Food Pyramid for Subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Nutritional problems are an important part of rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. COPD patients often present with malnutrition, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis with possible onset of cachexia, with an inadequate dietary intake and a poor quality of life. Moreover, diet plays a pivotal role in patients with COPD through three mechanisms: regulation of carbon dioxide produced/oxygen consumed, inflammation, and oxidative stress. A narrative review based on 99 eligible studies was performed to evaluate current evidence regarding optimum diet therapy for the management of COPD, and then a food pyramid was built accordingly. The food pyramid proposal will serve to guide energy and dietary intake in order to prevent and treat nutritionally related COPD complications and to manage progression and COPD-related symptoms. The nutrition pyramid described in our narrative review is hypothetical, even in light of several limitations of the present review; the main limitation is the fact that to date there are no randomized controlled trials in the literature clearly showing that improved nutrition, via the regulation of carbon dioxide produced/oxygen consumed, inflammation and oxidative stress, improves symptoms and/or progression of COPD. Even if this nutritional pyramid is hypothetical, we hope that it can serve the valuable purpose of helping researchers focus on the often-ignored possible connections between body composition, nutrition, and COPD.
Project description:There is limited evidence to inform nutrition and dietetic interventions for individuals with eating disorders even though it is recommended as an essential part of multidisciplinary management. There is minimal guidance, an absence of standardised nutrition educational material, and no research on how best to educate patients on healthy eating and how to achieve nutrition adequacy. Therefore the REAL Food Guide was developed.The REAL Food Guide is a pyramid with four layers and key nutrition messages beside each layer that was conceived to address gaps in nutrition education and intervention for individuals with eating disorders. Written and verbal consumer feedback was obtained from consumers receiving treatment regarding the acceptability and usefulness of the REAL Food Guide. A unique database was developed to reflect the types of foods and realistic portion sizes that patients are likely to select. This database was used for nutrition modelling to assess the nutrition adequacy of three meal patterns (meat containing, vegetarian and semi-vegan) for both weight maintenance and weight regain. Each meal pattern was compared to the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand.Nutritional analysis demonstrated nutritional adequacy of meal patterns for energy, macronutrients and most micronutrients when the recommended number of serves from the REAL Food Guide were assessed. All meal patterns were adequate in micronutrients except for the semi-vegan meal pattern that was inadequate in vitamin D. Feedback from individuals with eating disorders demonstrates the nutrition education tool was acceptable to them as they felt it was more helpful for their recovery than general nutrition guidelines.The REAL Food Guide is a comprehensive and user-friendly guide that clinicians can use to educate patients about components of a balanced and healthy diet. The guide can educate all eating disorder clinicians, including those who are new to the field, about the basics of nutrition. Clinicians using the guide can be confident that, if followed, patient's energy and nutritional requirements will be met and important nutrition education messages are reinforced, that are tailored to the beliefs and concerns of individuals with eating disorders.
Project description:PURPOSE:Adopting a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern may help in preventing several chronic diseases. We assessed the eating behaviour and compliance with the Mediterranean diet pyramid recommendations in Italy. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study conducted in subjects aged???20 years. A 14-question survey based on the updated Mediterranean diet pyramid was launched online from April 2015 to November 2016. At test completion, a personalized pyramid displaying the possible deficiencies and/or excesses was generated, that could be the basis to plan diet and lifestyle modifications. RESULTS:Overall, 27,540 subjects completed the survey: the proportion of females (75.6%), younger subjects (20.7%) and people with a University degree (33.1%) resembled those of the Italian population of Internet users rather than of the general population. 37.8% of participants declared a sedentary lifestyle, including 29.6% of those aged 20-29 years. A lower-than-recommended intake of all food categories included in the Mediterranean diet pyramid, along with excess of sweets, red and processed meats, emerged, that may affect health in the long term. Low adherence to recommendations was observed especially among females and older people. Notably, a discrepancy surfaced between the responders' perceived and actual behaviour toward the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (81.8% vs 22.7-32.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The nutritional habits and lifestyle of Italian participants are poorly adherent to the Mediterranean diet recommendations. The personalized pyramid tool may help in raising the awareness of individuals and their families on where to intervene, possibly with the support of healthcare professionals, to improve their behaviour. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
Project description:In the last decade, a number of meta-analyses of mostly observational studies evaluated the relation between the intake of food groups and the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In this study, we systematically reviewed dose-response meta-analyses of prospective studies with the aim to derive the quantities of food to consume to attain a protective (Mediterranean food) or a non-adverse (non-Mediterranean food) effect toward selected NCDs such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), colorectal (CRC) and breast cancer. These derived quantities, wherever possible, were suggested for a quantification of food servings of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid proposed for Italian People (MDPPI). This pyramid came from the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid developed in 2009 for Italian people. A weekly menu plan was built on the advice about frequency of intakes and serving sizes of such pyramid and the nutritional composition of this diet was compared with the Reference Italian Mediterranean Diet followed in 1960 in Nicotera. The diet built according the advice of MDPPI was very similar to that of Nicotera in the late 1950s that has been chosen as Italian Reference Mediterranean Diet with the exception of percentage of energy provided by cereals that was lower and of fruits and vegetables that was higher. Saturated fatty acids were only the 6% of daily energy intake. Also the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) was very similar to that of the aforementioned diet.
Project description:Microarray expression profiling of manually sorted m-citirin-labeled layer 4 visual cortex star pyramid neurons from deprived and non-deprived hemispheres. Monocular deprivation by TTX-injection (at P12-13 and again at P13-14), followed by manual sorting of m-Citrin-labeled Layer 4 Visual Cortex Star Pyramid neurons in deprived and non-deprived hemispheres. RNA was extracted using PicoPure RNA Isolation Kit, reverse transcribed, and amplified using a standard T7 IVT protocol (Affymetrix Small Sample Target Labeling Assay Version II).
