An integrative DNA barcoding framework of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
ABSTRACT: Even though ladybirds are well known as economically important biological control agents, an integrative framework of DNA barcoding research was not available for the family so far. We designed and present a set of efficient mini-barcoding primers to recover full DNA barcoding sequences for Coccinellidae, even for specimens collected 40 years ago. Based on these mini-barcoding primers, we obtained 104 full DNA barcode sequences for 104 species of Coccinellidae, in which 101 barcodes were newly reported for the first time. We also downloaded 870 COI barcode sequences (658?bp) from GenBank and BOLD database, belonging to 108 species within 46 genera, to assess the optimum genetic distance threshold and compare four methods of species delimitation (GMYC, bPTP, BIN and ABGD) to determine the most accurate approach for the family. The results suggested the existence of a 'barcode gap' and that 3% is likely an appropriate genetic distance threshold to delimit species of Coccinellidae using DNA barcodes. Species delimitation analyses confirm ABGD as an accurate and efficient approach, more suitable than the other three methods. Our research provides an integrative framework for DNA barcoding and descriptions of new taxa in Coccinellidae. Our results enrich DNA barcoding public reference libraries, including data for Chinese coccinellids. This will facilitate taxonomic identification and biodiversity monitoring of ladybirds using metabarcoding.
Project description:Spiders are mega diverse arthropods and play an important role in the ecosystem. Identification of this group is challenging due to their cryptic behavior, sexual dimorphism, and unavailability of taxonomic keys for juveniles. To overcome these obstacles, DNA barcoding plays a pivotal role in spider identification throughout the globe. This study is the first large scale attempt on DNA barcoding of spiders from India with 101 morphospecies of 72 genera under 21 families, including five endemic species and holotypes of three species. A total of 489 barcodes was generated and analyzed, among them 85 novel barcodes of 22 morphospecies were contributed to the global database. The estimated delimitation threshold of the Indian spiders was 2.6% to 3.7% K2P corrected pairwise distance. The multiple species delimitation methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC and PTP) revealed a total of 107 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) for 101 morphospecies. We detected more than one MOTU in 11 morphospecies with discrepancies in genetic distances and tree topologies. Cryptic diversity was detected in Pardosa pusiola, Cyclosa spirifera, and Heteropoda venatoria. The intraspecies distances which were as large as our proposed delimitation threshold were observed in Pardosa sumatrana, Thiania bhamoensis, and Cheiracanthium triviale. Further, shallow genetic distances were detected in Cyrtophora cicatrosa, Hersilia savignyi, Argiope versicolor, Phintella vittata, and Oxyopes birmanicus. Two morphologically distinguished species (Plexippus paykulli and Plexippus petersi) showed intra-individual variation within their DNA barcode data. Additionally, we reinstate the original combination for Linyphia sikkimensis based on both morphology and DNA barcoding. These data show that DNA barcoding is a valuable tool for specimen identification and species discovery of Indian spiders.
Project description:DNA barcoding has proven its worth in species identification, discovering cryptic diversity, and inferring genetic divergence. However, reliable DNA barcode reference libraries that these applications depend on are not available for many taxonomic groups and geographical regions. Aphids are a group of plant sap sucking insects, including many notorious pests in agriculture and forestry. The aphid fauna of the subtropical region has been understudied. In this study, based on extensive sampling effort across main subtropical areas, we sequenced 1581 aphid specimens of 143 morphospecies, representing 75 genera, and 13 subfamilies, to build the first comprehensive DNA barcode library for subtropical aphids. We examined the utility of DNA barcodes in identifying aphid species and population differentiation and evaluated the ability of different species delimitation methods (automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD), generalized mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC), and Bayesian Poisson tree processes (bPTP)). We found that most aphid species demonstrated barcode gaps and that a threshold value of 2% genetic distance is suitable for distinguishing most species. Our results indicated that ten morphospecies may have species divergence related to factors such as host plant or geography. By using two pest species Aphis spiraecola and A. gossypii as examples, we also discussed the effect of the sampling scale of host plants on the results and reliability of DNA barcoding of phytophagous insects. This DNA barcode library will be valuable for future studies and applications.
