Effect of haemoglobin levels on outcome in intravenous thrombolysis-treated stroke patients.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Alterations in haemoglobin levels are frequent in stroke patients. The prognostic meaning of anaemia and polyglobulia on outcomes in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis is ambiguous. Patients and methods:In this prospective multicentre, intravenous thrombolysis register-based study, we compared haemoglobin levels on hospital admission with three-month poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale 3-6), mortality and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II-criteria (ECASS-II-criteria)). Haemoglobin level was used as continuous and categorical variable distinguishing anaemia (female: <12 g/dl; male: <13 g/dl) and polyglobulia (female: >15.5 g/dl; male: >17 g/dl). Anaemia was subdivided into mild and moderate/severe (female/male: <11 g/dl). Normal haemoglobin level (female: 12.0-15.5 g/dl, male: 13.0-17.0 g/dl) served as reference group. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression models. Results:Among 6866 intravenous thrombolysis-treated stroke patients, 5448 (79.3%) had normal haemoglobin level, 1232 (17.9%) anaemia - of those 903 (13.2%) had mild and 329 (4.8%) moderate/severe anaemia - and 186 (2.7%) polyglobulia. Anaemia was associated with poor outcome (ORadjusted 1.25 (1.05-1.48)) and mortality (ORadjusted 1.58 (1.27-1.95)). In anaemia subgroups, both mild and moderate/severe anaemia independently predicted poor outcome (ORadjusted 1.29 (1.07-1.55) and 1.48 (1.09-2.02)) and mortality (ORadjusted 1.45 (1.15-1.84) and ORadjusted 2.00 (1.46-2.75)). Each haemoglobin level decrease by 1?g/dl independently increased the risk of poor outcome (ORadjusted 1.07 (1.02-1.11)) and mortality (ORadjusted 1.08 (1.02-1.15)). Anaemia was not associated with occurrence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Polyglobulia did not change any outcome. Discussion:The more severe the anaemia, the higher the probability of poor outcome and death. Severe anaemia might be a target for interventions in hyperacute stroke. Conclusion:Anaemia on admission, but not polyglobulia, is a strong and independent predictor of poor outcome and mortality in intravenous thrombolysis-treated stroke patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe the association of maternal anaemia with maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Rural India and Pakistan. POPULATION:Pregnant women residing in the study catchment area. METHODS:We performed an analysis of a prospective pregnancy registry in which haemoglobin is commonly obtained as well as maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes for 42 days post-delivery. Women 40 years or older who delivered before 20 weeks or had a haemoglobin level of <3.0 g/dl were excluded. Our primary exposure was maternal anaemia, which was categorised in keeping with World Health Organization criteria based on a normal (?11 g/dl), mild (>10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (7-9.9 g/dl) or severe (<7 g/dl). haemoglobin level. The primary maternal outcome was maternal death, the primary fetal outcome was stillbirth, and the primary neonatal outcome was neonatal mortality <28 days. RESULTS:A total of 92 247 deliveries and 93 107 infants were included, of which 87.8% were born to mothers who were anaemic (mild 37.9%, moderate 49.1%, and severe 0.7%). Maternal mortality (number per 100 000) was not associated with anaemia: normal 124, mild 106, moderate 135, and severe 325 (P = 0.64). Fetal and neonatal mortality was associated with severe anaemia: stillbirth rate (n/1000)-normal 27.7, mild 25.8, moderate 30.1, and severe 90.9; P < 0.0001; 28-day neonatal mortality (n/1000)-normal 24.7, mild 22.9, moderate 28.1, and severe 72.6 (P < 0.0001). Severe maternal anaemia was also associated with low birthweight (<2500 and <1500 g), preterm birth, and postpartum haemorrhage. CONCLUSION:Severe maternal anaemia is associated with higher risks of poor maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes but other degrees of anaemia are not. Interventions directed at preventing severe anaemia in pregnant women should be considered. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:Severe maternal anaemia is associated with adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes in low/middle-income countries.
