Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Qatar (2010-2016): Clinical, Biological, and Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcomes.
ABSTRACT: The current study retrospectively evaluated cytogenetic profiles, various prognostic factors, and survival outcomes in 128 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (14 ? age ? 70 years) admitted to the National Center for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, between January 2010 and December 2016. The median age at diagnosis was 43 years, and 80% were less than 60 years old; 75% of patients were male. Cytogenetic analysis was integrated into the World Health Organization 2008 classification and showed that the percentages of normal and abnormal karyotypes were similar, accounting for 48.4% of each group of patients. The AML risk stratification based on cytogenetic analysis resulted in the following distribution: 18% in the favorable risk group, 57% in the intermediate-risk group, 24% in the unfavorable risk group, and 1% unknown. Only 88 patients received therapy with curative intent; 67% achieved complete remission, increasing to 81% after inductions 1 and 2. The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in AML patients were 26.6 and 19.5 months, respectively. The 3-year OS and DFS were 40 and 36%, respectively. Prognostic factors including age, gender, white blood cell count, and risk stratification were not significantly associated with treatment outcomes, whereas response to treatment vs. failure was significantly associated with the outcome (p = 0.01). The current study supports the importance of cytogenetics as a useful tool in diagnosis, prognosis, and risk assessment in AML treatment.
Project description:We evaluated the risk status and survival outcomes of 125 elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with decitabine in combination with low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin, and G-CSF (D-CAG). The risk status was evaluated by determining the frequency of recurring gene mutations using next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 23 selected genes and cytogenetic profiling of bone marrow samples at diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-82 months), 86 patients (68.8%) had achieved complete remission after one cycle of induction, and 94 patients (75.2%) had achieved it after two cycles. The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 16 and 12 months, respectively. In 21 AML patients aged above 75 years, the median OS and DFS were longer in the low- and intermediate-risk group than the high-risk group, but the differences were not statistically significant. The median OS and DFS were similar in patients with or without TET2, DNMT3A, IDH2, TP53 and FLT3 mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that patient age above 75 years, high-risk status, and genetic anomalies, like deletions in chromosomes 5 and/or 7, were significant variables in predicting OS. D-CAG regimen tends to improve the prognosis of a subgroup of elderly patients with high-risk AML.
Project description:Vimentin (VIM) is a type III intermediate filament that maintains cell integrity, and is involved in cell migration, motility and adhesion. When overexpressed in solid cancers, vimentin drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ultimately, metastasis. The effects of its overexpression in AML are unclear.In this study, we analyzed the TCGA data of 173 AML patients for which complete clinical and expression data were available. In this analysis, we assessed the association between VIM mRNA expression and patient's clinical and molecular characteristics including clinical outcome.VIM overexpression was associated with higher white blood count (<?p = 0.0001). Patients with high VIM expression have worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) compared with patients with low VIM expression (median OS; 7.95 months vs 19.2 months; p?=?0.029). After age-stratification, high VIM expression was significantly associated with worse overall survival in older patients (age???60; median OS: 5.4 vs 9.9 months: p?=?0.0257) but not in younger patients (age?<?60). In stratification analysis according to cytogenetic status, high VIM expression was significantly associated with shorter OS (7.95 vs 24.6 months: p?=?0.0102) in cytogenetically normal, but not in cytogenetic abnormal AML.Collectively, the data indicate that overexpression of the EMT marker vimentin is associated with poor clinical outcome in older patients with cytogenetically normal AML; and therefore may play a role in this disease.
Project description:Cytogenetic aberrations and gene mutations have long been regarded as independent prognostic markers in AML, both of which can lead to misexpression of some key genes related to hematopoiesis. It is believed that the expression level of the key genes is associated with the treatment outcome of AML.In this study, we analyzed the clinical features and molecular aberrations of 560 newly diagnosed non-M3 AML patients, including mutational status of CEBPA, NPM1, FLT3, C-KIT, NRAS, WT1, DNMT3A, MLL-PTD and IDH1/2, as well as expression levels of MECOM, ERG, GATA2, WT1, BAALC, MEIS1 and SPI1.Certain gene expression levels were associated with the cytogenetic aberration of the disease, especially for MECOM, MEIS1 and BAALC. FLT3, C-KIT and NRAS mutations contained conversed expression profile regarding MEIS1, WT1, GATA2 and BAALC expression, respectively. FLT3, DNMT3A, NPM1 and biallelic CEBPA represented the mutations associated with the prognosis of AML in our group. Higher MECOM and MEIS1 gene expression levels showed a significant impact on complete remission (CR) rate, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) both in univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively; and an additive effect could be observed. By systematically integrating gene mutational status results and gene expression profile, we could establish a more refined system to precisely subdivide AML patients into distinct prognostic groups.Gene expression abnormalities contained important biological and clinical informations, and could be integrated into current AML stratification system.
