How far are we from a medication use process aiming at well-informed adherent patients with long-term medications in Finland? Qualitative study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Finland is one of the few countries that has established a national Medicines Information (MI) Strategy. The ultimate goal of the strategy is a well-implemented medication use process resulting in well-informed adherent patients. This study aimed at evaluating the implementation of the strategy 3?years after its launch. DESIGN:The evaluation applied a pragmatic approach and was conducted by interviewing stakeholders involved in the National MI Network enhancing the MI Strategy's implementation. The network comprises national key stakeholders producing and using MI. Data were deductively analysed according to the medication use process of the MI Strategy using the framework method, complemented with inductively derived categories. SETTING:National implementation of the MI Strategy throughout the healthcare system after the first operational period (2012-2014) in 2015. PARTICIPANTS:The members of the National MI Network (n=79/111, participation rate 71%, representing 42/53 stakeholder organisations). OUTCOME MEASURES:A new conceptual framework was developed based on stakeholders' views on well-implemented actions and actions needing development in the medication use process at (1) infrastructure (macro), (2) healthcare professionals (meso) and (3) patient (micro) levels. RESULTS:Medication counselling by community pharmacists was the primary implemented action, followed by physicians' actions while starting a new medication, and advice given by nurses. The major development needs concerned (1) poor access to patient information and its transfer in healthcare, particularly the lack of reconciled medication lists and electronic health records (macro); (2) poorly functioning medication use process in home care and social care units, such as nursing homes (meso); and (3) limited patient involvement in their care (micro). CONCLUSIONS:Far more actions for development than well-established practices in the medication use process were identified. Major challenges found in this evaluation are considered in the ongoing Rational Pharmacotherapy Action Plan 2018-2022 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Although improvement initiatives show benefits to patient care, they often fail to sustain. Models and frameworks exist to address this challenge, but issues with design, clarity and usability have been barriers to use in healthcare settings. This work aimed to collaborate with stakeholders to develop a sustainability tool relevant to people in healthcare settings and practical for use in improvement initiatives.<h4>Design</h4>Tool development was conducted in six stages. A scoping literature review, group discussions and a stakeholder engagement event explored literature findings and their resonance with stakeholders in healthcare settings. Interviews, small-scale trialling and piloting explored the design and tested the practicality of the tool in improvement initiatives.<h4>Setting</h4>National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Northwest London (CLAHRC NWL).<h4>Participants</h4>CLAHRC NWL improvement initiative teams and staff.<h4>Results</h4>The iterative design process and engagement of stakeholders informed the articulation of the sustainability factors identified from the literature and guided tool design for practical application. Key iterations of factors and tool design are discussed. From the development process, the Long Term Success Tool (LTST) has been designed. The Tool supports those implementing improvements to reflect on 12 sustainability factors to identify risks to increase chances of achieving sustainability over time. The Tool is designed to provide a platform for improvement teams to share their own views on sustainability as well as learn about the different views held within their team to prompt discussion and actions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The development of the LTST has reinforced the importance of working with stakeholders to design strategies which respond to their needs and preferences and can practically be implemented in real-world settings. Further research is required to study the use and effectiveness of the tool in practice and assess engagement with the method over time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Motivational interviewing (MI) is internationally recognised as an effective intervention to facilitate health-related behaviour change; although, how it is best implemented and maintained in everyday clinical practice is not so clear. The aim of this study is to understand how MI as an intervention can be embedded and sustained in the clinical practice and learning environments. METHODS:A concurrent iterative mixed methodology was utilised. Data collection occurred in two parts: a scoping review to identify reported barriers and enablers to embedding and sustaining MI in healthcare settings, and a survey of health professionals at an international clinical educator workshop on the topic. Results from both methods were