Project description:The outcome of early intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is worse than that without thrombosis. How to increase the efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis for AF-related ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated factors that influence the effect of intravenous thrombolysis in these patients. Our results showed that thrombolysis was independently associated with a favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and did not influence the mortality of AF-related ischemic stroke, although it increased the risk of hemorrhage within 24 h after treatment. Risk factors for a poor outcome at admission were: heart failure (P = 0.045); high systolic pressure (P = 0.039); high blood glucose (P = 0.030); and a high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (P < 0.001). Moreover, high systolic pressure at admission (P = 0.007), high blood glucose (P = 0.027), and a high NIHSS score (P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for mortality at 3 months. Besides thrombolysis, a high NIHSS score (P = 0.006) and warfarin taken within 48 h before stroke onset (P = 0.032) were also independent risk factors for symptomatic hemorrhage within 24 h after treatment. Ischemic stroke patients with AF benefited from intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5 h after stroke.
Project description:We assessed the efficacy of a screening protocol for postpartum anaemia diagnosis and treatment in the maternity ward. A prospective non-randomized before-and-after anaemia screening protocol implementation study during two consecutive periods was conducted. Women who were scheduled for vaginal birth were tested for haemoglobin (Hb) before delivery. During the first period (June 29-October 10, 2015; N?=?803) Hb was measured postpartum for women with anaemia-related symptoms, postpartum haemorrhage, or pre-delivery severe anaemia (Hb?<?8?g/dL; "symptoms" group). During the second period (October 11, 2015-January 27, 2016; N?=?755) Hb was also measured in all women with pre-delivery anaemia [i.e., Hb?<?10.5?g/dL] ("screening" group). The primary outcomes were the rates of women with (1) postpartum anaemia diagnosis (Hb?<?10?g/dL) and (2) administration of parenteral iron sucrose (indicated for postpartum Hb???9.5?g/dL). The detection rate of postpartum anaemia was higher in the screening group compared with the symptoms group (140 (19%) versus 100 (12%), ORadjusted 2.2 95%CI [1.6-3.0], respectively). The iron sucrose treatment rate was also higher (110 (15%) versus 88 (11%), ORadjusted 2.0 95%CI [1.4-2.7], respectively). A total of 122 women were diagnosed with moderate-severe anaemia in the screening group, 27 of whom (22%) were diagnosed solely due to the screening protocol. The results demonstrated that a routine screening of women with predelivery anaemia for postpartum anaemia led to increased anaemia diagnosis and consequently better medical care.
Project description:Perioperative anaemia increases postoperative morbidity and mortality, and iron deficiency is anaemia's most common cause in surgical patients. Preoperative intravenous iron increases postoperative haemoglobin; however, data regarding intraoperative intravenous iron's effectiveness are inadequate. This study examined intraoperative intravenous iron's effects on postoperative haemoglobin levels in adults. Fifty-seven healthy subjects (aged 19-40 years) scheduled for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were assigned randomly to the iron (n?=?28) or control (n?=?29) groups. The iron group received intravenous ferric derisomaltose (1,000 mg) after anaesthetic induction. The control group received an identical volume of intravenous normal saline. The primary outcome was postoperative haemoglobin level. Secondary outcomes included other postoperative haematologic and iron parameters. Laboratory data were obtained preoperatively and at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks postoperatively. Haemoglobin was higher in the iron group 2 weeks postoperatively (12.9 g/dL vs. 12.2 g/dL), but the between-group difference was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. However, the reticulocyte production index was significantly higher in the iron group 2 weeks postoperatively. Intraoperative intravenous iron maintains postoperative haemoglobin values in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery by increasing haematopoietic function and iron bioavailability and therefore appears to be a useful strategy for blood management.
Project description:Background:Post-operative anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Positive effects of post-operative intravenous iron (IVI) after elective orthopaedic, abdominal and genitourinary surgery have been reported. The current observational trial investigated the prevalence of post-operative anaemia, the effect of IVI on haemoglobin levels, the use of blood transfusions and diagnoses related to infections. Methods:1,265 patients on five ICUs of Münster University Hospital were screened for post-operative anaemia. On one ICU, patients were screened for iron deficiency and, if indicated, supplemented with 500 mg of ferric carboxymaltose. Primary outcome measures were haemoglobin levels, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, transfusion requirements, documented infection and antibiotic treatment. Results:Anaemia was prevalent in 86.2% of patients upon ICU admission. 429 patients were screened for iron deficiency anaemia. 95 patients were eligible, 35 were treated with IVI. An increase of +0.4 g/dl in Hb levels 7 days after IVI compared to -0.1 g/dl in non-treated anaemic patients was observed. The number of RBC transfusions, ICD codes related to infections and infectious parameters were similar between groups. Conclusions: IVI treatment was safe and resulted in higher median Hb levels. Randomized controlled trials are required to support the hypotheses of this study.
