Role of Combination Antiplatelet and Anticoagulation Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease: Insights From the COMPASS Trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Patients with established coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events. METHODS:In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies), we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus versus without diabetes mellitus in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major adverse limb events, including amputation). The primary safety end point was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria for major bleeding. RESULTS:There were 10?341 patients with diabetes mellitus and 17?054 without diabetes mellitus in the overall trial. A consistent and similar relative risk reduction was seen for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n=9152) versus placebo plus aspirin (n=9126) in patients both with (n=6922) and without (n=11?356) diabetes mellitus for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio, 0.74, P=0.002; and hazard ratio, 0.77, P=0.005, respectively, Pinteraction=0.77) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81, P=0.05; and hazard ratio, 0.84, P=0.09, respectively; Pinteraction=0.82). However, although the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% versus 1.4% for the primary efficacy end point at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction<0.0001; 1.9% versus 0.6% for all-cause mortality, Pinteraction=0.02; 2.7% versus 1.7% for major vascular events, Pinteraction<0.0001). Because the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes mellitus, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the patients with diabetes mellitus (2.7% versus 1.0%; Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral end points in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes mellitus, including a 3-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD) have increased risks for cardiovascular (CV)-related morbidity and mortality. In the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) clinical trial of such patients, rivaroxaban plus aspirin demonstrated a significant reduction in major adverse CV events (MACE), a composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and CV death, and major adverse limb events (MALE), a composite of chronic and acute limb ischemia, and major amputation resulting from vascular events, versus aspirin alone.<h4>Objective</h4>To estimate the 1-year economic implications of preventing MACE and MALE with the use of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin alone among patients with chronic CAD and/or PAD in a US commercial health plan.<h4>Method</h4>A cost-consequence model was developed to evaluate the economic impact of rivaroxaban plus aspirin in a hypothetical 1-million-member health plan. The model inputs were taken from the COMPASS study (ie, the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban plus aspirin vs aspirin), Optum Integrated Database (ie, the prevalence of chronic CAD and/or PAD, incidence rates, and healthcare costs of MACE, MALE, and major bleeding), and the RED BOOK (ie, wholesale drug acquisition costs). The cost inputs were in 2019 US dollars. One-way sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were conducted.<h4>Results</h4>A 1-year treatment with rivaroxaban plus aspirin resulted in reductions of MACE and MALE, which balance the increased risk for bleeding versus aspirin alone and indicate a net health benefit for this drug regimen. These reductions were achieved at an incremental per-member per-month (PMPM) cost of $0.16, mainly because of rivaroxaban's acquisition cost. In patients with ?2 MACE or MALE risk factors, the incremental PMPM cost was $0.09, given the increased offset in rivaroxaban's acquisition cost by reduced rates of MACE or MALE.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In an era of emerging thrombocardiology, treatment with rivaroxaban plus aspirin offers an effective thrombotic risk management strategy for healthcare stakeholders in the management of chronic CAD and/or PAD. The contribution of rivaroxaban would be greater in patients with ?2 risk factors for MACE or MALE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a contributor to embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Subgroup analyses from previous studies suggest that anticoagulation could reduce recurrent stroke compared with antiplatelet therapy. We hypothesised that anticoagulant treatment with rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, would reduce the risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke compared with aspirin among patients with PFO enrolled in the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. METHODS:NAVIGATE ESUS was a double-blinded, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 459 centres in 31 countries that assessed the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with ESUS. For this prespecified subgroup analysis, cohorts with and without PFO were defined on the basis of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). The primary efficacy outcome was time to recurrent ischaemic stroke between treatment groups. