Six-minute walking distance in healthy Chinese people older than 60?years.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The six-minute walking test (6MWT) is a tool that plays a key role in evaluating the functional exercise capacity, prognosis and evaluation of treatment response of patients with various cardiopulmonary diseases. However, standard reference equations are currently unavailable for the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) for people aged 60-85?years in China. The purpose of this study was to 1) measure the 6MWD of healthy Chinese people aged 60-85?years, 2) establish reference equations for predicting the 6MWD, and 3) compare our reference equations with equations reported in previously published studies. METHOD:We obtained informed consent from each participant prior to the test, and the research design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Wenzhou People's Hospital. The demographic and anthropometric data and the 6MWD of healthy Chinese subjects aged 60-85?years old were measured using a standardized protocol. Every subject completed two 6MWTs, and the longest 6MWD further analyzed. RESULTS:Two hundred sixty-six subjects (128 males and 138 females) completed the 6MWT, and the mean walking distance was 518?±?72?m. Males achieved a longer walking distance than females (518?±?72?m vs. 487?±?70?m; p
Project description:The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a safe, simple, inexpensive tool for evaluating the functional exercise capacity of patients with chronic respiratory disease. However, there is a lack of standard reference equations for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in the healthy Chinese population aged 18-59 years.The purposes of the present study were as follows: 1) to measure the anthropometric data and walking distance of a sample of healthy Chinese Han people aged 18-59 years; 2) to construct reference equations for the 6MWD; 3) to compare the measured 6MWD with previously published equations.The anthropometric data, demographic information, lung function, and walking distance of Chinese adults aged 18-59 years were prospectively measured using a standardized protocol. We obtained verbal consent from all the subjects before the test, and the study design was approved by the ethics committee of Wenzhou People's Hospital. The 6MWT was performed twice, and the longer distance was used for further analysis.A total of 643 subjects (319 females and 324 males) completed the 6MWT, and average walking distance was 601.6±55.51 m. The walking distance was compared between females and males (578±49.85 m vs. 623±52.53 m; p < 0.0001) and between physically active subjects and sedentary subjects (609.3±56.17 m vs. 592±53.23 m; p < 0.0001). Pearson's correlation indicated that the 6MWD was significantly correlated with various demographic and the 6MWT variables, such as age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), heart rate after the test and the difference in the heart rate before and after the test. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that age and height were independent predictors associated with the 6MWD. The reference equations from white, Canadian and Chilean populations tended to overestimate the walking distance in our subjects, while Brazilian and Arabian equations tended to underestimate the walking distance. There was no significant difference in the walking distance between Korean reference equations and the results of the current study.In summary, age and height were the most significant predictors of the 6MWD, and regression equations could explain approximately 34% and 28% of the distance variance in the female and male groups, respectively.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.
Project description:The 6-minute walking test (6MWT) is a simple assessment tool to evaluate exercise capacity. The result of the test is the distance that a subject can walk at a constant and normal pace within 6 minutes (6MWD) and reflects the aerobic/fitness performance related to walking function. Use of 6MWT has been relevant to assess exercise tolerance either in healthy children or in patients with, heart, lung and metabolic diseases. Our aim was to find 6MWT reference values in healthy Italian children. The 6MWT was performed in 5614 children aged 6-11 years recruited from primary Italian schools. Age related reference percentiles of the covered distance were gender-modeled. A linear and quadratic regression model was used to predict 6MWT performance. Males walked longer distances than females, respectively 598.8±83.9 m vs 592.1±77.6 m (p = 0.0016). According to the regression analysis, 6MWD was positively related to age, gender and height, while it was negatively related to body weight [(6MWD = -160.16 + 93.35× age (years) -4.05× age2 (years) +7.34× gender (m) +2.12× weight (kg) -2.50× height (cm)]. Reference values were established for the 6MWT in healthy children. The age related 6MWD percentiles provided a useful tool in the assessment of capacity in 6-11 year children, in fact they may be helpful to evaluate the effect of a given treatment or rehabilitation program and represent a feasible measure as to prevention within the primary school context. It was found a substantial difference from other countries for 6mwd values. In our study, factors such as age, weight and height were relevant for the prediction of 6MWD, similarly to other studies. Therefore, these variables should be taken into account in context of exercise performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Although the six-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a measure of exercise capacity, it may not be applicable in some settings and populations. This issue has led to increased use of the two-minute walk test (2MWT) to assess exercise capacity. The main objective of this study is to establish reference equations for the two-minute walk distance (2MWD) in healthy Chinese adults aged 