Project description:We discovered a technical solution of such outstanding importance that it can trigger new approaches in silicon wet etching processing and, in particular, photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The so called inverted pyramid arrays, outperforming conventional pyramid textures and black silicon because of their superior light-trapping and structure characteristics, can currently only be achieved using more complex techniques involving lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate a feasibility of inverted pyramidal texturization of silicon by maskless Cu-nanoparticles assisted etching in Cu(NO3)2 / HF / H2O2 / H2O solutions and as such may have significant impacts on communities of fellow researchers and industrialists.
Project description:This paper reports inverted pyramid microstructure-based single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si) solar cell with a conversion efficiency up to 20.19% in standard size of 156.75?×?156.75 mm2. The inverted pyramid microstructures were fabricated jointly by metal-assisted chemical etching process (MACE) with ultra-low concentration of silver ions and optimized alkaline anisotropic texturing process. And the inverted pyramid sizes were controlled by changing the parameters in both MACE and alkaline anisotropic texturing. Regarding passivation efficiency, the textured sc-Si with normal reflectivity of 9.2% and inverted pyramid size of 1 ?m was used to fabricate solar cells. The best batch of solar cells showed a 0.19% higher of conversion efficiency and a 0.22 mA cm-2 improvement in short-circuit current density, and the excellent photoelectric property surpasses that of the same structure solar cell reported before. This technology shows great potential to be an alternative for large-scale production of high efficient sc-Si solar cells in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND: At present, the organization of system modules is typically limited to either a multilevel hierarchy that describes the "vertical" relationships between modules at different levels (e.g., module A at level two is included in module B at level one), or a single-level graph that represents the "horizontal" relationships among modules (e.g., genetic interactions between module A and module B). Both types of organizations fail to provide a broader and deeper view of the complex systems that arise from an integration of vertical and horizontal relationships. RESULTS: We propose a complex network analysis tool, Pyramabs, which was developed to integrate vertical and horizontal relationships and extract information at various granularities to create a pyramid from a complex system of interacting objects. The pyramid depicts the nested structure implied in a complex system, and shows the vertical relationships between abstract networks at different levels. In addition, at each level the abstract network of modules, which are connected by weighted links, represents the modules' horizontal relationships. We first tested Pyramabs on hierarchical random networks to verify its ability to find the module organization pre-embedded in the networks. We later tested it on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and a metabolic network. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), the vertical relationships identified from the PPI and metabolic pathways correctly characterized the inclusion (i.e., part-of) relationship, and the horizontal relationships provided a good indication of the functional closeness between modules. Our experiments with Pyramabs demonstrated its ability to perform knowledge mining in complex systems. CONCLUSIONS: Networks are a flexible and convenient method of representing interactions in a complex system, and an increasing amount of information in real-world situations is described by complex networks. We considered the analysis of a complex network as an iterative process for extracting meaningful information at multiple granularities from a system of interacting objects. The quality of the interpretation of the networks depends on the completeness and expressiveness of the extracted knowledge representations. Pyramabs was designed to interpret a complex network through a disclosure of a pyramid of abstractions. The abstraction pyramid is a new knowledge representation that combines vertical and horizontal viewpoints at different degrees of abstraction. Interpretations in this form are more accurate and more meaningful than multilevel dendrograms or single-level graphs. Pyramabs can be accessed at http://220.127.116.11/pyramabs.php/.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence regarding the efficacy of nutritional supplementation to enhance exercise training responses in COPD patients with low muscle mass is limited. The objective was to study if nutritional supplementation targeting muscle derangements enhances outcome of exercise training in COPD patients with low muscle mass. METHODS:Eighty-one COPD patients with low muscle mass, admitted to out-patient pulmonary rehabilitation, randomly received oral nutritional supplementation, enriched with leucine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids (NUTRITION) or PLACEBO as adjunct to 4 months supervised high intensity exercise training. RESULTS:The study population (51% males, aged 43-80) showed moderate airflow limitation, low diffusion capacity, normal protein intake, low plasma vitamin D, and docosahexaenoic acid. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed significant differences after 4 months favouring NUTRITION for body mass (mean difference ± SEM) (+1.5 ± 0.6 kg, P = 0.01), plasma vitamin D (+24%, P = 0.004), eicosapentaenoic acid (+91%,P < 0.001), docosahexaenoic acid (+31%, P < 0.001), and steps/day (+24%, P = 0.048). After 4 months, both groups improved skeletal muscle mass (+0.4 ± 0.1 kg, P < 0.001), quadriceps muscle strength (+12.3 ± 2.3 Nm,P < 0.001), and cycle endurance time (+191.4 ± 34.3 s, P < 0.001). Inspiratory muscle strength only improved in NUTRITION (+0.5 ± 0.1 kPa, P = 0.001) and steps/day declined in PLACEBO (-18%,P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:High intensity exercise training is effective in improving lower limb muscle strength and exercise performance in COPD patients with low muscle mass and moderate airflow obstruction. Specific nutritional supplementation had additional effects on nutritional status, inspiratory muscle strength, and physical activity compared with placebo.
Project description:The right amount and quality of amino acids (AAs) supplied to patients on parenteral nutrition (PN) reduces muscle mass loss, may preserve or even increase it, with significant clinical benefits. Several industrial PN mixtures are available so that nutrition specialists can choose the product closest to the patient's needs. In selected cases, there is the possibility of personalizing compounded mixtures in a hospital pharmacy that completely meets the individual nutritional needs of PN patients. This narrative review deals with the AA solutions used in PN mixtures. The physiology, the methods to calculate the AA needs, and the AA and energy requirements suggested by scientific guidelines for each patient type are also reported.
Project description:Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.