two client-owned dogs diagnosed with cranial MC or MEC.Multicentric retrospective descriptive study. Clinical records of 13 institutions were reviewed. Signalment, clinical history, neurologic findings and MRI characteristics as well as treatment and outcome were recorded and evaluated.Most affected dogs were presented at a young age (median, 6.5 months; range, 1 month - 8 years). The most common presenting complaints were seizures and behavioral abnormalities. Intranasal MEC was more common than parietal MC. Magnetic resonance imaging identified meningeal enhancement of the protruded tissue in 77% of the cases. Porencephaly was seen in all cases with parietal MC. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis identified mild abnormalities in 4 of 11 cases. Surgery was not performed in any affected dog. Seventeen patients were treated medically, and seizures were adequately controlled with anti-epileptic drugs in 10 dogs. Dogs with intranasal MEC and mild neurologic signs had a fair prognosis with medical treatment.Although uncommon, MC and MEC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young dogs presenting with seizures or alterations in behavior. Medical treatment is a valid option with a fair prognosis when the neurologic signs are mild.
Project description:Neutering (including spaying) of male and female dogs in the first year after birth has become routine in the U.S. and much of Europe, but recent research reveals that for some dog breeds, neutering may be associated with increased risks of debilitating joint disorders and some cancers, complicating pet owners' decisions on neutering. The joint disorders include hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear or rupture, and elbow dysplasia. The cancers include lymphoma, mast cell tumor, hemangiosarcoma, and osteosarcoma. In previous studies on the Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever and German Shepherd Dog, neutering before a year of age was associated with increased risks of one or more joint disorders, 2-4 times that of intact dogs. The increase was particularly seen with dogs neutered by 6 months of age. In female Golden Retrievers, there was an increase in one or more of the cancers followed to about 2-4 times that of intact females with neutering at any age. The goal of the present study was to expand and use the same data collection and analyses to cover an additional 29 breeds, plus three varieties of Poodles. There were major breed differences in vulnerability to neutering, both with regard to joint disorders and cancers. In most cases, the caregiver can choose the age of neutering without increasing the risks of these joint disorders or cancers. Small-dog breeds seemed to have no increased risks of joint disorders associated with neutering, and in only two small breeds (Boston Terrier and Shih Tzu) was there a significant increase in cancers. To assist pet owners and veterinarians in deciding on the age of neutering a specific dog, guidelines that avoid increasing the risks of a dog acquiring these joint disorders or cancers are laid out for neutering ages on a breed-by-breed and sex basis.
Project description:This study describes the multimodal imaging characteristics of pedunculated liver masses in seven dogs [Cocker Spaniel (<i>n</i> = 2), Maltese (<i>n</i> = 1), Shih-Tzu (<i>n</i> = 2), and Schnauzer (<i>n</i> = 2)]. These masses are anatomic variants of hepatic masses in which the center of the mass lies outside the liver contour. Prior to referral, only one dog had been diagnosed with a hepatic mass, four had been diagnosed with mid-abdominal masses of unknown origin, and two had been misdiagnosed with splenic head and pancreatic masses. Using radiographs, the mass locations were classified as cranioventral (<i>n</i> = 3), mid-abdominal (<i>n</i> = 2), or craniodorsal (<i>n</i> = 2). The gastric axis was deviated in various directions in four cases. Based on computed tomography (CT) findings, the masses were noted to originate from every liver lobe (two from the left lateral lobe) and to possess parenchymal (<i>n</i> = 6) or vascular (<i>n</i> = 1) pedicles. The histopathological results showed that three masses were benign [hepatic adenoma (<i>n</i> = 1) and nodular hyperplasia (<i>n</i> = 2)] and four were malignant [hepatocellular carcinoma (<i>n</i> = 3) and cholangiocarcinoma (<i>n</i> = 1)]. For three dogs, triple-phase CT maximum intensity projection images in the arterial phase clearly showed that the masses were connected to the hepatic artery. We propose that a pedunculated liver mass should be considered as a differential diagnosis when a mass is located in the mid-abdomen, even if it is separated from the liver and with the gastric axis deviated in various directions. We consider CT imaging to be a useful tool for diagnosis, evaluation, and surgical planning in dogs with a pedunculated liver mass.
