The interactome of the prostate-specific protein Anoctamin 7.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Elevated Anoctamin 7 (ANO7) expression is associated with poor survival in prostate cancer patients. OBJECTIVE:The aim was to discover proteins that interact with ANO7 to understand its functions and regulatory mechanisms. METHODS:The proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) method was utilized. ANO7 fused to biotin ligase was transiently transfected into LNCaP cells, and the biotinylated proteins were collected and analysed by mass spectrometry. Four identified proteins were stained with dual fluorescent immunostaining and visualized using Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED). RESULTS:After bioinformatic filtering steps, 64 potentially ANO7-interacting proteins were identified and analysed with the GO enrichment analysis tool. One of the most prominently enriched cellular components was cellular vesicle. Co-localization was showed for staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1), heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1A (HSPA1A), adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 (AP2B1) and coatomer protein complex subunit gamma 2 (COPG2). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study in which ANO7 interacting proteins have been identified. Although further studies are needed, the findings reported here expand our understanding of the role and regulation of ANO7 in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, these results are likely to introduce new targets for the novel cancer therapies.
Project description:Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) participate in numerous physiological functions such as neuronal excitability, sensory transduction, and transepithelial fluid transport. Recently, it was shown that heterologously expressed anoctamins ANO1 and ANO2 generate currents that resemble native CaCCs. The anoctamin family (also called Tmem16) consists of 10 members, but it is not known whether all members of the family are CaCCs. Expression of ANOs 3-7 in HEK293 cells did not generate Cl(-) currents activated by intracellular Ca(2+), as determined by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. With the use of confocal imaging, only ANO1 and ANO2 traffic to the plasma membrane when expressed heterologously. Furthermore, endogenously expressed ANO7 in the human prostate is predominantly intracellular. We took a chimeric approach to identify regions critical for channel trafficking and function. However, none of the chimeras of ANO1 and ANO5/7 that we made trafficked to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that intracellular anoctamins may be endoplasmic reticulum proteins, although it remains unknown whether these family members are CaCCs. Determining the role of anoctamin family members in ion transport will be critical to understanding their functions in physiology and disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The anoctamin family of transmembrane proteins are found in all eukaryotes and consists of 10 members in vertebrates. Ano1 and ano2 were observed to have Ca2+ activated Cl- channel activity. Recent findings however have revealed that ano6, and ano7 can also produce chloride currents, although with different properties. In contrast, ano9 and ano10 suppress baseline Cl- conductance when co-expressed with ano1 thus suggesting that different anoctamins can interfere with each other. In order to elucidate intrinsic functional diversity, and underlying evolutionary mechanism among anoctamins, we performed comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of anoctamin gene family. RESULTS: Our results show that anoctamin protein paralogs evolved from several gene duplication events followed by functional divergence of vertebrate anoctamins. Most of the amino acid replacements responsible for the functional divergence were fixed by adaptive evolution and this seem to be a common pattern in anoctamin gene family evolution. Strong purifying selection and the loss of many gene duplication products indicate rigid structure-function relationships among anoctamins. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that anoctamins have evolved by series of duplication events, and that they are constrained by purifying selection. In addition we identified a number of protein domains, and amino acid residues which contribute to predicted functional divergence. Hopefully, this work will facilitate future functional characterization of the anoctamin membrane protein family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous preterm labor leading to preterm birth is a significant obstetric problem leading to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Current tocolytics are not completely effective and novel targets may afford a therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the anoctamin (ANO) family, including the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1, is present in pregnant human uterine smooth muscle (USM) and whether pharmacological and genetic modulation of ANO1 modulates USM contraction. METHODS:Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were done to determine which members of the ANO family are expressed in human USM. Uterine smooth muscle strips were studied in an organ bath to determine whether ANO1 antagonists inhibit oxytocin-induced USM contractions. Anoctamin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown was performed to determine its effect on filamentous-/globular (F/G)-actin ratio, a measurement of actin polymerization's role in promoting smooth muscle contraction. RESULTS:Messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding all members of the ANO family (except ANO7) are expressed in pregnant USM tissue. Anoctamin 1 mRNA expression was decreased 15.2-fold in pregnant USM compared to nonpregnant. Anoctamin 1 protein is expressed in pregnant human USM tissue. Functional organ bath studies with pregnant human USM tissue demonstrated that the ANO1 antagonist benzbromarone attenuates the force and frequency of oxytocin-induced contractions. In human USM cells, siRNA knockdown of ANO1 decreases F-/G-actin ratios. CONCLUSION:Multiple members of the ANO family, including the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1, are expressed in human USM. Antagonism of ANO1 by pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown leads to an attenuation of contraction in pregnant human USM. Anoctamin 1 is a potentially novel target for tocolysis.
