The potential of hybrid breeding to enhance leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in wheat.
ABSTRACT: KEY MESSAGE:Hybrid wheat breeding is a promising strategy to improve the level of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in wheat. Leaf rust and stripe rust belong to the most important fungal diseases in wheat production. Due to a dynamic development of new virulent races, epidemics appear in high frequency and causes significant losses in grain yield and quality. Therefore, research is needed to develop strategies to breed wheat varieties carrying highly efficient resistances. Stacking of dominant resistance genes through hybrid breeding is such an approach. Within this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance of 1750 wheat hybrids and their 230 parental lines using a genome-wide association study. We observed on average a lower rust susceptibility for hybrids in comparison to their parental inbred lines and some hybrids outperformed their better parent with up to 56%. Marker-trait associations were identified on chromosome 3D and 4A for leaf rust and on chromosome 2A, 2B, and 6A for stripe rust resistance by using a genome-wide association study with a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P?
Project description:Improving leaf rust and stripe rust resistance is a central goal in wheat breeding. The objectives of this study were to (1) elucidate the genetic basis of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in a hybrid wheat population, (2) compare the findings using a previously published hybrid wheat data set, and (3) contrast the prediction accuracy with those of genome-wide prediction. The hybrid wheat population included 1,744 single crosses from 236 parental lines. The genotypes were fingerprinted using a 15k SNP array and evaluated for leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in multi-location field trials. We observed a high congruency of putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf rust resistance between both populations. This was not the case for stripe rust resistance. Accordingly, prediction accuracy of the detected QTL was moderate for leaf rust but low for stripe rust resistance. Genome-wide selection increased the prediction accuracy slightly for stripe rust albeit at a low level but not for leaf rust. Thus, our findings suggest that marker-assisted selection seems to be a robust and efficient tool to improve leaf rust resistance in European wheat hybrids.
Project description:<h4>Key message</h4>We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Leaf and stripe rusts are two major wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses. The preferred way for protecting wheat from rust pathogens is by introgression of rust resistance traits from wheat-related wild species. To avoid genetic drag due to replacement of large wheat chromosomal segments by the alien chromatin, it is necessary to shorten the alien chromosome segment in primary recombinants.<h4>Results</h4>Here we report on shortening of an alien chromosome segment in wheat that carries leaf and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis). Rust resistant wheat introgression lines were selected and the alien region was mapped using genotyping by sequencing. Single polymorphic nucleotides (SNP) were identified and used to generate diagnostic PCR markers. Shortening of the alien fragment was achieved by induced homoeologous pairing and lines with shortened alien chromosome were identified using the PCR markers. Further reduction of the segment was achieved in tertiary recombinants without losing the rust resistance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Alien chromatin in wheat with novel rust resistance genes was characterized by SNP markers and shortened by homoeologous recombination to avoid deleterious traits. The resulting wheat lines are resistant to highly virulent races of leaf and stripe rust pathogens and can be used as both resistant wheat in the field and source for gene transfer to other wheat lines/species.
Project description:Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt), and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ) and one race of Pst (PSTv-37) frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Stripe rust (also called yellow rust) is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. The narrow genetic basis of modern wheat cultivars and rapid evolution of the rust pathogen have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of wheat rust diseases. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 44,059 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to identify loci associated with resistance to stripe rust in 244 Sichuan wheat accessions, including 79 landraces and 165 cultivars, in six environments.<h4>Results</h4>In all the field assessments, 24 accessions displayed stable high resistance to stripe rust. Significant correlations among environments were observed for both infection (IT) and disease severity (DS), and high heritability levels were found for both IT and DS. Using mixed linear models, 12 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly associated with IT and/or DS were identified. Two QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 5AS and 5AL and were distant from previously identified stripe rust resistance genes or QTL regions, indicating that they may be novel resistance loci.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results revealed that resistance alleles to stripe rust were accumulated in Sichuan wheat germplasm, implying direct or indirect selection for improved stripe rust resistance in elite wheat breeding programs. The identified stable QTLs or favorable alleles could be important chromosome regions in Sichuan wheat that controlled the resistance to stripe rust. These markers can be used molecular marker-assisted breeding of Sichuan wheat cultivars, and will be useful in the ongoing effort to develop new wheat cultivars with strong resistance to stripe rust.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The narrow genetic basis of resistance in modern wheat cultivars and the strong selection response of pathogen populations have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of the wheat rust diseases. Characterizing new sources of resistance and incorporating multiple genes into elite cultivars is the most widely accepted current mechanism to achieve durable varietal performance against changes in pathogen virulence. Here, we report a high-density molecular characterization and genome-wide association study (GWAS) of stripe rust and stem rust resistance in 190 Ethiopian bread wheat lines based on phenotypic data from multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance screening experiments. A total of 24,281 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers filtered from the wheat 90 K iSelect genotyping assay was used to survey Ethiopian germplasm for population structure, genetic diversity and marker-trait associations.<h4>Results</h4>Upon screening for field resistance to stripe rust in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Ethiopia over multiple growing seasons, and against multiple races of stripe rust and stem rust at seedling stage, eight accessions displayed resistance to all tested races of stem rust and field resistance to stripe rust in all environments. Our GWAS results show 15 loci were significantly associated with seedling and adult plant resistance to stripe rust at false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted probability (P) <0.10. GWAS also detected 9 additional genomic regions significantly associated (FDR-adjusted P < 0.10) with seedling resistance to stem rust in the Ethiopian wheat accessions. Many of the identified resistance loci were mapped close to previously identified rust resistance genes; however, three loci on the short arms of chromosomes 5A and 7B for stripe rust resistance and two on chromosomes 3B and 7B for stem rust resistance may be novel.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results demonstrate that considerable genetic variation resides within the landrace accessions that can be utilized to broaden the genetic base of rust resistance in wheat breeding germplasm. The molecular markers identified in this study should be useful in efficiently targeting the associated resistance loci in marker-assisted breeding for rust resistance in Ethiopia and other countries.
