Merging Asymmetric [1,2]-Additions of Lithium Acetylides to Carbonyls with Type II Anion Relay Chemistry.
ABSTRACT: An enantioselective three-component coupling reaction has been developed, enabling the union of a variety of lithium acetylides and electrophiles exploiting an achiral linchpin via an anionic reaction cascade. This Type II Anion Relay Chemistry tactic is initiated via an enantioselective [1,2]-carbonyl addition exploiting BINOL catalysis to access an enantioenriched alkoxide intermediate. Migration of charge across the linchpin via a [1,4]-Brook rearrangement with electrophile capture affords a three-component propargyl ether adduct. Herein, we report the development, scope, and limitations of this reaction sequence.
Project description:Nucleophilic mixed chromium(II) and chromium(III) acetylides are generated from the smooth reduction of primary 1,1,1-trichloroalkanes with chromium(II) chloride in the presence of an excess amount of triethylamine at room temperature. These species arise from chromium(III) vinylidene carbenoids. It has been demonstrated that uncommon low-valent Cr(II) acetylides are formed by C-H insertion of Cr(II)Cl(2) into terminal alkynes, formed in situ through the Fritsch- Buttenberg-Wiechell (FBW) rearrangement, whereas Cr(III) acetylides are concomitantly generated by HCl elimination from the chromium(III) vinylidene carbenoid. Both divergent pathways result, overall, in the formation of nucleophilic acetylides. In situ trapping with electrophilic aldehydes afforded propargyl alcohols. Furthermore, deuteration experiments and the use of deuterium labeled 1,1,1-trichloroalkane substrates demonstrated the prevalence of low-valent Cr(II) acetylides, potentially useful, yet highly elusive synthetic intermediates.
Project description:Fully loaded: Readily accessible and shelf-stable 1-bismuth(III) acetylides react rapidly and regiospecifically with organic azides in the presence of a copper(I) catalyst. The reaction tolerates many functional groups and gives excellent yields of the previously unreported 5-bismuth triazolides. This uniquely reactive intermediate is functionalized under mild reaction conditions to give fully substituted 1,2,3-triazoles.
Project description:Chiral BINOL-derived diols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric allylboration of acyl imines. The reaction requires 15 mol % (S)-3,3'-Ph2-BINOL as the catalyst and allyldiisopropoxyborane as the nucleophile. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (75-94%) and high enantiomeric ratios (95:5-99.5:0.5) for aromatic and aliphatic imines. High diastereoselectivities (diastereomeric ratio > 98:2) and enantioselectivities (enantiomeric ratio > 98:2) are obtained in the reactions of acyl imines with crotyldiisopropoxyboranes. This asymmetric transformation is directly applied to the synthesis of Maraviroc, the selective CCR5 antagonist with potent activity against HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic investigations of the allylboration reaction including IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry studies indicate that acyclic boronates are activated by chiral diols via exchange of one of the boronate alkoxy groups with activation of the acyl imine via hydrogen bonding.
Project description:The three-component coupling of Mg acetylides, silyl glyoxylates, and nitroalkenes results in a highly diastereoselective Kuwajima-Reich/vinylogous Michael cascade that provides tetrasubstituted silyloxyallene products. The regio- and diastereoselectivity were studied using DFT calculations. These silyloxyallenes were converted to cyclopentenols and cyclopentitols via a unique Lewis acid assisted Henry cyclization. The alkene functionality present in the cyclopentanol products can be elaborated using diastereoselective ketohydroxylation reactions.
Project description:Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) incorporated with π-conjugated polymers, have proven to be an effective approach in the production of advanced thermoelectric composites. However, the studied polymers are mainly limited to scanty conventional conductive polymers, and their performances still remain to be improved. Herein, a new planar moiety of platinum acetylide in the π-conjugated system is introduced to enhance the intermolecular interaction with the SWCNTs via π⁻π and d⁻π interactions, which is crucial in regulating the thermoelectric performances of SWCNT-based composites. As expected, SWCNT composites based on the platinum acetylides embedded polymers displayed a higher power factor (130.7 ± 3.8 μW·m-1·K-2) at ambient temperature than those without platinum acetylides (59.5 ± 0.7 μW·m-1·K-2) under the same conditions. Moreover, the strong interactions between the platinum acetylide-based polymers and the SWCNTs are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements.
