Evaluating blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This is an exploratory study using a novel imaging modality, quantitative ultrashort time-to-echo, contrast enhanced (QUTE-CE) magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in a rat model of type 2 diabetes with the presumption that small vessel disease is a contributing factor to neuropathology in diabetes. METHODS:The BBZDR/Wor rat, a model of type 2 diabetes, and age-matched controls were studied for changes in blood-brain barrier permeability. QUTE-CE, a quantitative vascular biomarker, generated angiographic images with over 500,000 voxels that were registered to a 3D MRI rat brain atlas providing site-specific information on blood-brain barrier permeability in 173 different brain areas. RESULTS:In this model of diabetes, without the support of insulin treatment, there was global capillary pathology with over 84% of the brain showing a significant increase in blood-brain barrier permeability over wild-type controls. Areas of the cerebellum and midbrain dopaminergic system were not significantly affected. CONCLUSION:Small vessel disease as assessed by permeability in the blood-brain barrier in type 2 diabetes is pervasive and includes much of the brain. The increase in blood-brain barrier permeability is a likely contributing factor to diabetic encephalopathy and dementia.
Project description:A method called Quantitative Ultra-Short Time-to-Echo Contrast Enhanced (QUTE-CE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent to yield positive contrast angiograms with high clarity and definition is applied to the whole live rat brain. QUTE-CE MRI intensity data are particularly well suited for measuring quantitative cerebral blood volume (qCBV). A global map of qCBV in the awake resting-state with unprecedented detail was created via application of a 3D MRI rat brain atlas with 173 segmented and annotated brain areas. From this map we identified two distributed, integrated neural circuits showing the highest capillary densities in the brain. One is the neural circuitry involved with the primary senses of smell, hearing and vision and the other is the neural circuitry of memory. Under isoflurane anesthesia, these same circuits showed significant decreases in qCBV suggesting a role in consciousness. Neural circuits in the brainstem associated with the reticular activating system and the maintenance of respiration, body temperature and cardiovascular function showed an increase in qCBV with anesthesia. During awake CO2 challenge, 84 regions showed significant increases relative to an awake baseline state. This CO2 response provides a measure of cerebral vascular reactivity and regional perfusion reserve with the highest response measured in the somatosensory cortex. These results demonstrate the utility of QUTE-CE MRI for qCBV analysis and offer a new perspective on brain function and vascular organization.
Project description:Focused ultrasound (FUS) and circulating microbubbles can induce a targeted and transient increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. While preclinical research has demonstrated the utility of FUS for efficacious drug deliver to the brain, there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding the long-term response of brain vasculature to this intervention. Previous work has demonstrated transcriptional changes in hippocampal microvessels following sonication that are indicative of the initiation of angiogenic processes. Moreover, blood vessel growth has been reported in skeletal muscle following application of FUS and microbubbles. The current study demonstrates that blood vessel density in the rat hippocampus is modestly elevated at 7 and 14 d post-FUS compared to the contralateral hemisphere (7 d: 10.9?±?6.0%, p?=?0.02; 14 d: 12.1?±?3.2%, p?<?0.01), but returns to baseline by 21 d (5.9?±?2.6%, p?=?0.12). Concurrently, relative newborn endothelial cell density and frequency of small blood vessel segments were both elevated in the sonicated hippocampus. While further work is required to determine the mechanisms driving these changes, the findings presented here may have relevance to the optimal frequency of repeated treatments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This is an exploratory study using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to interrogate the brain of rats with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as compared to controls. It was hypothesized there would be changes in brain structure and function that reflected the human disorder, thus providing a model system by which to follow disease progression with noninvasive MRI.<h4>Methods</h4>The transgenic BBZDR/Wor rat, an animal model of T2MD, and age-matched controls were studied for changes in brain structure using voxel-based morphometry, alteration in white and gray matter microarchitecture using diffusion weighted imaging with indices of anisotropy, and functional coupling using resting-state BOLD functional connectivity. Images from each modality were registered to, and analyzed, using a 3D MRI rat atlas providing site-specific data on over 168 different brain areas.<h4>Results</h4>There was an overall reduction in brain volume focused primarily on the somatosensory cortex, cerebellum, and white matter tracts. The putative changes in white and gray matter microarchitecture were pervasive affecting much of the brain and not localized to any region. There was a general increase in connectivity in T2DM rats as compared to controls. The cerebellum presented with strong functional coupling to pons and brainstem in T2DM rats but negative connectivity to hippocampus.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The neuroradiological measures collected in BBBKZ/Wor rats using multimodal imaging methods did not reflect those reported for T2DB patients in the clinic. The data would suggest the BBBKZ/Wor rat is not an appropriate imaging model for T2DM.