Project description:Wheat variety PBW343, released in India in 1995, became the most widely grown cultivar in the country by the year 2000 owing to its wide adaptability and yield potential. It initially succumbed to leaf rust, and resistance genes <i>Lr24</i> and <i>Lr28</i> were transferred to PBW343. After an unbroken reign of about 10 years, the virulence against gene <i>Yr27</i> made PBW343 susceptible to stripe rust. Owing to its wide adaptability and yield potential, PBW343 became the prime target for marker-assisted introgression of stripe rust resistance genes. The leaf rust-resistant versions formed the base for pyramiding stripe rust resistance genes <i>Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17</i>, and <i>Yr70</i>, in different introgression programs. Advanced breeding lines with different gene combinations, PBW665, PBW683, PBW698, and PBW703 were tested in national trials but could not be released as varieties. The genes from alien segments, <i>Aegilops ventricosa</i> (<i>Lr37/Yr17/Sr38</i>) and <i>Aegilops umbellulata</i> (<i>Lr76/Yr70</i>), were later pyramided in PBW343. Modified marker-assisted backcross breeding was performed, and 81.57% of the genetic background was recovered in one of the selected derivative lines, PBW723. This line was evaluated in coordinated national trials and was released for cultivation under timely sown irrigated conditions in the North Western Plain Zone of India. PBW723 yields an average of 58.0 qtl/ha in Punjab with high potential yields. The genes incorporated are susceptible to stripe rust individually, but PBW723 with both genes showed enhanced resistance. Three years post-release, PBW723 occupies approximately 8-9% of the cultivated area in the Punjab state. A regular inflow of diverse resistant genes, their rapid mobilization to most productive backgrounds, and keeping a close eye on pathogen evolution is essential to protect the overall progress for productivity and resistance in wheat breeding, thus helping breeders to keep pace with pathogen evolution.
Project description:Stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks, is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide and there is an indication that it may also become a serious disease of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Therefore, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying resistance to stripe rust in adapted durum wheat germplasm. Wheat infection assays were conducted under controlled conditions in Canada and under field conditions in Mexico. Disease assessments were performed on a population of 155 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross of Kofa (susceptible) and W9262-260D3 (moderately resistant) and on a breeding panel that consisted of 92 diverse cultivars and breeding lines. Both populations were genotyped using the 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay. In the DH population, QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosome 7B (LOD 6.87-11.47) and chromosome 5B (LOD 3.88-9.17). The QTL for stripe rust resistance on chromosome 7B was supported in the breeding panel. Both QTL were anchored to the genome sequence of wild emmer wheat, which identified gene candidates involved in disease resistance. Exome capture sequencing identified variation in the candidate genes between Kofa and W9262-260D3. These genetic insights will be useful in durum breeding to enhance resistance to stripe rust.
Project description:Genome-wide association mapping in conjunction with population sequencing map and Ensembl plants was used to identify markers/candidate genes linked to leaf rust, stripe rust and tan spot resistance in wheat. Leaf rust (LR), stripe rust (YR) and tan spot (TS) are some of the important foliar diseases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To identify candidate resistance genes for these diseases in CIMMYT's (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) International bread wheat screening nurseries, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in conjunction with information from the population sequencing map and Ensembl plants. Wheat entries were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. Using a mixed linear model, we observed that seedling resistance to LR was associated with 12 markers on chromosomes 1DS, 2AS, 2BL, 3B, 4AL, 6AS and 6AL, and seedling resistance to TS was associated with 14 markers on chromosomes 1AS, 2AL, 2BL, 3AS, 3AL, 3B, 6AS and 6AL. Seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to YR were associated with several markers at the distal end of chromosome 2AS. In addition, YR APR was also associated with markers on chromosomes 2DL, 3B and 7DS. The potential candidate genes for these diseases included several resistance genes, receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinases and defense-related enzymes. However, extensive LD in wheat that decays at about 5?×?107 bps, poses a huge challenge for delineating candidate gene intervals and candidates should be further mapped, functionally characterized and validated. We also explored a segment on chromosome 2AS associated with multiple disease resistance and identified seventeen disease resistance linked genes. We conclude that identifying candidate genes linked to significant markers in GWAS is feasible in wheat, thus creating opportunities for accelerating molecular breeding.
Project description:A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.