Putative functional variants of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are associated with knee osteoarthritis susceptibility.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative musculoskeletal disease which causes joint deformity and pain and finally leads to limb dysfunction. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) has the highest incidence among all kinds of OA. Strong evidence leads to the understanding that P13K/AKT/mTOR signaling is very important in cartilage degeneration. METHODS:This research sought to understand the association between genetic variation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR genes and KOA susceptibility among Chinese population. All the genetic variants of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were graded and selected using RegulomeDB database, and then, an association study including 278 osteoarthritis patients and 289 controls was conducted. RESULTS:Finally, eight SNPs' genotypes' distributions and susceptibility to KOA were presented. AKT1 rs2498789 was associated with KOA susceptibility in dominate genetic model (AA + GA vs GG) after adjusted for BMI, age, and gender: OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.05, P = .03. PIK3CA rs7646409 was also associated with KOA susceptibility (TC vs TT) after adjusted for BMI, age, and gender: OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.93, P = .02. PIK3CA rs7646409 (TC vs TT) with KOA risk was more significant in age < 60 group (P for heterogeneity was .03). Risk score showed significant association with KOA susceptibility after cumulative analysis (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.35-4.45, P = .003). CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that genetic variation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR is associated with KOA susceptibility in Chinese Han population, indicating that PI3K/AKT/mTOR is very important in KOA pathogenesis.
Project description:Interleukin 18 (IL-18) promotes inflammation and apoptosis in chondrocytes, thereby contributing to the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated the effects of IL-18 treatment and inhibition in rat chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used RT-PCR and Western blotting to measure the mRNA and protein levels of the chondrocyte-specific genes Collagen II and Aggrecan as well as the protein levels of apoptosis-related (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase3/9), autophagy-related (Atg5, Atg7, Beclin1, LC3), and mTOR pathway-related genes (PI3K, Akt, mTOR). We observed a decrease in Collagen II and Aggrecan mRNA and protein levels, upregulation of chondrocyte apoptosis, downregulation of chondrocyte autophagy, and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway upon IL-18 treatment. PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation and inhibition tests using rat 740Y-P (PI3K activator), SC79 (AKT activator), 3BDO (mTOR activator), or LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) revealed that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway enhances chondrocyte-specific gene degradation induced by IL-18, while its inhibition has protective effects on chondrocytes. We also found that treatment with rapamycin (a selective mTOR inhibitor) also exerts chondro-protective effects that ameliorate OA by promoting autophagy. These results suggest that inhibition of the mTOR pathway could be exploited for therapeutic benefits in the treatment of OA.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Association between the D-repeat of asporin (ASPN) gene and osteoarthritis (OA) was still inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to systematically assess the D-repeat polymorphisms in OA susceptibility. METHODS:Relevant studies were enrolled by searching databases. Odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used for evaluating the association between ASPN gene and OA. Heterogeneity was calculated using the Q statistic, and three different subgroup analyses were performed on ethnicity, gender, and OA positions respectively. False discovery rate (FDR) was applied to regulate the multiple comparisons. RESULTS:Twelve qualified articles involving 5190 OA patients and 5167 healthy controls were included. With D13 polymorphism, Caucasian male patients have low OA susceptibility (P?=?.008, PFDR?=?.024, OR [95% CI]?=?0.83 [0.73-0.95]). As to D14 polymorphism, all male patients (P?=?.0004, PFDR?=?.001, OR [95% CI]?=?1.38 [1.15-1.64]), Asian male patients (P?=?.01, PFDR?=?.01, OR [95% CI]?=?1.72 [1.11-2.66]), and Caucasian male patients (P?=?.005, PFDR?=?.001, OR [95% CI]?=?1.32 [1.09-1.60]) have high OA susceptibility. In the pooled-population of KOA with D14 polymorphism, overall male patients (P?=?.03, PFDR?=?.045, OR [95% CI]?