Project description:Species substitution is a form of seafood fraud for the purpose of economic gain. DNA barcoding utilizes species-specific DNA sequence information for specimen identification. Previous work has established the usability of short DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-for identification of specimens harboring degraded DNA. This study aims at establishing a DNA mini-barcoding system for all fish species commonly used in processed fish products in North America. Six mini-barcode primer pairs targeting short (127-314?bp) fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) DNA barcode region were developed by examining over 8,000 DNA barcodes from species in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Seafood List. The mini-barcode primer pairs were then tested against 44 processed fish products representing a range of species and product types. Of the 44 products, 41 (93.2%) could be identified at the species or genus level. The greatest mini-barcoding success rate found with an individual primer pair was 88.6% compared to 20.5% success rate achieved by the full-length DNA barcode primers. Overall, this study presents a mini-barcoding system that can be used to identify a wide range of fish species in commercial products and may be utilized in high throughput DNA sequencing for authentication of heavily processed fish products.
Project description:The megadiverse Neotropical fish fauna lacks a comprehensive and reliable DNA reference database, which hampers precise species identification and DNA based biodiversity assessment in the region. Here, we developed a mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA reference database for 67 fish species, representing 54 genera, 25 families, and six major Neotropical orders. We aimed to develop mini-barcode markers (i.e. amplicons with less than 200 bp) suitable for DNA metabarcoding by evaluating the taxonomic resolution of full-length and mini-barcodes and to determine a threshold value for fish species delimitation using 12S. Evaluation of the target amplicons demonstrated that both full-length library (565 bp) and mini-barcodes (193 bp) contain enough taxonomic resolution to differentiate all 67 fish species. For species delimitation, interspecific genetic distance threshold values of 0.4% and 0.55% were defined using full-length and mini-barcodes, respectively. A custom reference database and specific mini-barcode markers are important assets for ecoregion scale DNA based biodiversity assessments (such as environmental DNA) that can help with the complex task of conserving the megadiverse Neotropical ichthyofauna.
Project description:Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) are key pests of agricultural crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their populations are difficult to control, even with insecticides, due to their cryptic habits. Moreover, there is growing concern over the use of synthetic pesticides for their control, due to deleterious environmental effects and the emergence of resistant populations of target pests. In this context, biological control may be an effective and sustainable approach. Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea includes natural enemies of scale insects that have been successfully used in many biological control programs. However, the correct identification of pest scale species and their natural enemies is particularly challenging because these insects are very small and highly specialized. Integrative taxonomy, coupling DNA barcoding and morphological analysis, has been successfully used to characterize pests and natural enemy species. In this study, we performed a survey of parasitoids and predators of armored and soft scales in Chile, based on 28S and COI barcodes. Fifty-three populations of Diaspididae and 79 populations of Coccidae were sampled over the entire length of the country, from Arica (18°S) to Frutillar (41°S), between January 2015 and February 2016. The phylogenetic relationships obtained by Bayesian inference from multilocus haplotypes revealed 41 putative species of Chalcidoidea, five Coccinellidae and three Neuroptera. Species delimitation was confirmed using ABGD, GMYC and PTP model. In Chalcidoidea, 23 species were identified morphologically, resulting in new COI barcodes for 12 species and new 28S barcodes for 14 species. Two predator species (Rhyzobius lophantae and Coccidophilus transandinus) were identified morphologically, and two parasitoid species, Chartocerus niger and Signiphora bifasciata, were recorded for the first time in Chile.
Project description:Chaitophorinae aphids are widespread across Eurasia and North America, and include some important agricultural and horticultural pests. So, accurate rapid species identification is very important. Here, we used three mitochondrial genes and one endosymbiont gene to calculate and analyze the genetic distances within different datasets. For species delimitation, two distance-based methods were employed, threshold with NJ (neighbor-joining) and ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery), and two tree-based approaches, GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescent) and PTP (Poisson Tree Process). The genetic interspecific divergence was clearly larger than the intraspecific divergence for four molecular markers. COI and COII genes were found to be more suitable for Chaitophorinae DNA barcoding. For species delimitation, at least one distance-based method combined with one tree-based method would be preferable. Based on the data for Chaitophorus saliniger and Laingia psammae, DNA barcoding may also reveal geographical variation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The goal of DNA barcoding is to develop a species-specific sequence library for all eukaryotes. A 650 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene has been used successfully for species-level identification in several animal groups. It may be difficult in practice, however, to retrieve a 650 bp fragment from archival specimens, (because of DNA degradation) or from environmental samples (where universal primers are needed). RESULTS: We used a bioinformatics analysis using all CO1 barcode sequences from GenBank and calculated the probability of having species-specific barcodes for varied size fragments. This analysis established the potential of much smaller fragments, mini-barcodes, for identifying unknown specimens. We then developed a universal primer set for the amplification of mini-barcodes. We further successfully tested the utility of this primer set on a comprehensive set of taxa from all major eukaryotic groups as well as archival specimens. CONCLUSION: In this study we address the important issue of minimum amount of sequence information required for identifying species in DNA barcoding. We establish a novel approach based on a much shorter barcode sequence and demonstrate its effectiveness in archival specimens. This approach will significantly broaden the application of DNA barcoding in biodiversity studies.
