Linking skeletal muscle aging with osteoporosis by lamin A/C deficiency.
ABSTRACT: The nuclear lamina protein lamin A/C is a key component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) are identified in patients with various types of laminopathy-containing diseases, which have features of accelerated aging and osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanisms for laminopathy-associated osteoporosis remain largely unclear. Here, we provide evidence that loss of lamin A/C in skeletal muscles, but not osteoblast (OB)-lineage cells, results in not only muscle aging-like deficit but also trabecular bone loss, a feature of osteoporosis. The latter is due in large part to elevated bone resorption. Further cellular studies show an increase of osteoclast (OC) differentiation in cocultures of bone marrow macrophages/monocytes (BMMs) and OBs after treatment with the conditioned medium (CM) from lamin A/C-deficient muscle cells. Antibody array screening analysis of the CM proteins identifies interleukin (IL)-6, whose expression is markedly increased in lamin A/C-deficient muscles. Inhibition of IL-6 by its blocking antibody in BMM-OB cocultures diminishes the increase of osteoclastogenesis. Knockout (KO) of IL-6 in muscle lamin A/C-KO mice diminishes the deficits in trabecular bone mass but not muscle. Further mechanistic studies reveal an elevation of cellular senescence marked by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-?-gal), p16Ink4a, and p53 in lamin A/C-deficient muscles and C2C12 muscle cells, and the p16Ink4a may induce senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and IL-6 expression. Taken together, these results suggest a critical role for skeletal muscle lamin A/C to prevent cellular senescence, IL-6 expression, hyperosteoclastogenesis, and trabecular bone loss, uncovering a pathological mechanism underlying the link between muscle aging/senescence and osteoporosis.
Project description:Lamin A/C is a major constituent of the nuclear lamina implicated in a number of genetic diseases, collectively known as laminopathies. The most severe forms of laminopathies feature, among other symptoms, congenital scoliosis, osteoporosis, osteolysis or delayed cranial ossification. Importantly, specific bone districts are typically affected in laminopathies. Spine is severely affected in LMNA-linked congenital muscular dystrophy. Mandible, terminal phalanges and clavicles undergo osteolytic processes in progeroid laminopathies and Restrictive Dermopathy, a lethal developmental laminopathy. This specificity suggests that lamin A/C regulates fine mechanisms of bone turnover, as supported by data showing that lamin A/C mutations activate non-canonical pathways of osteoclastogenesis, as the one dependent on TGF beta 2. Here, we review current knowledge on laminopathies affecting bone and LMNA involvement in bone turnover and highlight lamin-dependent mechanisms causing bone disorders. This knowledge can be exploited to identify new therapeutic approaches not only for laminopathies, but also for other rare diseases featuring bone abnormalities.
Project description:Lamin A is a component of the inner nuclear membrane that, together with epigenetic factors, organizes the genome in higher order structures required for transcriptional control. Mutations in the lamin A/C gene cause several diseases belonging to the class of laminopathies, including muscular dystrophies. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of lamin A-dependent dystrophies are still largely unknown. The polycomb group (PcG) of proteins are epigenetic repressors and lamin A interactors, primarily involved in the maintenance of cell identity. Using a murine model of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), we show here that lamin A loss deregulated PcG positioning in muscle satellite stem cells, leading to derepression of non-muscle-specific genes and p16INK4a, a senescence driver encoded in the Cdkn2a locus. This aberrant transcriptional program caused impairment in self-renewal, loss of cell identity, and premature exhaustion of the quiescent satellite cell pool. Genetic ablation of the Cdkn2a locus restored muscle stem cell properties in lamin A/C-null dystrophic mice. Our findings establish a direct link between lamin A and PcG epigenetic silencing and indicate that lamin A-dependent muscular dystrophy can be ascribed to intrinsic epigenetic dysfunctions of muscle stem cells.