18-85 years. METHODS:A total of 973 volunteers took part in the study. We obtained verbal consent from all participants before the test, and the study design was approved by the ethics committees of Wenzhou People's Hospital. The participants performed two 2MWTs using a standardized protocol, and the longer distance was used for further analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using age, height and weight as independent variables and was used to establish the reference equations for the 2MWD in the male and female groups. RESULTS:The mean walking distance for all participants was 199.1±25.81 m. Age and height were identified as independent factors that influenced the 2MWD, and they explained 35% and 34% of the variance in distance for the male and female groups, respectively. CONCLUSION:This study resulted in determination of reference equations for predicting the 2MWD in healthy Chinese adults. These 2MWD standards will provide useful references for medical care in some settings and populations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Lung transplantation (LTx) candidates have severe exercise intolerance. This makes it difficult for them to complete the field tests used to determine the exercise capacity of patients. Therefore, there is a need for alternative tests that require less effort. We aimed to investigate the use of short-timed performance tests instead of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in the determination of exercise capacity in LTx. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 63 LTx candidates were included in the study. Ten-meter walking speed test (10MWT), 5-times sit-to-stand test (5XSST), 6MWT were performed at one-hour intervals within the same day, and by the same physiotherapist in all patients. Maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory pressure (MEP), peripheral muscle strengths, pulmonary function tests, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded for each patient. RESULTS:The subjects' baseline mean 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) was 336m, 5XSST time was 11.59 sec, and 10MWT time was 8.45sec. There was a negative and moderate correlation between 6MWD and 10MWT (p<0.001, r=0.449). Similarly there was a negative but weak correlation between 6MWD and 5XSST (p=0.001, r=0.397). In addition, there was a strong relationship between 5XSST and 10MWT (p<0.001, r=0.767). CONCLUSION:This study showed that 6MWT and short-timed performance tests were correlated in terms of exercise capacity assessment. In contrast, there was a strong relationship between 6MWT and 10MWT according to 6MWT and 5XSST. The timed performance tests may be alternative tests to determine exercise capacity in LTx candidates.
Project description:This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in healthy elderly women. Thirty-two sedentary women that were aged 65 years and older participated in a 12-week, non-randomized comparative trial. The subjects were allocated to two groups receiving different exercise interventions, trunk muscle training (TM), or aerobic exercise training (AE). AE included brisk walking, i.e., at an intensity of ≥ 3 metabolic equivalents (METs). The composition of the intestinal microbiota in fecal samples was determined before and after the training period. We also assessed the daily physical activity using an accelerometer, trunk muscle strength by the modified Kraus-Weber (K-W) test, and cardiorespiratory fitness by a 6-min. walk test (6MWT). K-W test scores and distance achieved during the 6MWT (6MWD) improved in both groups. The relative abundance of intestinal Bacteroides only significantly increased in the AE group, particularly in subjects showing increases in the time spent in brisk walking. Overall, the increases in intestinal Bacteroides following the exercise intervention were associated with increases in 6MWD. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training that targets an increase of the time spent in brisk walking may increase intestinal Bacteroides in association with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy elderly women.
Project description:The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in a regular hallway is commonly used to assess functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, treadmill walking might provide additional advantages over overground walking, especially if virtual reality and self-paced treadmill walking are combined. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the reproducibility and validity of the 6MWT using the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) in patients with COPD and healthy elderly.Sixty-one patients with COPD and 48 healthy elderly performed two 6MWTs on the GRAIL. Patients performed two overground 6MWTs and healthy elderly performed one overground test. Differences between consecutive 6MWTs and the test conditions (GRAIL vs. overground) were analysed. Patients walked further in the second overground test (24.8 m, 95% CI 15.2-34.4 m, p<0.001) and in the second GRAIL test (26.8 m, 95% CI 13.9-39.6 m). Healthy elderly improved their second GRAIL test (49.6 m, 95% CI 37.0-62.3 m). The GRAIL 6MWT was reproducible (intra-class coefficients = 0.65-0.80). The best GRAIL 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients was shorter than the best overground 6MWD (-27.3 ± 49.1 m, p<0.001). Healthy elderly walked further on the GRAIL than in the overground condition (23.6 ± 41.4 m, p<0.001). Validity of the GRAIL 6MWT was assessed and intra-class coefficient values ranging from 0.74-0.77 were found.The GRAIL is a promising system to assess the 6MWD in patients with COPD and healthy elderly. The GRAIL 6MWD seems to be more comparable to the 6MWDs assessed overground than previous studies on treadmills have reported. Furthermore, good construct validity and reproducibility were established in assessing the 6MWD using the GRAIL in patients with COPD and healthy elderly.