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding, according to the criteria of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The primary analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. Additionally, we did a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of studies in which patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO were randomly assigned to receive anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. FINDINGS:Between Dec 23, 2014, and Sept 20, 2017, 7213 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive rivaroxaban (n=3609) or aspirin (n=3604). Patients were followed up for a mean of 11 months because of early trial termination. PFO was reported as present in 534 (7·4%) patients on the basis of either TTE or TOE. Patients with PFO assigned to receive aspirin had a recurrent ischaemic stroke rate of 4·8 events per 100 person-years compared with 2·6 events per 100 person-years in those treated with rivaroxaban. Among patients with known PFO, there was insufficient evidence to support a difference in risk of recurrent ischaemic stroke between rivaroxaban and aspirin (hazard ratio [HR] 0·54; 95% CI 0·22-1·36), and the risk was similar for those without known PFO (1·06; 0·84-1·33; pinteraction=0·18). The risks of major bleeding with rivaroxaban versus aspirin were similar in patients with PFO detected (HR 2·05; 95% CI 0·51-8·18) and in those without PFO detected (HR 2·82; 95% CI 1·69-4·70; pinteraction=0·68). The random-effects meta-analysis combined data from NAVIGATE ESUS with data from two previous trials (PICSS and CLOSE) and yielded a summary odds ratio of 0·48 (95% CI 0·24-0·96; p=0·04) for ischaemic stroke in favour of anticoagulation, without evidence of heterogeneity. INTERPRETATION:Among patients with ESUS who have PFO, anticoagulation might reduce the risk of recurrent stroke by about half, although substantial imprecision remains. Dedicated trials of anticoagulation versus antiplatelet therapy or PFO closure, or both, are warranted. FUNDING:Bayer and Janssen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS:The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27?395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or ?40% at baseline. RESULTS:Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and ?40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excess hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
Project description:While in recent trials the dual pathway inhibition with aspirin plus rivaroxaban has shown to be efficacious in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, little is known about the effects of this combination treatment on thrombus formation and vascular remodelling upon vascular damage. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aspirin and/or rivaroxaban on injury-induced murine arterial thrombus formation in vivo and in vitro, vessel-wall remodelling, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates. Temporary ligation of the carotid artery of C57BL/6 mice, fed a western type diet, led to endothelial denudation and sub-occlusive thrombus formation. At the site of ligation, the vessel wall stiffened and the intima-media thickened. Aspirin treatment antagonized vascular stiffening and rivaroxaban treatment led to a positive trend towards reduced stiffening. Local intima-media thickening was antagonized by both aspirin or rivaroxaban treatment. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the number of platelets per leukocyte were reduced in aspirin and/or rivaroxaban treatment groups. Furthermore, rivaroxaban restricted thrombus growth and height in vitro. In sum, this study shows vascular protective effects of aspirin and rivaroxaban, upon vascular injury of the mouse artery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs. ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE-ESUS) trial is a randomized phase-III trial comparing rivaroxaban versus aspirin in patients with recent ESUS. AIMS:We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of this large ESUS cohort to explore relationships among key subgroups. METHODS:We enrolled 7213 patients at 459 sites in 31 countries. Prespecified subgroups for primary safety and efficacy analyses included age, sex, race, global region, stroke or transient ischemic attack prior to qualifying event, time to randomization, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. RESULTS:Mean age was 66.9?±?9.8 years; 24% were under 60 years. Older patients had more hypertension, coronary disease, and cancer. Strokes in older subjects were more frequently cortical and accompanied by radiographic evidence of prior infarction. Women comprised 38% of participants and were older than men. Patients from East Asia were oldest whereas those from Latin America were youngest. Patients in the Americas more frequently were on aspirin prior to the qualifying stroke. Acute cortical infarction was more common in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, whereas prior radiographic infarctions were most common in East Asia.?Approximately forty-five percent of subjects were enrolled within 30 days of the qualifying stroke, with earliest enrollments in Asia and Eastern Europe. CONCLUSIONS:NAVIGATE-ESUS is the largest randomized trial comparing antithrombotic strategies for secondary stroke prevention in patients with ESUS. The study population encompasses a broad array of patients across multiple continents and these subgroups provide ample opportunities for future research.
