A Physiologically-Based Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Model of the Incretin Hormones GLP-1 and GIP and the DPP4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin.
ABSTRACT: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) play a major role in regulation of postprandial glucose and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incretins are rapidly metabolized, primarily by the enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4), and the neutral endopeptidase (NEP), although the exact metabolization pathways are unknown. We developed a physiologically-based (PB) quantitative systems pharmacology model of GLP-1 and GIP and their metabolites that describes the secretion of the incretins in response to intraduodenal glucose infusions and their degradation by DPP4 and NEP. The model describes the observed data and suggests that NEP significantly contributes to the metabolization of GLP-1, and the traditional assays for the total GLP-1 and GIP forms measure yet unknown entities produced by NEP. We further extended the model with a PB pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics model of the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin that allows predictions of the effects of this medication class on incretin concentrations.
Project description:The secretion of insulin and glucagon from the pancreas and the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) from the gastrointestinal tract is essential for glucose homeostasis. Several novel treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes (T2D) mimic GLP-1 actions or inhibit incretin degradation (DPP4 inhibitors), but none is thus far aimed at increasing the secretion of endogenous incretins. In order to identify new potential therapeutic targets for treatment of T2D, we performed a meta-analysis of a GWAS and an exome-wide association study of circulating insulin, glucagon, GIP, and GLP-1 concentrations measured during an oral glucose tolerance test in up to 7,828 individuals. We identified 6 genome-wide significant functional loci associated with plasma incretin concentrations in or near the SLC5A1 (encoding SGLT1), GIPR, ABO, GLP2R, F13A1, and HOXD1 genes and studied the effect of these variants on mRNA expression in pancreatic islet and on metabolic phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of GIPR, ABO, and HOXD1 in human enteroendocrine cells and expression of ABO in pancreatic islets, supporting a role in hormone secretion. This study thus provides candidate genes and insight into mechanisms by which secretion and breakdown of GIP and GLP-1 are regulated.
Project description:Incretin/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling is critical for potentiation of insulin secretion. Although several cell lines of pancreatic ?-cells are currently available, there are no cell lines suitable for investigation of incretin/cAMP signaling. In the present study, we have newly established pancreatic ?-cell lines (named MIN6-K) from the IT6 mouse, which develops insulinoma. MIN6-K8 cells respond to both glucose and incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as is the case in pancreatic islets, whereas MIN6-K20 cells respond to glucose, but not to incretins. Despite the difference in incretin-potentiated insulin secretion between these two cell lines, the accumulation of cAMP after stimulation of GLP-1 is comparable in these cells. Interestingly, we also found that incretin responsiveness is drastically induced by the formation of pseudoislets from MIN6-K20 cells to a level comparable to that of pancreatic islets. Thus, these cell lines are useful for studying incretin/cAMP signaling in ?-cells. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00026.x, 2010).
Project description:Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the major incretin hormones that exert insulinotropic and anti-apoptotic actions on pancreatic ?-cells. Insulinotropic actions of the incretins involve modulation of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. In multiple cell types, Kv channel activity has been implicated in cell volume changes accompanying initiation of the apoptotic program. Focusing on Kv2.1, we examined whether regulation of Kv channels in ?-cells contributes to the prosurvival effects of incretins. Overexpression of Kv2.1 in INS-1 ?-cells potentiated apoptosis in response to mitochondrial and ER stress and, conversely, co-stimulation with GIP/GLP-1 uncoupled this potentiation, suppressing apoptosis. In parallel, incretins promoted phosphorylation and acetylation of Kv2.1 via pathways involving protein kinase A (PKA)/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase-1 (MSK-1) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT)/histone deacetylase (HDAC). Further studies demonstrated that acetylation of Kv2.1 was mediated by incretin actions on nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of CREB binding protein (CBP) and its interaction with Kv2.1. Regulation of ?-cell survival by GIP and GLP-1 therefore involves post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Kv channels by PKA/MSK-1 and HAT/HDAC. This appears to be the first demonstration of modulation of delayed rectifier Kv channels contributing to the ?-cell prosurvival effects of incretins and of 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-stimulated export of a nuclear lysine acetyltransferase that regulates cell surface ion channel function.