integrated at the analysis phase ('following a thread') to understand how MI is embedded and the fidelity sustained in the clinical environments. Complexity theory as a conceptualising framework was utilised. RESULTS:Eleven studies were included, and 30 health professionals were surveyed. Sustainability of MI at micro-clinical levels can be fostered through use of enabling technology, focus on patient-centred care, personnel development and process improvement. At the meso-organisational level, developing shared vision, creating opportunities and an organisational culture supportive of continuous learning are relevant issues. At the macro levels, adopting systems thinking and a learning organisation approach is important for sustaining MI. CONCLUSIONS:In addressing the recognised barriers to embedding and sustaining MI in health service provisions, clinical educators could potentially play a central role as change agents within and across the complex clinical system.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify contextual factors at different organisational levels to guide the implementation of an assistive living technology intervention in Norwegian primary home care. DESIGN:A single embedded case study design was carried out in an urban municipality in Western Norway to get an overview of key contextual factors from the municipality's perspective. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:The data collection was based on a triangulation of methods involving document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews and focus group interviews to get a broad insight when preparing for an intervention. Data were collected on three levels of the healthcare system: (1) national policy documents and regulations (macro), (2) five individual interviews with senior managers and municipal strategy documents (meso) and (3) two focus group interviews with nurses and nurse managers in direct patient care (micro). The Model for Understanding Success in Quality framework was used as a guide in the data analysis. RESULTS:The main contextual factors identified were external motivators and project sponsorship (macro level); leadership, workforce focus and maturity (meso level);and motivation to change and maturity (micro level). Strategies developed in policy documents affected upper management in the municipality, but healthcare personnel at the micro level were not so familiar with strategies and emphasis on assistive living technologies. Healthcare personnel in our study were motivated to use technological solutions, but lack of data infrastructure and resource availability hindered this. CONCLUSIONS:Aligning interests across multiple stakeholders remain a challenge when planning for an assistive living technology intervention in primary care. In the studied municipality, integration of technological solutions into healthcare services was more a vision than a reality because of a low level of organisational readiness.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Significant evidence in the literature supports case management (CM) as an effective intervention to improve care for patients with complex healthcare needs. However, there is still little evidence about the facilitators and barriers to CM implementation in primary care setting. The three specific objectives of this study are to: (1) identify the facilitators and barriers of CM implementation in primary care clinics across Canada; (2) explain and understand the relationships between the actors, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes of the CM intervention; (3) identify the next steps towards CM spread in primary care across Canada. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will conduct a multiple-case embedded mixed methods study. CM will be implemented in 10 primary care clinics in five Canadian provinces. Three different units of analysis will be embedded to obtain an in-depth understanding of each case: the healthcare system (macro level), the CM intervention in the clinics (meso level) and the individual/patient (micro level). For each objective, the following strategy will be performed: (1) an implementation analysis, (2) a realist evaluation and (3) consensus building among stakeholders using the Technique for Research of Information by Animation of a Group of Experts method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study, which received ethics approval, will provide innovative knowledge about facilitators and barriers to implementation of CM in different primary care jurisdictions and will explain how and why different mechanisms operate in different contexts to generate different outcomes among frequent users. Consensual and prioritised statements about next steps for spread of CM in primary care from the perspectives of all stakeholders will be provided. Our results will offer context-sensitive explanations that can better inform local practices and policies and contribute to improve the health of patients with complex healthcare needs who frequently use healthcare services. Ultimately, this will increase the performance of healthcare systems and specifically mitigate ineffective use and costs.
