Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes in severe novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases.
ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ensuing worldwide pandemic. The spread of the virus has had global effects such as activity restriction, economic stagnation, and collapse of healthcare infrastructure. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a cytokine storm, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure, which are very serious health conditions and must be mitigated or resolved as soon as possible. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes can affect immune cells by inducing anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T and B cells, and regulatory dendritic cells, and can inactivate T cells. Hence, they are potential candidate agents for treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. In this review, we report the background of severe cases of COVID-19, basic aspects and mechanisms of action of MSCs and their exosomes, and discuss basic and clinical studies based on MSCs and exosomes for influenza-induced ARDS. Finally, we report the potential of MSC and exosome therapy in severe cases of COVID-19 in recently initiated or planned clinical trials of MSCs (33 trials) and exosomes (1 trial) registered in 13 countries on ClinicalTrials.gov.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The severe form of the disease is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and most critically ill patients require mechanical ventilation and support in intensive care units. A significant portion of COVID-19 patients also develop complications of the cardiovascular system, primarily acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, or heart failure. To date, no specific antiviral therapy is available for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being explored for the management of a number of diseases that currently have limited or no therapeutic options, thanks to their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and pro-angiogenic properties. Here, we briefly introduce the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications in the heart and lungs. Next, we describe some of the most significant clinical evidence of the successful use of MSC-derived exosomes in animal models of lung and heart injuries, which might strengthen our hypothesis in terms of their utility for also treating critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have immune regulatory and tissue regenerative properties. MSCs are being studied as a therapy option for many inflammatory and immune disorders and are approved to treat acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and associated coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) has claimed many lives. Innovative therapies are needed. Preliminary data using MSCs in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 are emerging. We review mechanisms of action of MSCs in inflammatory and immune conditions and discuss a potential role in persons with COVID-19.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the coronaviridae that causes respiratory disorders. After infection, large amounts of inflammatory cytokines are secreted, known as the cytokine storm. These cytokines can cause pulmonary damage induced by inflammation resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. One of the therapeutic approaches for treatment of ARDS is a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). MSCs suppress inflammation and reduce lung injury through their immunomodulatory properties. MSCs also have the potential to prevent apoptosis of the lung cells and regenerate them. But our suggestion is using MSCs-derived exosomes. Because these exosomes apply the same immunomodulatory and tissue repair effects of MSCs and they don't have problems associated to cell maintenance and injections. For investigation the hypothesis, MSCs should be isolated from tissues and characterized. Then, the exosomes should be isolated from the supernatants and characterized. These exosomes should be injected into a transgenic animal for COVID-19. In the final section, lung function assessment, histological examination, micro-CT, differential leukocyte, viral load analysis, cytokine assay, and CRP level analysis can be investigated. COVID-19 treatment is currently focused on supportive therapies and no vaccine has been developed for it. So, numerous researches are needed to find potential therapies. Since the pathogenesis of this disease was identified in previous studies and can cause lung injury with ARDS, investigation of the therapeutic approaches that can suppress inflammation, cytokine storm and ARDS can be helpful in finding a novel therapeutic approach for this disease.
Project description:More than seven months into the coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) pandemic, infection from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to over 21.2 million cases and resulted in over 760,000 deaths worldwide so far. As a result, COVID-19 has changed all our lives as we battle to curtail the spread of the infection in the absence of specific therapies against coronaviruses and in anticipation of a proven safe and efficacious vaccine. Common with previous outbreaks of coronavirus infections, SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that arises due to an imbalanced immune response. While several repurposed antiviral and host-response drugs are under examination as potential treatments, other novel therapeutics are also being explored to alleviate the effects on critically ill patients. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for COVID-19 has become an attractive avenue down which almost 70 different clinical trial teams have ventured. Successfully trialled for the treatment of other conditions such as multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis and graft versus host disease, MSCs possess both regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, the latter of which can be harnessed to reduce the severity and longevity of ARDS in patients under intensive care due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing lethal acute respiratory disease emerged in December 2019. The World Health Organization named this disease "COVID-19" and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Many studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes (MSCs-Exo), which are isolated from allogenic bone marrow stem cells, significantly lower the risk of alveolar inflammation and other pathological conditions associated with distinct lung injuries. For example, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia patients, MSCs-Exo and MSCs provide similar healing properties and some clinical trials have used cell-based inhalation therapy which show great promise. MSCs and MSCs-Exo have shown potential in clinical trials as a therapeutic tool for severely affected COVID-19 patients when compared to other cell-based therapies, which may face challenges like the cells' sticking to the respiratory tract epithelia during administration. However, the use of MSCs or MSCs-Exo for treating COVID-19 should strictly adhere to the appropriate manufacturing practices, quality control measurements, preclinical safety and efficacy data, and the proper ethical regulations. This review highlights the available clinical trials that support the therapeutic potential of MSCs or MSCs-Exo in severely affected COVID-19 patients.