=?1.35 [1.02-1.78]) and Asian male patients (P?=?.01, PFDR?=?.03, OR [95% CI]?=?1.72 [1.11-2.66]) have high OA risk. With D16 polymorphism, Latin America patients may have high OA risk (P?=?.04, PFDR?=?.15, OR [95% CI]?=?1.43 [1.02-2.01]). CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that D-repeat of ASPN gene is mainly associated with male patients. The D13 polymorphism plays a protective role for OA in Caucasians male individuals while D14 plays a risk factor for KOA in male patients.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of some microRNAs in cartilage damage. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the expression of microRNA-634 (miR-634) in normal and OA chondrocytes, and to determine its role in OA pathogenesis. Human normal and OA chondrocytes obtained from patients were cultured in vitro. Transfection with miR-634 mimic or inhibitor was employed to investigate the effect of miR-634 on chondrocyte survival and matrix synthesis, and to identify miR-634 target. The results indicated that miR-634 was expressed at lower level in high grade OA chondrocyte compared with normal chondrocytes. Overexpression of miR-634 could inhibit cell survival and matrix synthesis in high grade OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, miR-634 targeted PIK3R1 gene that encodes the regulatory subunit 1 of class I PI3K (p85?) and exerted its inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and S6 signal molecules in high grade OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the data suggested that miR-634 could suppress survival and matrix synthesis of high grade OA chondrocytes through targeting PIK3R1 gene to modulate the PI3K/Akt/S6 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6 axes, with important implication for validating miR-634 as a potential target for OA therapy.
Project description:Target-matched treatment with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in patients with diverse advanced cancers with PIK3CA mutations have shown promise. Tumors from patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed for PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations. PIK3CA-mutated tumors were treated, whenever feasible, with agents targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Of 194 patients analyzed, 31 (16%) had PIK3CA mutations and 189 (97%) were assessed for KRAS mutations. Patients with PIK3CA mutations had a higher prevalence of simultaneous KRAS mutations than patients with wild-type PIK3CA (71%, 22/31 vs. 43%, 68/158; P = 0.006). Of 31 patients with PIK3CA mutations, 17 (55%) were treated with protocols containing PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors [median age, 57 years; median number of prior therapies, 4; mTORC1 inhibitors (11), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (5), or an AKT inhibitor (1)]. None (0/17) had a partial or complete response (PR/CR) and only 1 [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.27] had stable disease 6 months or more, which was not significantly different from a stable disease ?6 month/PR/CR rate of 16% (11/67; 95% CI, 0.09-0.27) in patients with colorectal cancer without PIK3CA mutations treated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors (P = 0.44). Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.5-2.3). In conclusion, our data provide preliminary evidence that in heavily pretreated patients with PIK3CA-mutant advanced colorectal cancer, protocols incorporating PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors have minimal activity. PIK3CA mutations are associated with simultaneous KRAS mutations, possibly accounting for therapeutic resistance.
Project description:Phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs) are a group of lipid kinases that are important upstream activators of various significant signaling pathways. Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways-either via mutations or genomic amplification-confers key oncogenic activity, essential for the development and progression of several solid tumors. Alterations in the PIK3CA gene are associated with poor prognosis of solid malignancies. Although the literature reports contradictory prognostic values of PIK3CA in aggressive cancers, most of the available data highlight the important role of PIK3CA mutation in mediating tumorigenesis via increased signaling of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Several inhibitors of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways are investigated as potential therapeutic options in solid malignancies. This article reviews the role of PIK3CA mutations and inhibitors of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in major cancer types and examines its association with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis.