Project description:Pancreatic ? cell dysfunction is pathognomonic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is driven by environmental and genetic factors. ? cell responses to glucose and to incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are altered in the disease state. While rodent ? cells act as a coordinated syncytium to drive insulin release, this property is unexplored in human islets. In situ imaging approaches were therefore used to monitor in real time the islet dynamics underlying hormone release. We found that GLP-1 and GIP recruit a highly coordinated subnetwork of ? cells that are targeted by lipotoxicity to suppress insulin secretion. Donor BMI was negatively correlated with subpopulation responses to GLP-1, suggesting that this action of incretin contributes to functional ? cell mass in vivo. Conversely, exposure of mice to a high-fat diet unveiled a role for incretin in maintaining coordinated islet activity, supporting the existence of species-specific strategies to maintain normoglycemia. These findings demonstrate that ? cell connectedness is an inherent property of human islets that is likely to influence incretin-potentiated insulin secretion and may be perturbed by diabetogenic insults to disrupt glucose homeostasis in humans.
Project description:The "incretin effect" is used to describe the observation that more insulin is secreted after the oral administration of glucose compared to that after the intravenous administration of the same amount of glucose. During the absorption of meals, the gut is thought to regulate insulin secretion by secreting a specific factor that targets pancreatic beta cells. Additional research confirmed this hypothesis with the discovery of two hormones called incretins: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). During meals, specific cells in the gut (L and K enteroendocrine cells) secrete incretins, causing an increase in the blood concentrations of, respectively, GLP-1 and GIP. Bariatric surgery is now proposed during the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes in obese or overweight populations. It has been hypothesized that restoration of endogenous GLP-1 secretion after the surgery may contribute to the postsurgical resolution of diabetes. In 2005, the commercialization of GLP-1 receptor agonists gave the possibility to test this hypothesis. A few years later, it is now accepted that GLP-1 receptor agonists and bariatric surgery differently improve type 2 diabetes. These differences between endogenous and exogenous GLP-1 on glucose homeostasis emphasized the dual properties of GLP-1 as a peptide hormone and as a neurotransmitter.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Common variants in the gene TCF7L2 confer the largest effect on the risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study was undertaken to increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which this gene affects type 2 diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Eight subjects with risk-conferring TCF7L2 genotypes (TT or TC at rs7903146) and 10 matched subjects with wild-type genotype (CC) underwent 5-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion, and graded glucose infusion (GGI). Mathematical modeling was used to quantify insulin-secretory profiles during OGTT and glucose infusion protocols. The incretin effect was assessed from ratios of the insulin secretory rates (ISR) during oral and isoglycemic glucose infusions. Dose-response curves relating insulin secretion to glucose concentrations were derived from the GGI. RESULTS:beta-cell responsivity to oral glucose was 50% lower (47 +/- 4 vs. 95 +/- 15 x 10(9) min(-1); P = 0.01) in the group of subjects with risk-conferring TCF7L2 genotypes compared with control subjects. The incretin effect was also reduced by 30% (32 +/- 4 vs. 46 +/- 4%; P = 0.02) in the at-risk group. The lower incretin effect occurred despite similar glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to oral glucose. The ISR response to intravenous glucose over a physiologic glucose concentration range (5-9 mmol/l) was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS:The TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 appears to affect risk of type 2 diabetes, at least in part, by modifying the effect of incretins on insulin secretion. This is not due to reduced secretion of GLP-1 and GIP but rather due to the effect of TCF7L2 on the sensitivity of the beta-cell to incretins. Treatments that increase incretin sensitivity may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 are incretins secreted by respective K and L enteroendocrine cells after eating and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This amplification has been termed the "incretin response." To determine the role(s) of K cells for the incretin response and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diphtheria toxin-expressing (DT) mice that specifically lack GIP-producing cells were backcrossed five to eight times onto the diabetogenic NONcNZO10/Ltj background. As in humans with T2DM, DT mice lacked an incretin response, although GLP-1 release was maintained. With high-fat (HF) feeding, DT mice remained lean but developed T2DM, whereas wild-type mice developed obesity but not diabetes. Metabolomics identified biochemicals reflecting impaired glucose handling, insulin resistance, and diabetes complications in prediabetic DT/HF mice. ?-Hydroxypyruvate and benzoate levels were increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting ?-hydroxypyruvate production from d-serine. In vitro, ?-hydroxypyruvate altered excitatory properties of myenteric neurons and reduced islet insulin content but not GSIS. ?-Hydroxypyruvate-to-d-serine ratios were lower in humans with impaired glucose tolerance compared with normal glucose tolerance and T2DM. Earlier human studies unmasked a neural relay that amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in a pattern reciprocal to ?-hydroxypyruvate-to-d-serine ratios in all groups. Thus, K cells may maintain long-term function of neurons and ?-cells by regulating ?-hydroxypyruvate levels.