Project description:The synthesis, structural, and spectral characterization as well as a theoretical study of a family of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides provides insights into synthetic access and the structural and bonding characteristics of this group of highly reactive compounds. Based on our earlier communication that reported unusual geometry for a family of triphenylsilyl-substituted alkaline-earth-metal acetylides, we herein present our studies on an expanded family of target derivatives, providing experimental and theoretical data to offer new insights into the intensively debated theme of structural chemistry in heavy alkaline-earth-metal chemistry.
Project description:Chiral alcohols are ubiquitous in organic structures. One efficient method to generate chiral alcohols is the catalytic asymmetric addition of a carbon nucleophile to a carbonyl compound since this process produces a C-C bond and a chiral center simultaneously. In comparison with the carbon nucleophiles such as an organolithium or a Grignard reagent, an organozinc reagent possesses the advantages of functional group tolerance and more mild reaction conditions. Catalytic asymmetric reactions of aldehydes with arylzincs, vinylzincs, and alkynylzincs to generate functional chiral alcohols are discussed in this Account. Our laboratory has developed a series of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL)-based chiral catalysts for the asymmetric organozinc addition to aldehydes. It is found that the 3,3'-dianisyl-substituted BINOLs are not only highly enantioselective for the alkylzinc addition to aldehydes, but also highly enantioselective for the diphenylzinc addition to aldehydes. A one-step synthesis has been achieved to incorporate Lewis basic amine groups into the 3,3'-positions of the partially hydrogenated H8BINOL. These H8BINOL-amine compounds have become more generally enantioselective and efficient catalysts for the diphenylzinc addition to aldehydes to produce various types of chiral benzylic alcohols. The application of the H8BINOL-amine catalysts is expanded by using in situ generated diarylzinc reagents from the reaction of aryl iodides with ZnEt2, which still gives high enantioselectivity and good catalytic activity. Such a H8BINOL-amine compound is further found to catalyze the highly enantioselective addition of vinylzincs, in situ generated from the treatment of vinyl iodides with ZnEt2, to aldehydes to give the synthetically very useful chiral allylic alcohols. We have discovered that the unfunctionalized BINOL in combination with ZnEt2 and Ti(O(i)Pr)4 can catalyze the terminal alkyne addition to aldehydes to produce chiral propargylic alcohols of high synthetic utility. The reaction was conducted by first heating an alkyne with ZnEt2 in refluxing toluene to generate an alkynylzinc reagent, which can then add to a broad range of aldehydes at room temperature in the presence of BINOL and Ti(O(i)Pr)4 with high enantioselectivity. It was then found that the addition of a catalytic amount of dicyclohexylamine (Cy2NH) allows the entire process to be conducted at room temperature without the need to generate the alkynylzincs at elevated temperature. This BINOL-ZnEt2-Ti(O(i)Pr)4-Cy2NH catalyst system can be used to catalyze the reaction of structurally diverse alkynes with a broad range of aldehydes at room temperature with high enantioselectivity and good catalytic activity. The work described in this Account demonstrates that BINOL and its derivatives can be used to develop highly enantioselective catalysts for the asymmetric organozinc addition to aldehydes. These processes have allowed the efficient synthesis of many functional chiral alcohols that are useful in organic synthesis.
Project description:This report describes the development of an enantioselective C-N bond-forming reaction to produce 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-derived cyclic aminals catalyzed by chiral phosphate anions. Central to the success of this goal was the design of a library of 3,3'-triazolyl BINOL-derived phosphoric acids capable of forming attractive hydrogen-bonding interactions with the peptide-like substrate. We envision this work will offer an alternative to the conventional strategy of increasing catalyst steric bulk to improve enantioselectivity with BINOL-derived phosphoric acids.
Project description:A conjugate addition/asymmetric protonation/aza-Prins cascade reaction has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of fused polycyclic indolines. A catalyst system generated from ZrCl4 and 3,3'-dibromo-BINOL enables the synthesis of a range of polycyclic indolines in good yields and with high enantioselectivity. A key finding is the use of TMSCl and 2,6-dibromophenol as a stoichiometric source of HCl to facilitate catalyst turnover. This transformation is the first in which a ZrCl4 ?BINOL complex serves as a chiral Lewis-acid-assisted Brønsted acid.
Project description:A simple and efficient strategy for the synthesis of 1-ethynylcyclohex-2-enol derivatives was developed utilizing regioselective addition of acetylides to enediones based on steric effects. Further investigation of the substrate scope of enediones indicated that all the addition reactions ocurred in good yield.