Project description:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elicited a swift response by the scientific community to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced lung injury and develop effective therapeutics. Clinical data indicate that severe COVID-19 most commonly manifests as viral pneumonia-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinical entity mechanistically understood best in the context of influenza A virus-induced pneumonia. Similar to influenza, advanced age has emerged as the leading host risk factor for developing severe COVID-19. In this review we connect the current understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle and host response to the clinical presentation of COVID-19, borrowing concepts from influenza A virus-induced ARDS pathogenesis and discussing how these ideas inform our evolving understanding of COVID-19-induced ARDS. We also consider important differences between COVID-19 and influenza, mainly the protean clinical presentation and associated lymphopenia of COVID-19, the contrasting role of interferon-? in mediating the host immune response to these viruses, and the tropism for vascular endothelial cells of SARS-CoV-2, commenting on the potential limitations of influenza as a model for COVID-19. Finally, we explore hallmarks of ageing that could explain the association between advanced age and susceptibility to severe COVID-19.
Project description:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health crisis with an extremely rapid progress resulting in thousands of patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) treatment who may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). So far, no specific antiviral therapeutic agent has been demonstrated to be effective for COVID-19; therefore, the clinical management is largely supportive and depends on the patients' immune response leading to a cytokine storm followed by lung edema, dysfunction of air exchange, and ARDS, which could lead to multiorgan failure and death. Given that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various tissue sources have revealed successful clinical outcomes in many immunocompromised disorders by inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the microenvironment, there is a growing demand for MSC infusions in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS in the ICU. In this review, we have documented the rationale and possible outcomes of compassionate use of MSCs, particularly in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections, toward proving or disproving the efficacy of this approach in the near future. Many centers have registered and approved, and some already started, single-case or phase I/II trials primarily aiming to rescue their critical patients when no other therapeutic approach responds. On the other hand, it is also very important to mention that there is a good deal of concern about clinics offering unproven stem cell treatments for COVID-19. The reviewers and oversight bodies will be looking for a balanced but critical appraisal of current trials.
Project description:The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has reached worldwide pandemic proportions, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary from an asymptomatic disease course to clinical symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome and severe pneumonia. The lungs are the primary organ affected by SARS-CoV-2, with a very slow turnover for renewal. SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors and induces an immune response with the accumulation of immunocompetent cells, causing a cytokine storm, which leads to target organ injury and subsequent dysfunction. To date, there is no effective antiviral therapy for COVID-19 patients, and therapeutic strategies are based on experience treating previously recognized coronaviruses. In search of new treatment modalities of COVID-19, cell-based therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or their secretome, such as soluble bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles, is considered supportive therapy for critically ill patients. Multipotent MSCs are able to differentiate into different types of cells of mesenchymal origin, including alveolar epithelial cells, lung epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells, which are severely damaged in the course of COVID-19 disease. Moreover, MSCs secrete a variety of bioactive factors that can be applied for respiratory tract regeneration in COVID-19 patients thanks to their trophic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, pro-regenerative, and proangiogenic properties.
Project description:Previous studies reported on the safety and applicability of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) to ameliorate pulmonary inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, multiple clinical trials assessing the potential of MSCs for COVID-19 treatment are underway. Yet, as SARS-inducing coronaviruses infect stem/progenitor cells, it is unclear whether MSCs could be infected by SARS-CoV-2 upon transplantation to COVID-19 patients. We found that MSCs from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and adipose tissue carry angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 at low levels on the cell surface under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. We did not observe SARS-CoV-2 infection or replication in MSCs at steady state under inflammatory conditions, or in direct contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. Further, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 production in MSCs was not impaired in the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We show that MSCs are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection and retain their immunomodulation potential, supporting their potential applicability for COVID-19 treatment.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and currently affects more than 8 million people worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 mainly invades the cells by binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, leading to the injury of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, and urinary system, and even secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and systemic inflammatory response, resulting in multiple organ failure. In this review, mainly focusing on biogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and then summarize and discuss its crucial clinical characteristics and potential mechanism in different systems. Additionally, we discuss the potential treatments for COVID-19, aiming at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and providing new ideas for the personalized treatment of COVID-19.