Food insecurity and the risk of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The link between food insecurity and depression in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been explored in numerous studies; however, the existing evidence is inconclusive due to inconsistent results. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the relationship between food insecurity and depression in PLWHA. METHODS:We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus to identify relevant studies. A random-effect model was used for conducting the meta-analysis. We assessed the risk of publication bias by funnel plot and Egger's regression asymmetry test. RESULTS:In this review, seven studies were included in the final analysis. Our meta-analysis revealed that food insecurity significantly increased the risk of depression in PLWHA [RR 2.28 (95% CI 1.56-3.32)]. This association remained significant after adjusting for the confounding effects of drug use [RR 1.63 (95% CI 1.27-2.10)], social support [RR 2.21 (95% CI 1.18-4.16)] as well as ART drugs [RR 1.96 (95% CI 1.17-3.28)]. Our subgroup and sensitivity confirmed the robustness of the main analysis. CONCLUSION:This systematic review and meta-analysis suggest a significant association between food insecurity and increased risk of depression PLWHA. Therefore, early screening and management of food insecurity in PLWHA seem to be necessary.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study examined whether diabetic morbidity mediates the relationship of food insecurity with depression among older adults with diabetes. METHODS:Data came from the 2010-2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and analyses were limited to respondents with diabetes (n?=?2951). Depression was indexed by the 8-item Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Weighted logistic regression was used to examine relationships of food insecurity and diabetic morbidity with depressive symptoms, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Path analysis quantified the contribution of diabetic morbidity as a mediation of the relationship of food insecurity with depressive symptoms. RESULTS:Food insecurity was associated with having poor diabetes control (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.1-2.5) and diabetes-related kidney problems (OR?=?1.6; 95% CI?=?1.1-2.5). Additionally, food insecurity was associated with depression contemporaneously (OR?=?2.0, 95% CI?=?1.7-2.4) and longitudinally (OR?=?1.5, 95% CI?=?1.3-1.8). However, food insecurity was no longer associated with depression when adjusting for diabetic morbidity. In path analyses, diabetic morbidity explained 12.7% (p-value?=?.04) of the association of food insecurity with depressive symptoms in 2012 and 18.5% (p-value?=?.09) of the association with depressive symptoms in 2014. CONCLUSION:The relationship of food insecurity with depression was attributable to worse diabetes morbidity. Interventions that reduce food insecurity among older adults with diabetes may improve disease management and reduce depression severity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HIV-infected adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy have a high prevalence of food insecurity in both high- and low-income settings., Women bear an inequitable burden of food insecurity due to lack of control over resources and over household food allocation decision-making. The few studies conducted on the association between food insecurity and gender among HIV-infected adults have inconclusive findings. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled effect of gender on food insecurity among HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHOD:We conducted an electronic, web-based search using PubMed, CINAHL, PopLine, MedNar, Embase, Cochrane library, the JBI Library, the Web of Science and Google Scholar. We included studies which reported the association between food insecurity and gender among HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy whose age was greater than 18 years. The analysis was conducted using STATA 14 software. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled effect a 95% confidence interval(CI). Forest plots were used to visualize the presence of heterogeneity. Funnel plots and Egger's and Begg's tests were used to check for publication bias. RESULTS:A total of 776 studies were identified of which seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 5827 HIV infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy. We found that the gender of HIV-infected adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy had statistically significant effects on food insecurity. The pooled odds of developing food insecurity among female HIV infected adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy was 53% higher than male HIV infected adults (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.83). Our analysis indicate the findings of studies conducted in the high-income countries showed weakest associations between gender and food insecurity than those conducted in low- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSION:Our systematic review and meta-analysis showed statistically significant effect of gender on food insecurity among HIV-infected adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy in which odds of food insecurity was higher among female HIV infected adults compared to male HIV-infected adults. These findings suggest that the need to include within food and nutrition interventions for HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral treatment, culture- and context-specific gender-based policies to address the sex/gender related vulnerability to food insecurity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Binge eating is prevalent across socioeconomic status (SES) groups, but it is unclear whether risk factors for binge eating vary by SES. This study examined the prevalence of several risk factors for binge eating by SES and SES as a potential moderator of these risk factors. METHOD:Participants included 2,179 individuals involved in Project EAT during early/middle adolescence (EAT-I) and 5 years later during late adolescence/emerging adulthood (EAT-II). Risk ratios were computed using modified Poisson regression of incident EAT-II binge eating on EAT-I risk factors among participants of high and low SES. Interactions between each risk factor and SES were tested. RESULTS:Among higher SES adolescents, overweight/obesity (RR?=?3.2; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.7), body dissatisfaction (RR?=?2.6; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.2, 5.5), dieting (RR?=?4.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 8.2), and family weight-teasing (RR?=?2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.3) predicted increased risk for binge eating. Among adolescents from low-SES backgrounds, overweight/obesity (RR?=?1.5; 95% CI: 0.9, 2.5), dieting (RR?=?2.2; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.9), and food insecurity (RR?=?1.4; 95% CI: 0.7, 2.7) predicted increased risk for binge eating. Moderator analyses revealed that overweight/obesity, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and family weight-teasing were stronger risk factors in the high-SES group than the low-SES group; interactions with food insecurity could not be examined given the low prevalence of food insecurity in the high-SES group. DISCUSSION:Risk factors for binge eating may vary by SES, suggesting the potential utility of modifying intervention and prevention methods based on SES. In particular, the role of food insecurity must be addressed.