Project description:PURPOSE:Oligodendroglioma has a relatively favorable prognosis, however, often undergoes malignant progression. We hypothesized that preclinical models of oligodendroglioma could facilitate identification of therapeutic targets in progressive oligodendroglioma. We established multiple oligodendroglioma xenografts to determine if the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway drives tumor progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Two anatomically distinct tumor samples from a patient who developed progressive anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AOD) were collected for orthotopic transplantation in mice. We additionally implanted 13 tumors to investigate the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations and oligodendroglioma xenograft formation. Pharmacologic vulnerabilities were tested in newly developed AOD models in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:A specimen from the tumor site that subsequently manifested rapid clinical progression contained a PIK3CA mutation E542K, and yielded propagating xenografts that retained the OD/AOD-defining genomic alterations (IDH1 R132H and 1p/19q codeletion) and PIK3CA E542K, and displayed characteristic sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. In contrast, a xenograft did not engraft from the region that was clinically stable and had wild-type PIK3CA. In our panel of OD/AOD xenografts, the presence of activating mutations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was consistently associated with xenograft establishment (6/6, 100%). OD/AOD that failed to generate xenografts did not have activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR alterations (0/9, P < 0.0001). Importantly, mutant PIK3CA oligodendroglioma xenografts were vulnerable to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in vitro and in vivo-evidence that mutant PIK3CA is a tumorigenic driver in oligodendroglioma. CONCLUSIONS:Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an oncogenic driver and is associated with xenograft formation in oligodendrogliomas. These findings have implications for therapeutic targeting of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in progressive oligodendrogliomas.
Project description:Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) have different molecular and biologic characteristics and clinical behavior compared with HPV-negative (HPV-) OPSCC. PIK3CA mutations are more common in HPV(+) OPSCC. To define molecular differences and tumor subsets, protein expression and phosphorylation were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(-) OPSCC and between tumors with and without PIK3CA mutations.Expression of 137 total and phosphorylated proteins was evaluated by reverse-phase protein array in 29 HPV(+) and 13 HPV(-) prospectively collected OPSCCs. Forty-seven OPSCCs were tested for hotspot-activating mutations in PIK3CA and AKT. Activation of PIK3CA downstream targets and sensitivity to pathway inhibitors were determined in HPV(+) head and neck cancer cells overexpressing wild-type or mutant PIK3CA.Analyses revealed 41 differentially expressed proteins between HPV(+) and HPV(-) OPSCC categorized into functional groups: DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR, and receptor kinase pathways. All queried DNA repair proteins were significantly upregulated in HPV(+) samples. A total of 8 of 33 HPV(+) and 0 of 14 HPV(-) tumors contained activating PIK3CA mutations. Despite all activating PIK3CA mutations occurring in HPV(+) samples, HPV(+) tumors had lower mean levels of activated AKT and downstream AKT target phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of mutant PIK3CA in HPV(+) cells increased mTOR, but not AKT activity. HPV E6/E7 overexpression inhibited AKT phosphorylation in HPV-negative cells. Mutant PIK3CA overexpressing cells were more sensitive to a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor compared with an AKT inhibitor.Protein expression analyses suggest that HPV(+) and HPV(-) OPSCC differentially activate DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and receptor kinase pathways. PIK3CA mutations are more common in HPV(+) OPSCC and are associated with activation of mTOR, but not AKT. These data suggest that inhibitors for mTOR may have activity against HPV(+) PIK3CA mutant oropharyngeal cancers.
Project description:Mutations of the PIK3CA gene may predict response to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Concomitant mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway may mediate resistance.Tumors from patients with breast, cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer referred to the Clinical Center for Targeted Therapy (Phase I Program) were analyzed for PIK3CA, KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations. Patients with PIK3CA mutations were treated, whenever feasible, with agents targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.Of 140 patients analyzed, 25 (18%) had PIK3CA mutations, including five of 14 patients with squamous cell cervical, seven of 29 patients with endometrial, six of 29 patients with breast, and seven of 60 patients with ovarian cancers. Of the 25 patients with PIK3CA mutations, 23 (median of two prior therapies) were treated on a protocol that included a PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor. Two (9%) of 23 patients had stable disease for more than 6 months, and seven patients (30%) had a partial response. In comparison, only seven (10%) of 70 patients with the same disease types but with wild-type PIK3CA treated on the same protocols responded (P = .04). Seven patients (30%) with PIK3CA mutations had coexisting MAPK pathway (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF) mutations (ovarian cancer, n = 5; endometrial cancer, n = 2), and two of these patients (ovarian cancer) achieved a response.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 18% of tested patients. Patients with PIK3CA mutations treated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors demonstrated a higher response rate than patients without mutations. A subset of patients with ovarian cancer with simultaneous PIK3CA and MAPK mutations responded to PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors, suggesting that not all patients demonstrate resistance when the MAPK pathway is concomitantly activated.