Project description:The blood brain barrier tightly regulates the passage of molecules into the brain and becomes leaky following obstructive cholestasis. The aim of this study was to determine if increased serum bile acids observed during cholestasis permeabilize the blood brain barrier.Rats underwent bile duct ligation or deoxycholic or chenodeoxycholic acid injections and blood brain barrier permeability assessed. In vitro, the permeability of rat brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers, the expression and phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1 and ZO-2 as well as the activity of Rac1 was assessed after treatment with plasma from cholestatic rats, or bile acid treatment, in the presence of a Rac1 inhibitor.Blood brain barrier permeability was increased in vivo and in vitro following bile duct ligation or treatment with bile acids. Associated with the bile acid-stimulated increase in endothelial cell monolayer permeability was elevated Rac1 activity and increased phosphorylation of occludin. Pretreatment of endothelial cell monolayers with a Rac1 inhibitor prevented the effects of bile acid treatment on occludin phosphorylation and monolayer permeability.These data suggest that increased circulating serum bile acids may contribute to the increased permeability of the blood brain barrier seen during obstructive cholestasis via disruption of tight junctions.
Project description:Following ischemia, the blood-brain barrier is compromised in the peri-infarct zone leading to secondary injury and dysfunction that can limit recovery. Currently, it is uncertain what structural changes could account for blood-brain barrier permeability, particularly with aging. Here we examined the ultrastructure of early and delayed changes (3 versus 72 h) to the blood-brain barrier in young adult and aged mice (3-4 versus 18 months) subjected to photothrombotic stroke. At both time points and ages, permeability was associated with a striking increase in endothelial caveolae and vacuoles. Tight junctions were generally intact although small spaces were detected in a few cases. In young mice, ischemia led to a significant increase in pericyte process area and vessel coverage whereas these changes were attenuated with aging. Stroke led to an expansion of the basement membrane region that peaked at 3 h and partially recovered by 72 h in both age groups. Astrocyte endfeet and their mitochondria were severely swollen at both times points and ages. Our results suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability in young and aged animals is mediated by transcellular pathways (caveolae/vacuoles), rather than tight junction loss. Further, our data indicate that the effects of ischemia on pericytes and basement membrane are affected by aging.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key angiogenic and permeability factor, plays an important role in new blood vessel formation. However, abnormal VEGF-induced VEGFR2 signaling leads to hyperpermeability. We have shown previously that Rap1, best known for promoting cell adhesion and vessel stability, is a critical regulator of VEGFR2-mediated angiogenic and shear-stress EC responses. To determine the role of Rap1 role in endothelial barrier dynamics, we examined vascular permeability in EC-specific Rap1A- and Rap1B-knockout mice, cell-cell junction remodeling and EC monolayer resistivity in Rap1-deficient ECs under basal, inflammatory or elevated VEGF conditions. Deletion of either Rap1 isoform impaired de novo adherens junction (AJ) formation and recovery from LPS-induced barrier disruption in vivo However, only Rap1A deficiency increased permeability in ECs and lung vessels. Interestingly, Rap1B deficiency attenuated VEGF-induced permeability in vivo and AJ remodeling in vitro Therefore, only Rap1A is required for the maintenance of normal vascular integrity. Importantly, Rap1B is the primary isoform essential for normal VEGF-induced EC barrier dissolution. Deletion of either Rap1 isoform protected against hyper permeability in the STZ-induced diabetes model, suggesting clinical implications for targeting Rap1 in pathologies with VEGF-induced hyperpermeability.
Project description:We investigated the effect of circulating factors and protein kinase C? on blood-brain barrier permeability and edema during hyperglycemic stroke.Male Wistar rats that were hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) for 5 to 6 days underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 hours with 2 hours of reperfusion. Blood-brain barrier permeability was measured in middle cerebral arteries that were ischemic (MCAO) or nonischemic (CTL) and perfused with plasma (20% in buffer) from MCAO or CTL animals. A separate set of MCAO vessels was perfused with the protein kinase C? inhibitor CGP53353 (0.5 ?mol/L) and permeability measured. Lastly, hyperglycemic rats were treated intravenously with CGP53353 (10 or 100 ?g/kg or vehicle 15 minutes before reperfusion and edema formation measured by wet:dry weights (n=6/group).MCAO vessels had increased permeability compared with controls regardless of the plasma perfusate. Permeability (water flux, ?m(3)×10(8)) of CTL vessel/CTL plasma (n=8), CTL vessel/MCAO plasma (n=7), MCAO vessel/CTL plasma (n=6), and MCAO vessel/MCAO plasma (n=6) was 0.98±0.11, 1.13±0.07, 1.36±0.02, and 1.34±0.06; P<0.01). Inhibition of protein kinase C? in MCAO vessels (n=6) reversed the increase in permeability (0.92±0.1; P<0.01). In vivo, hyperglycemia increased edema versus normoglycemia after MCAO (water content=78.84%±0.11% versus 81.38%±0.21%; P<0.01). Inhibition of protein kinase C? with 10 or 100 ?g/kg CGP53353 during reperfusion prevented the increased edema in hyperglycemic animals (water content=79.54%±0.56% and 79.99%±0.43%; P<0.01 versus vehicle).These results suggest that the pronounced vasogenic edema that occurs during hyperglycemic stroke is mediated in large part by activation of protein kinase C?.