Project description:Anoctamins were originally identified as a family of calcium-activated chloride channels, but recently their roles in the development of different types of malignancies were suggested. Here, we evaluated the associations between 211 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 anoctamin genes with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer. Four SNPs (ANO4 rs585335, ANO5 rs4622263, ANO7 rs62187431, and ANO10 rs118005571) remained significantly associated with BCR after multiple test correction (P < .05 and q = 0.232) and adjustment for known prognostic factors. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis found that ANO5 rs4622263 C and ANO10 rs118005571 C alleles were associated with decreased mRNA expression levels. Moreover, lower expression of ANO5 was correlated with more advanced tumors and poorer outcomes in two independent prostate cancer cohorts. Taken together, ANO5 rs4622263 was associated with BCR, and ANO5 gene expression was correlated with patient prognosis, suggesting a pivotal role for ANO5 in prostate cancer progression.
Project description:PURPOSE:Salivary fluid formation is primarily driven by Ca(2+)-activated, apical efflux of chloride into the lumen of the salivary acinus. The anoctamin1 protein is an anion channel with properties resembling the endogenous calcium-activated chloride channels. In order to better understand the role of anoctamin proteins in salivary exocrine secretion, the expression of the ten members of the anoctamin gene family in the mouse submandibular gland was studied. METHODS:Total RNA extracted from mouse submandibular salivary glands was reverse transcribed using primer pairs to amplify the full-length coding regions of each anoctamin gene and was subcloned into plasmid vectors for DNA sequencing. Alternative splice variants were also screened by polymerase chain reaction using primer pairs that amplified six overlapping regions of the complementary DNA of each anoctamin gene, spanning multiple exons. RESULTS:Multiple anoctamin transcripts were found in the mouse submandibular salivary gland, including full-length transcripts of anoctamin1, anoctamin3, anoctamin4, anoctamin5, anoctamin6, anoctamin9, and anoctamin10. Exon-skipping splicing in the N-terminal exons of the anoctamins1, anoctamin5, and anoctamin6 genes resulted in multiple alternative splice variants. No expression of anoctamin2, anoctamin7, or anoctamin8 was found. CONCLUSIONS:The predominant anoctamin transcript expressed in the mouse submandibular gland is anoctamin1ac. The chloride channel protein produced by anoctamin1ac is likely responsible for the Ca(2+)-activated chloride efflux, which is the rate-limiting step in salivary exocrine secretion.
Project description:Anoctamin 6 (Ano6) belongs to a conserved gene family (TMEM16) predicted to code for eight transmembrane proteins with putative Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) activity. Recent work revealed that disruption of ANO6 leads to a blood coagulation defect and impaired skeletal development. However, its function in skeletal muscle cells remains to be determined. By using a RNA interference mediated (RNAi) loss-of-function approach, we show that Ano6 regulates C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Ano6 is highly expressed in C2C12 myoblasts and its expression decreases upon differentiation. Knocking down Ano6 significantly reduces C2C12 myoblast proliferation but has minimal effect on differentiation. Ano6 deficiency significantly reduces ERK/AKT phosphorylation, which has been shown to be involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation by another Anoctamin member. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that Ano6 plays an essential role in C2C12 myoblast proliferation, likely via regulating the ERK/AKT signaling pathway.