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-17A is a well-described mediator of bone resorption in inflammatory diseases, and postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with increased serum levels of IL-17A. Ovariectomy (OVX) can be used as a model to study bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and the role of IL-17A in osteoporosis development has previously been investigated using various methods to inhibit IL-17A signaling in this model. However, the studies show opposing results. While some publications reported IL-17A as a mediator of OVX-induced osteoporosis, others found a bone-protective role for IL-17 receptor signaling. In this study, we provide an explanation for the discrepancies in previous literature and show for the first time that loss of IL-17A has differential effects on OVX-induced osteoporosis; with IL-17A being important for cortical but not trabecular bone loss. Interestingly, the decrease in trabecular bone after OVX in IL-17A knock-out mice, was accompanied by increased adipogenesis depicted by elevated leptin levels. Additionally, the bone marrow adipose tissue expanded, and the bone-turnover decreased in ovariectomized mice lacking IL-17A compared to ovariectomized WT mice. Our results increase the understanding of how IL-17A signaling influences bone remodeling in the different bone compartments, which is of importance for the development of new treatments of post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that tissue accumulation of senescent p16INK4a-positive cells during the life span would be deleterious for tissue functions and could be the consequence of inherent age-associated disorders. Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the accumulation of chondrocytes expressing p16INK4a and markers of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), including the matrix remodeling metalloproteases MMP1/MMP13 and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6. Here, we evaluated the role of p16INK4a in the OA-induced SASP and its regulation by microRNAs (miRs). METHODS: We used IL-1-beta-treated primary OA chondrocytes cultured in three-dimensional setting or mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocyte to follow p16INK4a expression. By transient transfection experiments and the use of knockout mice, we validate p16INK4a function in chondrocytes and its regulation by one miR identified by means of a genome-wide miR-array analysis. RESULTS: p16INK4a is induced upon IL-1-beta treatment and also during in vitro chondrogenesis. In the mouse model, Ink4a locus favors in vivo the proportion of terminally differentiated chondrocytes. When overexpressed in chondrocytes, p16INK4a is sufficient to induce the production of the two matrix remodeling enzymes, MMP1 and MMP13, thus linking senescence with OA pathogenesis and bone development. We identified miR-24 as a negative regulator of p16INK4a. Accordingly, p16INK4a expression increased while miR-24 level was repressed upon IL-1-beta addition, in OA cartilage and during in vitro terminal chondrogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: We disclosed herein a new role of the senescence marker p16INK4a and its regulation by miR-24 during OA and terminal chondrogenesis.
Project description:Age is a recognized risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a paralytic disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons and neuroinflammation. A hallmark of aging is the accumulation of senescent cells. Yet, the pathogenic role of cellular senescence in ALS remains poorly understood. In rats bearing the ALS-linked SOD1G93A mutation, microgliosis contribute to motor neuron death, and its pharmacologic downregulation results in increased survival. Here, we have explored whether gliosis and motor neuron loss were associated with cellular senescence in the spinal cord during paralysis progression. In the lumbar spinal cord of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats, numerous cells displayed nuclear p16INK4a as well as loss of nuclear Lamin B1 expression, two recognized senescence-associated markers. The number of p16INK4a-positive nuclei increased by four-fold while Lamin B1-negative nuclei increased by 1,2-fold, respect to non-transgenic or asymptomatic transgenic rats. p16INK4a-positive nuclei and Lamin B1-negative nuclei were typically localized in a subset of hypertrophic Iba1-positive microglia, occasionally exhibiting nuclear giant multinucleated cell aggregates and abnormal nuclear morphology. Next, we analyzed senescence markers in cell cultures of microglia obtained from the spinal cord of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats. Although microglia actively proliferated in cultures, a subset of them developed senescence markers after few days in vitro and subsequent passages. Senescent SOD1G93A microglia in culture conditions were characterized by large and flat morphology, senescence-associated beta-Galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) activity as well as positive labeling for p16INK4a, p53, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and nitrotyrosine, suggesting a senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Remarkably, in the degenerating lumbar spinal cord other cell types, including ChAT-positive motor neurons and GFAP-expressing astrocytes, also displayed nuclear p16INK4a staining. These results suggest that cellular senescence is closely associated with inflammation and motor neuron loss occurring after paralysis onset in SOD1G93A rats. The emergence of senescent cells could mediate key pathogenic mechanisms in ALS.