Project description:Sand fly identification is complex because it depends on the expertise of the taxonomist. The females show subtle morphological differences and the occurrence of the species complexes are usual in this taxon. Therefore, a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is used for taxon barcoding to resolve this kind of problem. This study incorporates barcode sequences, for the first time, for Evandromyia cortelezzii and Migonemyia migonei from Argentina. The nucleotide sequence divergences were estimated to generate a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree. The automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) approach was employed to find the barcode gaps and the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) delimitation. Other species of the subtribe were included. The frequency histogram of divergences showed a barcoding gap. The ABGD analysis identified 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 13 morphological species. Sequences of Ev. cortelezzii and Mg. migonei formed well supported clusters and were diagnosed as primary species. These sequences are useful tools for molecular identification of the sand flies of the New World.
Project description:The genus Dioscorea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and is economically important in terms of food supply and pharmaceutical applications. However, DNA barcodes are relatively unsuccessful in discriminating between Dioscorea species, with the highest discrimination rate (23.26%) derived from matK sequences. In this study, we compared genic and intergenic regions of three Dioscorea chloroplast genomes and found that the density of SNPs and indels in intergenic sites was about twice and seven times higher than that of SNPs and indels in the genic regions, respectively. A total of 52 primer pairs covering highly variable regions were designed and seven pairs of primers had 80%-100% PCR success rate. PCR amplicons of 73 Dioscorea individuals and assembled sequences of 47 Dioscorea SRAs were used for estimating intraspecific and interspecific divergence for the seven loci: The rpoB-trnC locus had the highest interspecific divergence. Automatic barcoding gap discovery (ABGD), Poisson tree processes (PTP), and generalized mixed Yule coalescence (GMYC) analysis were applied for species delimitation based on the seven loci and successfully identified the majority of species, except for species in the Enantiophyllum section. Phylogenetic analysis of 51 Dioscorea individuals (28 species) showed that most individuals belonging to the same species tended to cluster in the same group. Our results suggest that the variable loci derived from comparative analysis of plastid genome sequences could be good DNA barcode candidates for taxonomic analysis and species delimitation.
Project description:The plant DNA barcoding is a complex and requires more than one marker(s) as compared to animal barcoding. Mangroves are diverse estuarine ecosystem prevalent in the tropical and subtropical zone, but anthropogenic activity turned them into the vulnerable ecosystem. There is a need to build a molecular reference library of mangrove plant species based on molecular barcode marker along with morphological characteristics. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL and matK) and four promising complementary barcodes (ITS2, psbK-psbI, rpoC1 and atpF-atpH) in 14 mangroves species belonging to 5 families from West Coast India. Data analysis was performed based on barcode gap analysis, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), TaxonDNA (BM, BCM), Poisson Tree Processes (PTP) and General Mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC). matK+ITS2 marker based on GMYC method resolved 57.14% of mangroves species and TaxonDNA, ABGD, and PTP discriminated 42.85% of mangrove species. With a single locus analysis, ITS2 exhibited the higher discriminatory power (87.82%) and combinations of matK + ITS2 provided the highest discrimination success (89.74%) rate except for Avicennia genus. Further, we explored 3 additional markers (psbK-psbI, rpoC1, and atpF-atpH) for Avicennia genera (A. alba, A. officinalis and A. marina) and atpF-atpH locus was able to discriminate three species of Avicennia genera. Our analysis underscored the efficacy of matK + ITS2 markers along with atpF-atpH as the best combination for mangrove identification in West Coast India regions.