Project description:PURPOSE:Conventional MRI using contrast agents is semiquantitative because it is inherently sensitive to extravoxular susceptibility artifacts, field inhomogeneity, partial voluming, perivascular effects, and motion/flow artifacts. Herein we demonstrate a quantitative contrast-enhanced MRI technique using ultrashort time-to-echo pulse sequences for measuring clinically relevant concentrations of ferumoxytol, a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle contrast agent with high sensitivity and precision in vitro and in vivo. METHODS:The method achieves robust, reproducible results by using rapid signal acquisition at ultrashort time-to-echo (UTE) to produce positive contrast images with pure T1 weighting and little T2* decay. The spoiled gradient echo equation is used to transform UTE intensities directly into concentration using experimentally determined relaxivity constants and image acquisition parameters. RESULTS:A multiparametric optimization of acquisition parameters revealed an optimal zone capable of producing high-fidelity measurements. Clinically relevant intravascular concentrations of ferumoxytol were measured longitudinally in mice with high sensitivity and precision (?7.1% error). MRI measurements were independently validated by elemental iron analysis of sequential blood draws. Automated segmentation of ferumoxytol concentration yielded high quality three-dimensional images for visualization of perfusion. CONCLUSIONS:This ability to longitudinally quantify blood pool CA concentration is unique to quantitative UTE contrast-enhanced (QUTE-CE) MRI and makes QUTE-CE MRI competitive with nuclear imaging.
Project description:The monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the intima of all blood vessel wall forms a semipermeable barrier that regulates tissue-fluid homeostasis, transport of nutrients, and migration of blood cells across the barrier. A number of signaling pathways and molecules mediate endothelial permeability, which plays important roles in a variety of the physiological and pathological conditions. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are able to bind various hydrophobic molecules, such as long-chain fatty acids, prostaglandins and eicosanoids. FABP4, a member of the family of FABPs, plays an important role in maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as angiogenesis. In the present study, we found that fabp11a, the ortholog of mammalian FABP4, was highly expressed in developing brain vessels of zebrafish. Knockout of fabp11a gene caused hemorrhage in zebrafish brain. Morpholino mediated fabp11a gene knockdown phenocopied the hemorrhage in mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrated permeability of brain vessels in fabp11a mutant is significantly higher than that of control. In addition, COX and LOX inhibition partially rescued the brain vessel integrity defects caused by fabp11a loss-of-function, suggesting the integrity defect was relevant to the Fatty Acid function.
Project description:Risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is the primary factor limiting use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for stroke. Clinical studies have established an association between admission hyperglycemia and the risk of hemorrhage with tPA use, independent of prior diabetes. Here we used an animal model of tPA-induced reperfusion hemorrhage to determine if this clinical association reflects a true causal relationship.Rats underwent 90 minutes of focal ischemia, and tPA infusion was begun 10 minutes prior to vessel reperfusion. Glucose was administered during ischemia to generate blood levels ranging from 5.9 ± 1.8mM (normoglycemia) to 21 ± 2.3mM. In some studies, apocynin was administered to block superoxide production by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Brains were harvested 1 hour or 3 days after reperfusion to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia and apocynin on oxidative stress, blood-brain barrier breakdown, infarct volume, and hemorrhage volume.Rats that were hyperglycemic during tPA infusion had diffusely increased blood-brain barrier permeability in the postischemic territory, and a 3- to 5-fold increase in intracerebral hemorrhage volumes. The hyperglycemic rats also showed increased superoxide formation in the brain parenchyma and vasculature during reperfusion. The effects of hyperglycemia on superoxide production, blood-brain barrier disruption, infarct size, and hemorrhage were all attenuated by apocynin.These findings demonstrate a causal relationship between hyperglycemia and hemorrhage in an animal model of tPA stroke treatment, and suggest that this effect of hyperglycemia is mediated through an increase in superoxide production by NADPH oxidase.