Project description:Thus far, only 5-15% of AML patients aged ?60 years are cured with chemotherapy. Identification of patients who are less (more) likely to respond to standard chemotherapy might enable early risk stratification toward alternative treatment regimens. We used a next-generation sequencing panel of 80 cancer- and/or leukemia-associated genes to profile molecularly 423 older patients with de novo AML. Using variables identified in multivariable models and co-occurring mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, we classified the patients into good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups for complete remission (CR) attainment, disease-free (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Whereas 81% of good-risk patients (comprising NPM1-mutated patients harboring mutations in chromatin remodeling, cohesin complex, methylation-related, spliceosome, and/or RAS pathway genes, FLT3-TKD, and/or patients without FLT3-ITD) achieved a CR, only 32% of poor-risk patients (with U2AF1, WT1 mutations and/or complex karyotype) did. Intermediate-risk patients had a 50% CR rate. Similarly, using NPM1 co-mutation patterns and SF1 mutation status, we identified patients with favorable DFS and OS 3-year rates of 46% and 45%, respectively. Patients with adverse genetic features had DFS and OS rates of only 2% and 4%. We show that application of our proposed criteria may refine the 2017 European LeukemiaNet classification for older patients treated with chemotherapy.
Project description:The 2017 European LeukemiaNet 2017 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk stratification (ELN2017) is widely used for risk-stratifying patients with AML. However, its applicability in low- and middle-income countries is limited because of a lack of full cytogenetic and molecular information at diagnosis. Here, we propose an alternative for risk stratification (the Adapted Genetic Risk [AGR]), which permits cytogenetic or molecular missing data while retaining prognostic power. We first analyzed 167 intensively treated patients with nonacute promyelocytic leukemia AML enrolled in São Paulo, Brazil (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo), as our training data set, using ELN2017 as the standard for comparison with our AGR. Next, we combined our AGR with clinical prognostic parameters found in a Cox proportional hazards model to create a novel scoring system (survival AML score, SAMLS) that stratifies patients with newly diagnosed AML. Finally, we have used 2 independent test cohorts, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP; Brazil, n = 145) and Oxford University Hospitals (OUH; United Kingdom, n = 157) for validating our findings. AGR was statistically significant for overall survival (OS) in both test cohorts (FMRP, P = .037; OUH, P = .012) and disease-free survival in FMRP (P = .04). The clinical prognostic features in SAMLS were age (>45 years), white blood cell count (<1.5 or >30.0 × 103/?L), and low albumin levels (<3.8 g/dL), which were associated with worse OS in all 3 cohorts. SAMLS showed a significant difference in OS in the training cohort (P < .001) and test cohorts (FMRP, P = .0018; OUH, P < .001). Therefore, SAMLS, which incorporates the novel AGR evaluation with clinical parameters, is an accurate tool for AML risk assessment.
Project description:To analyze the prognostic impact of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied 196 adults younger than 60 years with newly diagnosed primary CN-AML, who were treated similarly on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocols 9621 and 19808, for WT1 mutations in exons 7 and 9. The patients also were assessed for the presence of FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD), FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations (FLT3-TKD), MLL partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD), NPM1 and CEBPA mutations, and for the expression levels of ERG and BAALC.Twenty-one patients (10.7%) harbored WT1 mutations. Complete remission rates were not significantly different between patients with WT1 mutations and those with unmutated WT1 (P = .36; 76% v 84%). Patients with WT1 mutations had worse disease-free survival (DFS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 13% v 50%) and overall survival (OS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 10% v 56%) than patients with unmutated WT1. In multivariable analyses, WT1 mutations independently predicted worse DFS (P = .009; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, ERG expression level, and FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group (ie, FLT3-ITD(negative)/NPM1(mutated) as low risk v FLT3-ITD(positive) and/or NPM1(wild-type) as high risk). WT1 mutations also independently predicted worse OS (P < .001; HR = 3.2) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group, and white blood cell count.We report the first evidence that WT1 mutations independently predict extremely poor outcome in intensively treated, younger patients with CN-AML. Future trials should include testing for WT1 mutations as part of molecularly based risk assessment and risk-adapted treatment stratification of patients with CN-AML.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prognosis of children with acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5) remains unsatisfactory and the risk profile is still controversial. We aim to investigate the prognostic value of clinical and cytogenetic features and propose a new risk stratification in AML-M5 children. METHODS:We included 132 children with AML-M5. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were documented. Cox regression was performed to evaluate the potential risk factors of prognosis. RESULTS:The 5-year-OS was 46.0% (95% confidence intervals, 41.6%-50.4%) in all patients. There was significantly lower OS in the age ? 3 years old (P = .009) and hyperleukocytosis (P < .001). The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD) and MLL-rearrangement carriers were associated with fewer survivors in all patients (37.1% and 36.7%) and chemotherapy-only group (19.0% and 35.0%). Notably, the number of survivor with MLL-rearrangement did not increase in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) group. According to the Cox regression analysis, HSCT was a significantly favorable factor (P = .001), while hyperleukocytosis, age ? 3 years old, and BM blast ? 70% adversely affected the OS in all patients (all P < .05). Additionally, FLT3-ITD was a risk factor for OS in the chemotherapy-only group (P = .023), while hyperleukocytosis and age ? 3 years independently contributed to poor PFS (both P < .05). In comparison to the standard-risk group, significant poorer outcome was found in the high-risk group (both P < .005). CONCLUSIONS:We propose that AML-M5 children with any of MLL-rearrangement, FLT3-ITD, hyperleukocytosis, BM blast ? 70%, or age ? 3 years old are classified into the high-risk group, and HSCT is beneficial especially in patients with FLT3-ITD mutation, hyperleukocytosis, and age ? 3 years old. Importantly, the choice of HSCT should be made more carefully in children with MLL-rearrangement for its suboptimal performance.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk stratification system to the Children's Hepatic tumor International Collaboration (CHIC) risk stratification system for predicting the prognosis of Chinese children with hepatoblastoma (HB).<h4>Methods</h4>Clinicopathological data of 86 patients diagnosed with HB between January 2014 and December 2017 were retrieved. The study endpoints were the 1- and 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed to evaluate the predictive value.<h4>Results</h4>The 1-, 3-year OS and DFS of the 86 patients were 86.0%, 76.3%, and 74.4%, 54.0%, respectively. Univariate analyses revealed that age at diagnosis had a significant role in prognosis for both OS and DFS, along with PRETEXT staging and metastasis at diagnosis. Multivariate analysis showed that metastasis at diagnosis (HR 3.628, 95% CI 1.404-9.378, P=0.008), PRETEXT staging system (HR 2.176, 95% CI 1.230-3.849, P=0.008) and age at diagnosis (HR 2.268, 95% CI 1.033-4.982, P=0.041) were independent factors for OS. For DFS, the independent factors were the PRETEXT staging system (HR 2.241, 95% CI 1.533-3.277, P<0.001) and age at diagnosis (HR 1.792, 95% CI 1.018-3.154, P=0.043). Both COG and CHIC risk stratification systems could effectively predict the prognosis of children with HB for OS. For DFS, the CHIC risk stratification system was more effective. In addition, the CHIC risk stratification system had a higher c-index (OS 0.743, DFS 0.730), compared to the COG risk stratification system (OS 0.726, DFS 0.594).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Age at diagnosis played a significant role in prognosis. Compared to the COG risk stratification system, the CHIC risk stratification system was superior in predicting the survival of Chinese children with HB.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate the prognostic significance of the international European LeukemiaNet (ELN) guidelines for reporting genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).<h4>Patients and methods</h4>We analyzed 1,550 adults with primary AML, treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B first-line trials, who had pretreatment cytogenetics and, for cytogenetically normal patients, mutational status of NPM1, CEBPA, and FLT3 available. We compared complete remission (CR) rates, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) among patients classified into the four ELN genetic groups (favorable, intermediate-I, intermediate-II, adverse) separately for 818 younger (age < 60 years) and 732 older (age ? 60 years) patients.<h4>Results</h4>The percentages of younger versus older patients in the favorable (41% v 20%; P < .001), intermediate-II (19% v 30%; P < .001), and adverse (22% v 31%; P < .001) genetic groups differed. The favorable group had the best and the adverse group the worst CR rates, DFS, and OS in both age groups. Both intermediate groups had significantly worse outcomes than the favorable but better than the adverse group. Intermediate-I and intermediate-II groups in older patients had similar outcomes, whereas the intermediate-II group in younger patients had better OS but not better CR rates or DFS than the intermediate-I group. The prognostic significance of ELN classification was confirmed by multivariable analyses. For each ELN group, older patients had worse outcomes than younger patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The ELN classification clearly separates the genetic groups by outcome, supporting its use for risk stratification in clinical trials. Because they have different proportions of genetic alterations and outcomes, younger and older patients should be reported separately when using the ELN classification.