Project description:Anaemia represents a common toxicity with amphotericin B-based induction therapy in HIV-infected persons with cryptococcal meningitis. We sought to examine the impact of amphotericin-related anaemia on survival.We used data from Ugandan and South African trial participants to characterize the variation of haemoglobin concentrations from diagnosis to 12 weeks post-diagnosis. Anaemia severity was classified based on the haemoglobin concentration at cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis, and nadir haemoglobin values during amphotericin induction. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate 2- and 10-week mortality risk. We also estimated 10-week mortality risk among participants with nadir haemoglobin < 8.5 g/dL during amphotericin induction and who survived ? 2 weeks post-enrolment.The median haemoglobin concentration at meningitis diagnosis was 11.5 g/dL [interquartile range (IQR) 9.7-13 g/dL; n = 311] with a mean decline of 4.2 g/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) -4.6 to -3.8; P < 0.001; n = 148] from diagnosis to nadir value among participants with baseline haemoglobin ? 8.5 g/dL. The median haemoglobin concentration was 8.1 g/dL (IQR 6.5-9.5 g/dL) at 2 weeks, increasing to 9.4 g/dL (IQR 8.2-10.9 g/dL) by 4 weeks and continuing to increase to 12 weeks. Among participants with haemoglobin < 8.5 g/dL at diagnosis, mortality risk was elevated at 2 weeks [hazard ratio (HR) 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.9; P < 0.01] and 10 weeks (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.03), relative to those with haemoglobin ? 8.5 g/dL. New-onset anaemia occurring with amphotericin therapy did not have a statistically significant association with 10-week mortality (HR 2.0; 95% CI 0.5-9.1; P = 0.4).Amphotericin induced significant haemoglobin declines, which were mostly transient and did not impact 10-week mortality. Individuals with moderate to life-threatening anaemia at baseline had a higher mortality risk at 2 and 10 weeks post-enrolment.
Project description:Background and Purpose: According to previous studies, the mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio (MPVLR) represents a novel marker of a poor short-term prognosis in patients with a myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We aimed to evaluate the association between MPVLR and clinical outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Methods: Two hundred forty-one patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis were prospectively enrolled in this study. Blood samples for MPVLR were obtained at admission and at 18-24 h after treatment with intravenous thrombolysis. A poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale score of 3-6 at 3 months after stroke. Results: At admission, the area under the curve of MPVLR to predict poor functional outcomes at 3 months was 0.613 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.541-0.686; P = 0.003), and the best predictive MPVLR value was 5.8. Patients with an MPVLR ?5.8 had a 3.141-fold increased risk of a poor outcome at 3 months (95% CI, 1.491-6.615; P = 0.003) compared to patients with an MPVLR <5.8. At 18-24 h after treatment with intravenous thrombolysis, the area under the curve of MPVLR to predict a poor outcome at 3 months was 0.697 (95% CI, 0.630-0.765, P < 0.001), and the best predictive MPVLR value was 6.9. The inclusion of MPVLR as a continuous (odds ratio, 1.145; 95% CI, 1.044-1.256, P = 0.004) and categorical variable (odds ratio, 6.555; 95% CI, 2.986-14.393, P < 0.001) was independently associated with poor outcomes at 3 months. Conclusions: Both the values of MPVLR at admission and 18-24 h after intravenous thrombolysis were independently associated with poor functional outcomes. MPVLR may serve as an activity marker for a poor prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis.
Project description:This trial explores whether intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) results in a better regeneration of haemoglobin levels and prevents anaemia compared to placebo in preoperative non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery.The trial is a prospective, double-blind, comparative, placebo-controlled trial of 60 non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The patients were randomized 1:1 to either 1000 mg intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered perioperatively by infusion or placebo.Mean preoperative haemoglobin in the active treatment group was 14·3 g/dl vs. 14·0 g/dl in the placebo group. At discharge 5 days after surgery, haemoglobin levels were reduced to 10·7 and 10·5 g/dl, respectively. One month after surgery, haemoglobin concentration had increased to an average of 12·6 g/dl vs. 11·8 g/dl (p = 0·012) and significantly more patients were non-anaemic in the intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000-treated group compared to the placebo group (38·5% vs. 8·0%; p = 0·019). There were no differences in side-effects between the groups.A single perioperative 1000 mg dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 significantly increased the haemoglobin level and prevented anaemia 4 weeks after surgery, with a short-term safety profile similar to placebo. Future trials on potential clinical benefits of preoperative treatment with intravenous iron in non-anaemic patients are needed.