Project description:Our laboratory has developed bioinformatic strategies for identifying distant phylogenetic relationships and characterizing families and superfamilies of transport proteins. Results using these tools suggest that the Anoctamin Superfamily of cation and anion channels, as well as lipid scramblases, includes three functionally characterized families: the Anoctamin (ANO), Transmembrane Channel (TMC) and Ca2+-permeable Stress-gated Cation Channel (CSC) families; as well as four families of functionally uncharacterized proteins, which we refer to as the Anoctamin-like (ANO-L), Transmembrane Channel-like (TMC-L), and CSC-like (CSC-L1 and CSC-L2) families. We have constructed protein clusters and trees showing the relative relationships among the seven families. Topological analyses suggest that the members of these families have essentially the same topologies. Comparative examination of these homologous families provides insight into possible mechanisms of action, indicates the currently recognized organismal distributions of these proteins, and suggests drug design potential for the disease-related channel proteins.
Project description:Prostate cancer is one of the most common and heritable human cancers. Our aim was to find germline biomarkers that can predict disease outcome. We previously detected predisposing signals at 2q37, the location of the prostate specific ANO7 gene. To investigate, in detail, the associations between the ANO7 gene and PrCa risk and disease aggressiveness, ANO7 was sequenced in castration resistant tumors together with samples from unselected PrCa patients and unaffected males. Two pathogenic variants were discovered and genotyped in 1769 patients and 1711 unaffected males. Expression of ANO7 vs. PrCa aggressiveness was investigated. Different databases along with Swedish and Norwegian cohorts were used for validation. Case-control and aggressive vs. nonaggressive association analyses were performed against risk and/or cancer aggressiveness. The ANO7 mRNA level and patient survival were analyzed using expression data from databases. Variant rs77559646 showed both risk (OR 1.40; p = 0.009, 95% CI 1.09-1.78) and association with aggressive PrCa (Genotype test p = 0.04). It was found to be an eQTL for ANO7 (Linear model p-values for Finnish patients p = 0.009; Camcap prostate tumor p = 2.53E-06; Stockholm prostate tumor cohort p = 1.53E-13). rs148609049 was not associated with risk, but was related to shorter survival (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.03-2.36). High ANO7 expression was independently linked to poor survival (HR 18.4; 95% CI 1.43-237). ANO7 genotypes correlate with expression and biochemical relapse, suggesting that ANO7 is a potential PrCa susceptibility gene and that its elevated expression correlates with disease severity and outcome.
Project description:Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca(2+)/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca(2+)/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca(2+) range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca(2+) signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca(2+) regulation in anoctamin Cl(-) channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types.
Project description:Using high molecular-weight proteomic analysis, we previously showed that Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 (SND1) is highly expressed in recurrent androgen-insensitive prostate cancer tissues. SND1 is a component of the RNA-induced splicing complex that mediates RNA interference, leading to degradation of specific mRNAs. The objective of this study was to further characterize SND1 expression and to investigate its biological potential in prostate cancer. Radical prostatectomy specimens were obtained from 62 prostate cancer patients. SND1 immunohistochemical staining patterns were evaluated using an in-house polyclonal antibody. We confirmed SND1 mRNA expression in prostate cancer cells using an in situ hybridization technique. To determine the importance of SND1 mRNA, we knocked down SND1 in vitro with small interfering RNA and observed a significant decrease in cell growth. SND1 was expressed in 60 of 62 prostate cancers (97%), appearing in the cytoplasm as small, granular structures; it was also present at high levels in prostate cancer specimens, while in hyperplasia specimens and normal epithelium, it was weakly or negatively expressed. SND1 expression intensity increased with increasing grade and aggressiveness of the cancer. As SND1 mRNA was overexpressed in cancer cells, the growth of these cells was suppressed following SND1 knockdown in vitro, thus representing a promising prostate cancer biomarker and therapeutic target.