Project description:In order to quantify the role of incretins in first- and second-phase insulin secretion (ISR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a double-blind, randomized study with 12 T2DM subjects and 12 healthy subjects (HS) was conducted using the hyperglycemic clamp technique together with duodenal nutrition perfusion and intravenous infusion of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist exendin(9-39). Intravenous glucose alone resulted in a significantly greater first- and second-phase ISR in HS compared with T2DM subjects. Duodenal nutrition perfusion augmented both first- and second-phase ISR but first-phase ISR more in T2DM subjects (approximately eight- vs. twofold). Glucose-related stimulation of ISR contributed only 20% to overall ISR. Infusion with exendin(9-39) significantly reduced first- and second-phase ISR in both HS and T2DM subjects. Thus, both GLP-1 and non-GLP-1 incretins contribute to the incretin effect. In conclusion, both phases of ISR are impaired in T2DM. In particular, the responsiveness to glucose in first-phase ISR is blunted. GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretions are unaltered. The absolute incretin effect is reduced in T2DM; its relative importance, however, appears to be increased, highlighting its role as an important amplifier of first-phase ISR in T2DM.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Fourteen common (minor allele frequencies ?0.05) DPP4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,976 non-diabetic TÜF participants characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance measurements. In a subgroup of 168 subjects, plasma incretin levels were determined. RESULTS:We identified a variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in intron 2 of the DPP4 gene that, after correction for multiple comparisons and appropriate adjustment, revealed a significant genotype-body fat interaction effect on glucose-stimulated plasma GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0021). Notably, no genotype-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. CONCLUSIONS:A common variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. Whether this SNP underlies the reported inter-individual variance in responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors, at least in subjects with high body fat content, remains to be shown.
Project description:Background:Defects in incretin have been shown to be related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Whether such a deficiency happens in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains to be confirmed. We assessed the association of fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with GDM. We also studied the longitudinal circulation of these peptides during pregnancy and afterwards. Methods:53 women with GDM (30 managed with diet only (GDM-diet) and 23 treated with insulin (GDM-insulin)) and 43 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGDM) were studied, with GIP and GLP-1 levels measured at 24-28 weeks (E1), prior (E2) and after (E3) delivery, and postpuerperium (E4). Results:Basal GIP was shown to be low in GDM groups compared to NGDM in E1, and in E4 for GDM-diet. GLP-1 was low in GDM groups during pregnancy and afterwards. At E1, serum GIP and GLP-1 were inversely associated with GDM and participants with lower levels of GIP (<0.23?ng/mL) and GLP-1 (<0.38?ng/mL) had a 6 (95% CI 2.5-14.5)- and 7.6 (95% CI 3.0-19.1)-fold higher risk of developing GDM compared with the higher level, respectively. In the postpuerperium, when there is a drop in ?-cell function, participants with previous GDM (pGDM) presented lower GLP-1 (in both GDM subgroups) and lower GIP in GDM-diet subgroup compared to controls. Conclusion:There is an independent, inverse association between fasting incretins and higher risk of GDM. Furthermore, lowered levels of these peptides may play an important role in the abnormality of glucose regulation following pregnancy.