Project description:Background: Owing to inadequate supplies of donor blood for transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) World Health Organization paediatric guidelines recommend restrictive transfusion practices, based on expert opinion. We examined whether survival amongst hospitalised children by admission haemoglobin and whether this was influenced by malaria infection and/or transfusion. Methods: A retrospective analysis of standardised clinical digital records in an unselected population of children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya over an 8-year period. We describe baseline parameters with respect to categories of anaemia and outcome (in-hospital death) by haemoglobin (Hb), malaria and transfusion status. Results: Among 29,226 children, 1,143 (3.9%) had profound anaemia (Hb <4g/dl) and 3,469 (11.9%) had severe anaemia (Hb 4-6g/d). In-hospital mortality rate was 97/1,143 (8.5%) if Hb<4g/dl or 164/2,326 (7.1%) in those with severe anaemia (Hb ?4.0-<6g/dl). Admission Hb <3g/dl was associated with higher risk of death versus those with higher Hbs (OR=2.41 (95%CI: 1.8 - 3.24; P<0.001), increasing to OR=6.36, (95%CI: 4.21-9.62; P<0.001) in malaria positive children. Conversely, mortality in non-malaria admissions was unrelated to Hb level. Transfusion was associated with a non-significant improvement in outcome if Hb<3g/dl (malaria-only) OR 0.72 (95%CI 0.29 - 1.78), albeit the number of cases were too few to show a statistical difference. For those with Hb levels above 4g/dl, mortality was significantly higher in those receiving a transfusion compared to the non-transfused group. For non-malarial cases, transfusion did not affect survival-status, irrespective of baseline Hb level compared to children who were not transfused at higher Hb levels. Conclusion: Although severe anaemia is common among children admitted to hospital in sSA (~16%), our data do not indicate that outcome is improved by transfusion irrespective of malaria status. Given the limitations of observational studies, clinical trials investigating the role of transfusion in outcomes in children with severe anaemia are warranted.
Project description:We performed a meta-analysis to assess whether leukoaraiosis on brain computed tomographic scans of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) or poor functional outcome at 3 to 6 months after stroke, or both.We searched PubMed and pooled relevant data in meta-analyses using random effects models. Using odds ratios (OR), we quantified the strength of association between the presence and severity of leukoaraiosis and post-thrombolysis sICH or 3- to 6-month modified Rankin Score >2.Eleven eligible studies (n=7194) were pooled in meta-analysis. The risk of sICH was higher in patients with leukoaraiosis (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.06; P=0.002) and severe leukoaraiosis (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.92-3.34; P<0.0001) compared with patients without leukoaraiosis. Leukoaraiosis was an independent predictor of sICH in 6 included studies (n=4976; adjusted OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.35-2.27; P<0.0001). OR for leukoaraiosis and poor 3- to 6-month outcome was 2.02 (95% CI, 1.54-2.65; P<0.0001), with significant statistical heterogeneity (I(2), 75.7%; P=0.002). In adjusted analyses, leukoaraiosis was an independent predictor of poor outcome (n=3688; adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; P<0.0001). In post hoc analyses, including only leukoaraiosis patients in randomized controlled trials (IST-3 [third International Stroke Trial], NINDS [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke], ECASS-1-2 [European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study]; n=2234), tissue-type plasminogen activator versus control was associated with higher sICH risk (OR, 5.50; 95% CI, 2.49-12.13), but lower poor outcome risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.95).Leukoaraiosis might increase post-intravenous thrombolysis sICH risk and poor outcome poststroke. Despite increased sICH risk, intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment has net clinical benefit in patients with leukoaraiosis. Given the risk of bias/confounding, these results should be considered hypothesis-generating and do not justify withholding intravenous thrombolysis.