Project description:Objectives The capability and capacity of the primary and community care (PCC) sector for dementia in Singapore may be enhanced through better integration. Through a partnership involving a tertiary hospital and PCC providers, an integrated dementia care network (CARITAS: comprehensive, accessible, responsive, individualised, transdisciplinary, accountable and seamless) was implemented. The study evaluated the process and extent of integration within CARITAS. Design Triangulation mixed-methods design and analyses were employed to understand factors underpinning network mechanisms. Setting The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the northern region of Singapore. Participants We recruited participants who were involved in the conceptualisation, design, development and implementation of the CARITAS Programme from a tertiary hospital and PCC providers. Intervention We used the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care-Measurement Tool (RMIC-MT) to assess integration from managerial perspectives. RMIC-MT comprises eight dimensions that play interconnected roles on a macro-level, meso-level and micro-level. We administered RMIC-MT to healthcare providers and conducted in-depth interviews with key CARITAS stakeholders. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed integration scores across eight dimensions of the RMIC-MT and factors underpinning network mechanisms. Results Compared with other dimensions, functional integration (mechanisms by which information and management modalities are linked) achieved the lowest mean score of 55. Other dimensions (eg, clinical, professional and organisational integration) scored about 70. Presence of inspiring clinical leaders and tacit interdependencies among partners strengthened the network. However, the lack of structured documentation and a shared information-technology platform hindered functional integration. Conclusion CARITAS has reached maturity in micro-levels and meso-levels of integration, while macro-integration needs further development. Integration can be enhanced by assessing service gaps, increasing engagement with stakeholders and providing a shared communication system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Competing priorities in health systems necessitate difficult choices on which health actions and investments to fund: decisions that are complex, value-based, and highly political. In light of the centrality of universal health coverage (UHC) in driving current health policy, we sought to examine the value interests that influence agenda setting in the country's health financing space. Given the plurality of Kenya's health policy levers, we aimed to examine how the perspectives of stakeholders involved in policy decision-making and implementation shape discussions on health financing within the UHC framework. METHODS:A series of in-depth key informant interviews were conducted at national and county level (n?=?13) between April and May 2018. Final thematic analysis using the Framework Method was conducted to identify similarities and differences amongst stakeholders on the challenges hindering Kenya's achievement of UHC in terms of its the optimisation of health service coverage; expansion of the population that benefits from essential healthcare services; and the minimisation of out-of-pocket costs associated with health-seeking behaviour. RESULTS:Our findings indicate that the perceived lack of strategic leadership from Kenya's national government has led to a lack of agreement on stakeholders' interpretation of what is to be understood by UHC, its contextual values and priorities. We observe material differences between and within policy networks on the country's priorities for population coverage, healthcare service provision, and cost-sharing under the UHC dispensation. In spite of this, we note that progressive universalism is considered as the preferred approach towards UHC in Kenya, with most interviewees prioritising an equity-based approach that prioritises better access to healthcare services and financial risk protection. However, the conflicting priorities of key stakeholders risk derailing progress towards the expansion of access to health services and financial risk protection. CONCLUSIONS:This study adds to existing knowledge of UHC in Kenya by contextualising the competing and evolving priorities that should be taken into consideration as the country strategises over its UHC process. We suggest that clear policy action is required from national government and county governments in order to develop a logical and consistent approach towards UHC in Kenya.
Project description:Value-based healthcare implies that healthcare issues are addressed most effectively with the 'physicians in the lead' (PIL) strategy. This study explores whether PIL also supports a holistic care approach that patients are increasingly demanding.A qualitative research design was used.This study was conducted in a general hospital in the Netherlands with an integrated PIL strategy.Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 hospital stakeholders: 13 stakeholders of an Obstetrics and Gynaecology department (the hospital's Patient Council (n=1), nurses (n=2), midwives (n=2), physicians (n=2), residents (n=2), the non-medical business managers of the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department (n=2) the Board of Directors (n=2)) and a member of the Dutch National Healthcare Institute's Innovative Healthcare Professions programme.According to diverse stakeholders, PIL does not support a holistic healthcare delivery approach, primarily because of the strong biomedical focus of the physicians. Although physicians can be educated to place more emphasis on the holistic outcome, holistic care delivery requires greater integration and teamwork in the care chain. As different healthcare professions are complementary to each other, a new strategy of a 'team in the lead' was suggested to meet the holistic healthcare demands. Besides this new strategy, there is a need for an extramural care management coordination centre where patients are able to receive support in managing their own care. This centre should also facilitate services similar to the core function of a church or community centre. These services should help patients to deal with different holistic dimensions that are important for their well-being.The PIL strategy appears to be insufficient for holistic healthcare delivery. A 'team in the lead' approach should be considered to meet the holistic healthcare demands. Further research should focus on observing PIL in different cultures and exploring the effectiveness of the strategy 'team in the lead'.