Project description:Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke represents the largest group of cerebrovascular disease, and those patients have a high risk of early recurrent stroke. Over decades, anticoagulation therapy has been used prudently in them for likely increasing the risk of intra-/extra-cranial hemorrhagic complications. However, recently rivaroxaban, a new oral anticoagulant, is proved to be as effective as traditional anticoagulants, while carrying significantly less risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, we assumed that patients may benefit from rivaroxaban if treated soon after TIA or minor stroke, and designed this adequately powered randomized study, TRACE.The Treatment of Rivaroxaban versus Aspirin in Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events (TRACE) study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial with a target enrollment of 4400 patients. A 14-days regimen of rivaroxaban 10 mg daily or a 14-days regimen of aspirin 100 mg daily will be administrated to randomized participants with acute TIA or minor stroke, defined as National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores ≤ 3. The primary efficacy end point is percentage of patients with any stroke (ischemic or hemorrhage) at 14 days. Study visits will be performed at the day of randomization, day 14 and day 90.Even though the new oral anticoagulants seem to be both safe and effective, few clinical trials have been carried out to test their effect on non-disabling cerebrovascular events. Treatment with rivaroxaban may prevent more cerebrovascular events with an acceptable risk profile after TIA or minor stroke, compared with aspirin, thus helping to improve the outcome of the disease.No. NCT01923818.
Project description:Background Diabetes mellitus frequently coexists with heart failure (HF), but few studies have compared the associations between diabetes mellitus and cardiac remodeling, quality of life, and clinical outcomes, according to HF phenotype. Methods and Results We compared echocardiographic parameters, quality of life (assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire), and outcomes (1-year all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and HF hospitalization) between HF patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus in the prospective ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) Registry, as well as community-based controls without HF. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of diabetes mellitus with clinical outcomes. Among 5028 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; EF <40%) and 1139 patients with HF and preserved EF (HFpEF; EF ≥50%), the prevalences of type 2 diabetes mellitus were 40.2% and 45.0%, respectively (P=0.003). In both HFrEF and HFpEF cohorts, diabetes mellitus (versus no diabetes mellitus) was associated with smaller indexed left ventricular diastolic volumes and higher mitral E/e' ratio. There was a predominance of eccentric hypertrophy in HFrEF and concentric hypertrophy in HFpEF. Patients with diabetes mellitus had lower Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores in both HFpEF and HFrEF, with more prominent differences in HFpEF (Pinteraction<0.05). In both HFpEF and HFrEF, patients with diabetes mellitus had more HF rehospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.54; P=0.014) and higher 1-year rates of the composite of all-cause mortality/HF hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41; P=0.011), with no differences between HF phenotypes (Pinteraction>0.05). Conclusions In HFpEF and HFrEF, type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with smaller left ventricular volumes, higher mitral E/e' ratio, poorer quality of life, and worse outcomes, with several differences noted between HF phenotypes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01633398.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with both diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a subpopulation characterized by ultrahigh ischemic and bleeding risk after percutaneous coronary intervention. There are limited data on the impact of ticagrelor monotherapy among these patients. METHODS:In this post hoc analysis of the GLOBAL-LEADERS trial, the treatment effects of the experimental (one-month dual-antiplatelet therapy [DAPT] followed by 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy) versus the reference regimen (12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin alone) were analyzed according to DM/CKD status. The primary endpoint was a composite endpoint of all-cause death or new Q-wave myocardial infarction at 2-years. The patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE) was defined as the composite of all-cause death, any stroke, site-reported MI and any revascularization, whereas net adverse clinical events (NACE) combined POCE with BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding events. RESULTS:At 2 years, the DM?+?/CKD?+?patients had significantly higher incidences of the primary endpoint (9.5% versus 3.1%, adjusted HR 2.16; 95% CI [1.66-2.80], p?