Project description:PURPOSE:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation is often associated with altered expression or mutations of PIK3CA, TP53/p73, PTEN, and TGF-? receptors (TGFBR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). However, little is known about how these alterations affect response to PI3K/mTOR-targeted agents. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:In this preclinical study, PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling was characterized in nine HNSCC (UM-SCC) cell lines and human oral keratinocytes. We investigated the molecular and anticancer effects of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PF-04691502(PF-502) in UM-SCC expressing PIK3CA with decreased wild-type TP53, mutant TP53-/+ mutantTGFBR2, and in HNSCC of a conditional Pten/Tgfbr1 double knockout mouse model displaying PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation. RESULTS:UM-SCC showed increased PIK3CA expression and Akt/mTOR activation, and PF-502 inhibited PI3K/mTORC1/2 targets. In human HNSCC expressing PIK3CA and decreased wtTP53 and p73, PF-502 reciprocally enhanced TP53/p73 expression and growth inhibition, which was partially reversible by p53 inhibitor pifithrin-?. Most UM-SCC with wtTP53 exhibited a lower IC50 than those with mtTP53 status. PF-502 blocked growth in G0-G1 and increased apoptotic sub-G0 DNA. PF-502 suppressed tumorigenesis and showed combinatorial activity with radiation in a wild-type TP53 UM-SCC xenograft model. PF-502 also significantly delayed HNSCC tumorigenesis and prolonged survival of Pten/Tgfbr1-deficient mice. Significant inhibition of p-Akt, p-4EBP1, p-S6, and Ki67, as well as increased p53 and TUNEL were observed in tumor specimens. CONCLUSIONS:PI3K-mTOR inhibition can enhance TP53/p73 expression and significantly inhibit tumor growth alone or when combined with radiation in HNSCC with wild-type TP53. PIK3CA, TP53/p73, PTEN, and TGF-? alterations are potential modifiers of response and merit investigation in future clinical trials with PI3K-mTOR inhibitors.
Project description:PIK3CA mutations may predict response to PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors in patients with advanced cancers, but the relevance of mutation subtype has not been investigated. Patients with diverse cancers referred to the Clinical Center for Targeted Therapy were analyzed for PIK3CA and, if possible, KRAS mutations. Patients with PIK3CA mutations were treated, whenever possible, with agents targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Overall, 105 (10%) of 1,012 patients tested harbored PIK3CA mutations. Sixty-six (median 3 prior therapies) of the 105 PIK3CA-mutant patients, including 16 individuals (of 55 PIK3CA-mutant patients tested) with simultaneous KRAS mutations, were treated on a protocol that included a PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor; 17% (11/66) achieved a partial response (PR). Patients with a PIK3CA H1047R mutation compared with patients who had other PIK3CA mutations or patients with wild-type PIK3CA treated on the same protocols had a higher PR rate (6/16, 38% vs. 5/50; 10% vs. 23/174, 13%, respectively; all P ? 0.02). None of the 16 patients with coexisting PIK3CA and KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13 attained a PR (0/16, 0%). Patients treated with combination therapy versus single-agent therapies had a higher PR rate (11/38, 29% vs. 0/28, 0%; P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that H1047R was the only independent factor predicting response [OR 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-43.0, P = 0.047). Our data suggest that interaction between PIK3CA mutation H1047R versus other aberrations and response to PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis inhibitors warrants further exploration.