Project description:Background: Decentralization of health systems has made sub-national/regional healthcare systems the backbone of healthcare delivery. These regions are tasked with the difficult responsibility of determining healthcare priorities and resource allocation amidst scarce resources. We aimed to review empirical literature that evaluated priority setting practice at the meso level of health systems. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases and supplemented these with manual searching for relevant studies, based on the reference list of selected papers. We only included empirical studies that described and evaluated, or those that only evaluated priority setting practice at the meso-level. A total of 16 papers were identified from LMICs and HICs. We analyzed data from the selected papers by thematic review. Results: Few studies used systematic priority setting processes, and all but one were from HICs. Both formal and informal criteria are used in priority-setting, however, informal criteria appear to be more perverse in LMICs compared to HICs. The priority setting process at the meso-level is a top-down approach with minimal involvement of the community. Accountability for reasonableness was the most common evaluative framework as it was used in 12 of the 16 studies. Efficiency, reallocation of resources and options for service delivery redesign were the most common outcome measures used to evaluate priority setting. Limitations: Our study was limited by the fact that there are very few empirical studies that have evaluated priority setting at the meso-level and there is likelihood that we did not capture all the studies. Conclusions: Improving priority setting practices at the meso level is crucial to strengthening health systems. This can be achieved through incorporating and adapting systematic priority setting processes and frameworks to the context where used, and making considerations of both process and outcome measures during priority setting and resource allocation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Advanced Geriatric Nurse role recently has been introduced into Norway's primary healthcare system, and our study's purpose was to examine the implementation of models of care developed for Advanced Geriatric Nurse in primary care. With a structure evaluation, we tried to identify conditions that affect the implementation of different models of care and understand how these conditions affected the realisation of each model's intentions and goals. METHODS:An embedded multiple-case study was used that included five Norwegian municipalities and seven AGNs. The study included data from August 2014 through September 2018. We used data from 25 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with AGNs and stakeholders, documents and statistical information. We used a cross-case procedure with an emphasis on case findings for the analysis of the multiple case study. RESULTS:We analysed the structure-related conditions on two levels: the meso-level and the micro-level. On the meso-level, we found that the conditions that affected the implementation of the different models of care were related to each municipality's structure characteristics, stakeholders' involvement in the design of the models of care, the clarity of the models and their goals, the evaluation of the models and their adaptation. At the micro-level, we found that the conditions that affected the models' implementation were related to the collaboration within the implemented models of care, the role clarity of Advanced Geriatric Nurses themselves and adjustments within the models. CONCLUSIONS:The implementation of the AGN role in Norway seems to have been implemented in ways that can impact patients and municipalities positively. Potential improvements include extensive stakeholder involvement, improved roles, goal clarity and better documentation of structures and outcomes. The models' dynamic nature seemed to be a beneficial characteristic, but adaptation should be systematic and a necessary time should be considered for a new model of care to be integrated and produce results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The increasing cost on healthcare exposes China's healthcare budgets and system to financial crisis. To control the excessive growth of healthcare expenditure, China's healthcare reforms emphasize the control of the global budget for healthcare, which leads to the release of relevant policy and a series of cost-control actions implemented by different hospitals. This work aims to identify the effects brought by the cost-control policy and actions via surveying and analysing feedback from clinicians. METHODS:Questionnaires on the cost-control policy and actions were designed for surveying 110 clinicians in hospitals from different regions of China. The data on the implementation of the cost-control actions and doctors' feedback on these actions were analysed using descriptive statistics. Pearson's chi-squared tests were performed to detect associations between doctors' opinions and specific cost-control actions. A value of p?<?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Association relationships between doctors' opinions and cost-control actions were modelled into network models, and key factors were identified in a multi-variate framework. Last, we visualized our resultant data using a network model, and further multi-variate analysis was performed. RESULTS:There were three main findings. (1) The cost-control policy has been widely implemented in the sampled hospitals in different regions of China, with more than 80% of those surveyed acknowledging that their hospitals take actions of reducing average prescription fees for outpatients, drug costs, and in-hospitalization durations. (2) Most doctors have a negative view of some cost-control actions; this is mainly due to concerns about the effects of these actions on the doctors' own healthcare performance and patient satisfaction. (3) Cost-control actions that had a significant impact on doctors' performance included limiting average prescription fees for outpatients and limiting the use of examinations/drugs/surgeries. Decreased patient satisfaction was associated with fewer admissions of critically ill patients, reduced use of brand-name drugs, and increased total costs to patients due to increased frequencies of visits to the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS:Cost-control actions implemented in hospitals in response to the government's policy to reduce its national healthcare budget affect both doctors and patients in several ways. Moreover, the cost-control policy and actions can be improved.