<?0.001), BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding events, stroke, site-reported myocardial infraction, all revascularization, POCE, and NACE, compared with the DM-/CKD- patients. Among the DM?+?/CKD?+?patients, after adjustment, there were no significant differences in the primary endpoints between the experimental and reference regimen; however, the experimental regimen was associated with lower rates of POCE (20.6% versus 25.9%, HR 0.74; 95% CI [0.55-0.99], p?=?0.043, pinteraction?=?0.155) and NACE (22.7% versus 28.3%, HR 0.75; 95% CI [0.56-0.99], p?=?0.044, pinteraction?=?0.310), which was mainly driven by a lower rate of all revascularization, as compared with the reference regimen. The landmark analysis showed that while the experimental and reference regimen had similar rates of all the clinical endpoints during the first year, the experimental regimen was associated with significantly lower rates of POCE (5.8% versus 11.0%, HR 0.49; 95% CI [0.29-0.82], p?=?0.007, pinteraction?=?0.040) and NACE (5.8% versus 11.2%, HR 0.48; 95% CI [0.29-0.82], p?=?0.007, pinteraction?=?0.013) in the second year. CONCLUSION:Among patients with both DM and CKD, ticagrelor monotherapy was not associated with lower rates of all-cause death or new Q-wave, or major bleeding complications; however, it was associated with lower rates of POCE and NACE. These findings should be interpreted as hypothesis-generating. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01813435).
Project description:We performed a network meta-analysis to investigate the optimal antithrombotic regime by indirectly comparing new antithrombotic regimes (new P2Y12 inhibitors plus aspirin or novel oral anticoagulants on top of traditional dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases was performed to identify all phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving novel oral anticoagulants or oral P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with ACS. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were regarded as the efficacy endpoint, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding events were used as the safety endpoint. The net clinical benefit was calculated as the sum of MACE and TIMI major bleeding events.Five phase 3 RCTs with 64,476 ACS patients were included. Although there were no significant differences among new antithrombotic regimes, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily plus traditional DAPT might be the most effective in reducing the incidence of MACE, accompanying the highest risk of TIMI major bleeding. Ticagrelor plus aspirin presented slight advantage on the net clinical benefit over other new antithrombotic regimes, with the highest probability of being the best regimes for net clinical benefit (35.0%), followed by prasugrel plus aspirin (28.0%), and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus traditional DAPT (19.5%).Novel antithrombotic regime with ticagrelor plus aspirin brings a larger clinical benefit in comparison with other regimes, suggesting that it may be the optimal antithrombotic regime for patients with ACS.
Project description:Increased platelet aggregation during antiplatelet therapy may predict cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. The majority of these patients receive aspirin monotherapy. We aimed to investigate whether high platelet-aggregation levels predict cardiovascular events in stable coronary artery disease patients treated with aspirin.We included 900 stable coronary artery disease patients with either previous myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both. All patients received single antithrombotic therapy with 75 mg aspirin daily. Platelet aggregation was evaluated 1 hour after aspirin intake using the VerifyNow Aspirin Assay (Accriva Diagnostics) and Multiplate Analyzer (Roche; agonists: arachidonic acid and collagen). Adherence to aspirin was confirmed by serum thromboxane B2. The primary end point was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death. At 3-year follow-up, 78 primary end points were registered. The primary end point did not occur more frequently in patients with high platelet-aggregation levels (first versus fourth quartile) assessed by VerifyNow (hazard ratio: 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3-1.1], P=0.08) or Multiplate using arachidonic acid (hazard ratio: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.5-2.1], P=0.92) or collagen (hazard ratio: 1.4 [95% CI, 0.7-2.8], P=0.38). Similar results were found for the composite secondary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, stent thrombosis, and all-cause death) and the single end points. Thromboxane B2 levels did not predict any end points. Renal insufficiency was the only clinical risk factor predicting the primary and secondary end points.This study is the largest to investigate platelet aggregation in stable coronary artery disease patients receiving aspirin as single antithrombotic therapy. We found that high platelet-aggregation levels did not predict cardiovascular events.