Project description:Cancer is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate prevalence of cancer risk factors among Chinese PLWHA based on 102 articles. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the summary prevalence estimate (sPrev) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each cancer risk factor by demographic group. Overall, the sPrev for each risk factor among Chinese PLWHA was: 41.1% (95% CI: 35.3-46.9%) for current smoking; 30.3% (95% CI: 23.3-37.4%) for current alcohol consumption; 24.4% (95% CI: 14.7-30.2%) for overweight and obesity; 12.5% (95% CI: 10.6-14.3%) for hepatitis B virus infection; 29.1% (95% CI: 23.6-34.5%) for hepatitis C virus infection; 33.9% (95% CI: 24.3-43.5%) for high-risk human papillomavirus infection from cervical samples and 78.6% (95% CI: 69.4-87.7%) from anal samples; 2.7% (95% CI: 0.7-4.7%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) positivity, 94.7% (95% CI: 90.7-98.8%) for EBV IgG positivity and 25.6% (95% CI: 12.4-38.8%) for EBV DNA positivity; 14.9% (95% CI: 12.4-17.4%) for human herpes virus 8 infection. The prevalence of major cancer risk factors was high among PLWHA in China, suggesting an urgent need for interventions to reduce cancer risk in this high-risk group.
Project description:We examined the association between household food insecurity and early child development and whether or not maternal depression and anxiety modifies this association. The cross-sectional study included 468 mother-infant pairs recruited at primary health centers of the Federal District, Brazil. Mothers answered a questionnaire that evaluated early child development (outcome), household food insecurity (independent variable), maternal depression and trait anxiety (effect modifiers). Variables were collected with validated questionnaires for the Brazilian population. Pearson's ?2 test and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Infants who lived in a moderate or severe food insecure household had 2.52 times (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.13, 5.65]) the odds of having early child development delays compared with infants in secure households. Maternal depression and anxiety modified the strength of association between household food insecurity and early child development, which is an innovative finding. Among infants with depressed mothers, those experiencing mild (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.33, 95% CI [1.17, 9.46]) and moderate/severe household food insecurity (aOR 10.13, 95% CI [2.18, 47.10]) had higher odds of having early child development delays, compared with infants in food secure households. Among infants with both anxious and depressed mothers, these associations were even stronger for mild (aOR 4.69, 95% CI [1.41, 15.59]) and moderate/severe household food insecurity (aOR 16.07, 95% CI [2.70, 95.66]). In conclusion, household food insecurity is a risk factor for early child development delays, and this association is modified by maternal depression and anxiety. Future studies should evaluate the impact of intervention packages that address maternal depression and anxiety and household food insecurity on preventing early child development delays.
Project description:With the aging of the population worldwide, there is an increasing concern for the mental health status as well as physical health. Depression is a common mental health problem among the elderly populations. Since the elderly are susceptible to food insecurity, this cross-sectional study is aimed to determine an association between food insecurity and depression among elderly people. A total of 220 elderly people- aged 60 years and above, residing in the Petaling district of Selangor, were included in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to obtain the pertinent information on demographic background, food security status (six items USDA FSSM), functional status (IADL, EMS), psychosocial status (LSNS-6), and depression status (GDS-15). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the factors that were associated with depression. The median age of the elderly sample was 65.5 years. The prevalence of depression and food insecurity that was recorded were 13.2% and 19.5%, respectively. Social isolation (AOR = 5.882, 95% CI: 2.221, 15.576), food insecurity (AOR = 3.539, 95% CI: 1.350, 9.279), and unsafe mobility (AOR= 3.729, 95% CI: 1.302, 10.683) increased the odds of depression. In conclusion, social isolation, food insecurity, and unsafe mobility are factors associated with depression among the elderly people. Plans such as health interventions as well as grocery and financial aid among the qualifying elderly are suggested to improve this depression and food insecurity.