Project description:Mutations in the genes for nuclear envelope proteins of emerin (EMD) and lamin A/C (LMNA) are known to cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). We compared clinical features of the muscular dystrophy patients associated with mutations in EMD (emerinopathy) and LMNA (laminopathy) in our series. The incidence of laminopathy was slightly higher than that of emerinopathy. The age at onset of the disease in emerinopathy was variable and significantly older than in laminopathy. The initial symptom of emerinopathy was also variable, whereas nearly all laminopathy patients presented initially with muscle weakness. Calf hypertrophy was often seen in laminopathy, underscoring the importance of mutation screening for LMNA in childhood muscular dystrophy with calf hypertrophy. The clinical spectrum of emerinopathy is actually wider than previously known including EDMD, LGMD, conduction defects with minimal muscle/joint involvement, and their intermittent forms. Pathologically, no marked difference was observed between emerinopathy and laminopathy. Increased number and variation in size of myonuclei were detected. More precise observations using electron microscopy is warranted to characterize the detailed nuclear changes in nuclear envelopathy.
Project description:Bone loss materializes rapidly after immobilization or mechanical unloading. Hind limb injection with botulinum toxin A (BTX) is a highly reproducible animal model for disuse-induced bone loss. Here we describe an easy-to-use and enhanced version of the method employing multiple hind limb injections with BTX to induce a pervasive muscle paralysis and thereby disuse of the hind limb. Thirty-six 12-14-week-old female Wistar rats were stratified into three groups: Baseline (Base), Control (Ctrl), and BTX. Disuse was achieved by injecting BTX directly into the right quadriceps femoris muscle, the hamstring muscles, and the posterior calf muscles. The rats were sacrificed after six weeks, and the right rectus femoris muscle and femur were isolated and analyzed. Hind limb disuse resulted in a significant and substantial loss of both muscle mass and bone mass. The loss of bone mass was accompanied by a reduction of trabecular bone mass and a deterioration of the trabecular micro-architecture with a reduction of trabecular thickness and trabecular number compared to Ctrl. In addition, the trabeculae changed from a more plate-like towards a more rod-like shape as indicated by an increase in the structure model index.•Multiple injections with BTX targeting muscles on both the anterior and posterior thigh and the calf ensure a uniform and pervasive muscle paralysis and hind limb disuse.•Hind limb injections with BTX results in a substantial loss of muscle and bone mass and deterioration of the trabecular micro-architecture.•The induction of hind limb disuse with BTX is highly reproducible.
Project description:LMNA encodes the A-type lamins that are part of the nuclear scaffold. Mutations in LMNA can cause a variety of disorders called laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), atypical Werner syndrome, and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Previous work has shown that treatment of HGPS cells with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or with the rapamycin analog everolimus corrects several of the phenotypes seen at the cellular level-at least in part by increasing autophagy and reducing the amount of progerin, the toxic form of lamin A that is overproduced in HGPS patients. Since other laminopathies also result in production of abnormal and potentially toxic lamin proteins, we hypothesized that everolimus would also be beneficial in those disorders. To test this, we applied everolimus to fibroblast cell lines from six laminopathy patients, each with a different mutation in LMNA Everolimus treatment increased proliferative ability and delayed senescence in all cell lines. In several cell lines, we observed that with treatment, there is a significant improvement in nuclear blebbing, which is a cellular hallmark of HGPS and other lamin disorders. These preclinical results suggest that everolimus might have clinical benefit for multiple laminopathy syndromes.
Project description:This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1? mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.