Project description:This study included four dog groups (group A: 10 healthy dogs, group B: 9 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy receiving antiepileptic medication-AEM, group C: 8 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy without AEM administration and group D: 7 dogs with seizures due to structural brain abnormalities). The epileptic dogs were allocated into these 3 groups after a diagnostic investigation that included laboratory testing, thoracic radiographic and abdominal ultrasonographic examination, brain imaging, CSF routine and proteomic analysis. The purpose of the current study was to investigate and compare the proteomic profile among the four groups of dogs.
Project description:Cobblestone lissencephaly is a peculiar brain malformation with characteristic radiological anomalies. It is defined as cortical dysplasia that results when neuroglial overmigration into the arachnoid space forms an extracortical layer that produces agyria and/or a "cobblestone" brain surface and ventricular enlargement. Cobblestone lissencephaly is pathognomonic of a continuum of autosomal-recessive diseases characterized by cerebral, ocular, and muscular deficits. These include Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Fukuyama muscular dystrophy. Mutations in POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, LARGE, FKTN, and FKRP identified these diseases as alpha-dystroglycanopathies. Our exhaustive screening of these six genes, in a cohort of 90 fetal cases, led to the identification of a mutation in only 53% of the families, suggesting that other genes might also be involved. We therefore decided to perform a genome-wide study in two multiplex families. This allowed us to identify two additional genes: TMEM5 and ISPD. Because TMEM has a glycosyltransferase domain and ISPD has an isoprenoid synthase domain characteristic of nucleotide diP-sugar transferases, these two proteins are thought to be involved in the glycosylation of dystroglycan. Further screening of 40 families with cobblestone lissencephaly identified nonsense and frameshift mutations in another four unrelated cases for each gene, increasing the mutational rate to 64% in our cohort. All these cases displayed a severe phenotype of cobblestone lissencephaly A. TMEM5 mutations were frequently associated with gonadal dysgenesis and neural tube defects, and ISPD mutations were frequently associated with brain vascular anomalies.
Project description:A 5-year-old Shih Tzu was presented with intermittent vomiting and anorexia. Microhepatica and reversed position of the abdominal organs were observed on radiography. Ultrasonographically, portosystemic shunt (PSS) was tentatively diagnosed. Computed tomography (CT) revealed that the distended portal vein drained into the left hepatic vein. The caudal vena cava (CdVC) split postrenally and converged at the renal level. Cranial to this, the azygos continuation of the CdVC was confirmed. In the thorax, a persistent left cranial vena cava (CrVC) was found along with right CrVC. This is the first report of a dog with persistent left CrVC and multiple abdominal malformations. CT angiography was useful in evaluating the characteristics of each vascular anomaly and determining the required surgical correction in this complex case.
Project description:To determine the involvement of the midbrain and hindbrain (MHB) in the groups of classic (cLIS), variant (vLIS), and cobblestone complex (CBSC) lissencephalies and to determine whether a correlation exists between the cerebral malformation and the MHB abnormalities.MRI scans of 111 patients (aged 1 day to 32 years; mean 5 years 4 months) were retrospectively reviewed. After reviewing the brain involvement on MRI, the cases were reclassified according to known mutation (LIS1, DCX, ARX, VLDLR, RELN, MEB, WWS) or mutation phenotype (LIS1-P, DCX-P, RELN-P, ARX-P, VLDLR-P) determined on the basis of characteristic MRI features. Abnormalities in the MHB were then recorded. For each structure, a score was assigned, ranging from 0 (normal) to 3 (severely abnormal). The differences between defined groups and the correlation between the extent of brain agyria/pachygyria and MHB involvement were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and chi(2) McNemar tests.There was a significant difference in MHB appearance among the three major groups of cLIS, vLIS, and CBSC. The overall score showed a severity gradient of MHB involvement: cLIS (0 or 1), vLIS (7), and CBSC (11 or 12). The extent of cerebral lissencephaly was significantly correlated with the severity of MHB abnormalities (p = 0.0029).Our study focused on posterior fossa anomalies, which are an integral part of cobblestone complex lissencephalies but previously have not been well categorized for other lissencephalies. According to our results and the review of the literature, we propose a new classification of human lissencephalies.