Project description:Four-meter gait speed (4MGS) has been associated with functional capacity and overall mortality in elderly patients, and may easily be translated to daily practice. We evaluated the association of 4MGS with meaningful outcomes.In 70 subjects we conducted the 4MGS, 6-min walk test (6MWT), objectively measured physical activity, and assessed dyspnea, quality of life, and self-efficacy for walking and routine physical activity. 4MGS was measured in 3 separate time epochs during the 6MWT, to explore 4MGS variability.Diagnoses included COPD (51.4%), interstitial lung disease (38.6%), and other pulmonary conditions (10%). The mean ± SD values were: 4MGS 0.85 ± 0.21 m/s, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) 305 ± 115 m, and physical activity level 1.28 ± 0.17, which is consistent with severe physical inactivity. The gait speeds within the time epochs 1-2, 3-4, and 5-6 min during the 6MWT were not significantly different: 1.01 ± 0.29 m/s, 0.98 ± 0.31 m/s, and 1.00 ± 0.31 m/s, respectively. 4MGS had a significant correlation with 6MWD (r = 0.70, P < .001). 6MWD was the dominant variable for predicting 4MGS. Other significant predictors of 4MGS included dyspnea, self-efficacy, quality of life, and objectively measured physical activity.4MGS is significantly and independently associated with 6MWD, and may serve as a reasonable simple surrogate for 6MWD in subjects with chronic lung disease. Gait speed was remarkably stable throughout the 6MWT, which supports the validity of an abbreviated walk test such as 4MGS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Exercise tolerance can be assessed by the cycle endurance test (CET) and six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We sought to investigate the characteristics of functional exercise performance and determinants of the CET and 6MWT in a large clinical cohort of COPD patients. METHODS: A dataset of 2053 COPD patients (43% female, age: 66.9 ± 9.5 years, FEV1% predicted: 48.2 ± 23.2) was analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent, amongst others, respiratory function evaluation; medical tests and questionnaires, one maximal incremental cycle test where peak work rate was determined and two functional exercise tests: a CET at 75% of peak work rate and 6MWT. A stepwise multiple linear regression was used to assess determinants. RESULTS: On average, patients had impaired exercise tolerance (peak work rate: 56 ± 27% predicted, 6MWT: 69 ± 17% predicted). A total of 2002 patients had CET time of duration (CET-Tend) less than 20 min while only 51 (2.5%) of the patients achieved 20 min of CET-Tend . In former patients, the percent of predicted peak work rate achieved differed significantly between men (48 ± 21% predicted) and women (67 ± 31% predicted). In contrast, CET-Tend was longer in men (286 ± 174 s vs 250 ± 153 s, p < 0.001). Also, six minute walking distance (6MWD) was higher in men compared to women, both in absolute terms as in percent of predicted (443 m, 67%predicted vs 431 m, 72%predicted, p < 0.05). Gender was associated with the CET-Tend but BMI, FEV1 and FRC were related to the 6MWD highlighting the different determinants of exercise performance between CET and 6MWT. CONCLUSIONS: CET-Tend is a valuable outcome of CET as it is related to multiple clinical aspects of disease severity in COPD. Gender difference should temper the interpretation of CET.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with exertional oxygen desaturation, which may be evaluated using the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). However, it is a time-consuming test. The 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1STST) is a simpler test, already used to evaluate the functional status. The aim of this study was to compare the 1STST to the 6MWT in the evaluation of exertional desaturation.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross-sectional study including 30 stable COPD patients who performed the 6MWT and 1STST on the same day. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD), number of 1STST repetitions (1STSTr), and cardiorespiratory parameters were recorded.<h4>Results</h4>A significant correlation was found between the 6MWD and the number of 1STSTr (r = 0.54; <i>p</i> = 0.002). The minimum oxygen saturation (SpO<sub>2</sub>) in both tests showed a good agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.81) and correlated strongly (r = 0.84; <i>p</i> < 0.001). Regarding oxygen desaturation, the total agreement between the tests was 73.3% with a fair Cohen´s kappa (? = 0.38; <i>p</i> = 0.018), and 93.33% of observations were within the limits of agreement for both tests in the Bland-Altman analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The 1STST seems to be a capable tool of detecting exercise-induced oxygen desaturation in COPD. Because it is a less time- and resources-consuming test, it may be applied during the outpatient clinic consultation to regularly evaluate the exercise capacity and exertional desaturation in COPD.