Project description:Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS and contributes to a wide range of worsened HIV-related outcomes, including AIDS-related mortality. Targeting modifiable causes of depression, either through primary or secondary prevention, may reduce suffering as well as improve HIV-related outcomes. Food insecurity is a pervasive source of uncertainty for those living in resource-limited settings, and cross-sectional studies have increasingly recognized it as a critical determinant of poor mental health. Using cohort data from 456 men and women living with HIV/AIDS initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda, we sought to (a) estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity, (b) assess the extent to which social support may serve as a buffer against the adverse effects of food insecurity, and (c) determine whether the buffering effects are specific to certain types of social support. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews and blood draws. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity, measured by a modified Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression. The primary explanatory variables were food insecurity, measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and social support, measured with a modified version of the Functional Social Support Questionnaire. We found that food insecurity was associated with depression symptom severity among women but not men, and that social support buffered the impacts of food insecurity on depression. We also found that instrumental support had a greater buffering influence than emotional social support. Interventions aimed at improving food security and strengthening instrumental social support may have synergistic beneficial effects on both mental health and HIV outcomes among PLWHA in resource-limited settings.
Project description:People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada.This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative.Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders.Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79-25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15-17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74-11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25-5.96, p = 0.012].Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting.
Project description:HIV/AIDS and food insecurity are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with each heightening the vulnerability to, and worsening the severity of, the other. Less research has focused on the social determinants of food insecurity in resource-limited settings, including social support and HIV-related stigma. In this study, we analyzed data from a cohort of 456 persons from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, an ongoing prospective cohort of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in Mbarara, Uganda. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews. The primary outcome, food insecurity, was measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Key covariates of interest included social support, internalized HIV-related stigma, HIV-related enacted stigma, and disclosure of HIV serostatus. Severe food insecurity was highly prevalent overall (38%) and more prevalent among women than among men. Social support, HIV disclosure, and internalized HIV-related stigma were associated with food insecurity; these associations persisted after adjusting for household wealth, employment status, and other previously identified correlates of food insecurity. The adverse effects of internalized stigma persisted in a lagged specification, and the beneficial effect of social support further persisted after the inclusion of fixed effects. International organizations have increasingly advocated for addressing food insecurity as part of HIV/AIDS programming to improve morbidity and mortality. This study provides quantitative evidence on social determinants of food insecurity among PLWHA in resource-limited settings and suggests points of intervention. These findings also indicate that structural interventions to improve social support and/or decrease HIV-related stigma may also improve the food security of PLWHA.
Project description:Pregnant women who experience psychosocial stressors, such as stressful life events, poor neighborhood quality, and financial hardship, are at an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined associations between multiple stressors from different sources, which may be helpful to better inform causal pathways leading to adverse birth outcomes. Using path analysis, we examined associations between multiple self-reported stressor exposures during and before pregnancy in the Chemicals in Our Bodies-2 study (N = 510), a demographically diverse cohort of pregnant women in San Francisco. We examined associations between eight self-reported exposures to stressors and three responses to stress which were assessed via interview questionnaire at the 2nd trimester. Stressors included: neighborhood quality, stressful life events, caregiving, discrimination, financial strain, job strain, food insecurity, and unplanned pregnancy. Perceived stress, depression, and perceived community status were included as indicators of self-reported stress response. Our model indicated that women who experienced discrimination and food insecurity had a 3.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 5.85) and 2.67 (95% CI = 1.31, 4.04) increase in depression scale scores compared to women who did not experience discrimination and food insecurity, respectively. We additionally identified job strain and caregiving for an ill family member as strong predictors of increased depressive symptoms (? = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.29, 3.07; ? = 1.48, 95% CI = 0.19, 2.70, respectively). Discrimination, food insecurity, and job strain also influenced depression indirectly through the mediating pathway of increasing perceived stress, although indirect effects were less precise. In our study population, women who experienced discrimination, food insecurity, job strain and caregiving for an ill family member had an increased number of depressive symptoms compared to women who did not experience these stressors. Results from our study highlight the complex relationships between stressors and stress responses and may help to identify possible mediating pathways leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes.