Primary Immunodeficiencies With Defects in Innate Immunity: Focus on Orofacial Manifestations.
ABSTRACT: The field of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is rapidly evolving. Indeed, the number of described diseases is constantly increasing thanks to the rapid identification of novel genetic defects by next-generation sequencing. PIDs are now rather referred to as "inborn errors of immunity" due to the association between a wide range of immune dysregulation-related clinical features and the "prototypic" increased infection susceptibility. The phenotypic spectrum of PIDs is therefore very large and includes several orofacial features. However, the latter are often overshadowed by severe systemic manifestations and remain underdiagnosed. Patients with impaired innate immunity are predisposed to a variety of oral manifestations including oral infections (e.g., candidiasis, herpes gingivostomatitis), aphthous ulcers, and severe periodontal diseases. Although less frequently, they can also show orofacial developmental abnormalities. Oral lesions can even represent the main clinical manifestation of some PIDs or be inaugural, being therefore one of the first features indicating the existence of an underlying immune defect. The aim of this review is to describe the orofacial features associated with the different PIDs of innate immunity based on the new 2019 classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee. This review highlights the important role played by the dentist, in close collaboration with the multidisciplinary medical team, in the management and the diagnostic of these conditions.
Project description:Introduction: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are under-reported in Malaysia. The actual disease frequency of PID in this country is unknown due to the absence of a national patient registry for PID. Objective: This systematic review aimed to determine the prevalence rates of PID cases diagnosed and published in Malaysia from 1st of January 1979 until 1st of March 2020. It also aimed to describe the various types of PIDs reported in Malaysia. Method: Following the development of a comprehensive search strategy, all published literature of PID cases from Malaysia was identified and collated. All cases that fulfilled the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) classification diagnosis were included in the systematic review. Data were retrieved and collated into a proforma. Results: A total of 4,838 articles were identified and screened, with 34 publications and 119 patients fulfilling the criteria and being included in the systematic review. The prevalence rate was 0.37 per 100,000 population. In accordance with the IUIS, the distribution of diagnostic classifications was immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunities (36 patients, 30.3%), combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (21 patients, 17.6%), predominant antibody deficiencies (24 patients, 20.2%), diseases of immune dysregulation (13 patients, 10.9%), congenital defects in phagocyte number or function (20 patients, 16.8%), defects in intrinsic and innate immunity (4 patients, 3.4%), and autoinflammatory disorders (1 patient, 0.8%). Parental consanguinity was 2.5%. Thirteen different gene mutations were available in 21.8% of the cases. Conclusion: PIDs are underdiagnosed and under-reported in Malaysia. Developing PID healthcare and a national patient registry is much needed to enhance the outcome of PID patient care.
Project description:Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM #194050) is a developmental disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Oral abnormalities are also described in clinical manifestations of the disease. This paper describes orofacial features in patients with WBS.Seventeen patients with a confirmed molecular diagnosis of WBS were examined for oral abnormalities through clinical oral evaluations and panoramic radiography.Malocclusion, specifically with dental midline deviation, and high-arched palate were the most common findings.The present results contribute to knowledge on the orofacial manifestations of WBS. Since such patients with WBS may develop severe oral abnormalities, early detection and treatment can help improve their quality of life.
Project description:The life span of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency is increasing due to recent improvements in therapeutic strategies. While the incidence of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is 1:10,000 births, that of secondary immunodeficiencies are more common and are associated with posttransplantation immune dysfunction, with immunosuppressive medication for human immunodeficiency virus or with human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection. After infection, malignancy is the most prevalent cause of death in both children and adults with (PIDs). PIDs more often associated with cancer include common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, and severe combined immunodeficiency. This suggests that a protective immune response against both infectious non-self-(pathogens) and malignant self-challenges (cancer) exists. The increased incidence of cancer has been attributed to defective elimination of altered or "transformed" cells and/or defective immunity towards cancer cells. The concept of aberrant immune surveillance occurring in PIDs is supported by evidence in mice and from patients undergoing immunosuppression after transplantation. Here, we discuss the importance of PID defects in the development of malignancies and the current limitations associated with molecular pathogenesis of these diseases and emphasize the need for further knowledge of how specific mutations can modulate the immune system to alter immunosurveillance and thereby play a key role in the etiology of malignancies in PID patients.
Project description:Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are genetic disorders impairing host immunity, leading to life-threatening infections, autoimmunity, and/or malignancies. Genomic technologies have been critical for expediting the discovery of novel genetic defects underlying PIDs, expanding our knowledge of the complex clinical phenotypes associated with PIDs, and in shifting paradigms of PID pathogenesis. Once considered Mendelian, monogenic, and completely penetrant disorders, genomic studies have redefined PIDs as a heterogeneous group of diseases found in the global population that may arise through multigenic defects, non-germline transmission, and with variable penetrance. This review examines the uses of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) in the diagnosis of PIDs. While whole genome sequencing identifies variants throughout the genome, whole exome sequencing sequences only the protein-coding regions within a genome, and targeted gene panels sequence only a specific cohort of genes. The advantages and limitations of each sequencing approach are compared. The complexities of variant interpretation and variant validation remain the major challenge in wide-spread implementation of these technologies. Lastly, the roles of NGS in newborn screening and precision therapeutics for individuals with PID are also addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, a growing number of novel genetic defects underlying primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have been identified, increasing the number of PID up to more than 250 well-defined forms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and proper filtering strategies greatly contributed to this rapid evolution, providing the possibility to rapidly and simultaneously analyze large numbers of genes or the whole exome.<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the role of targeted NGS and whole exome sequencing (WES) in the diagnosis of a case series, characterized by complex or atypical clinical features suggesting a PID, difficult to diagnose using the current diagnostic procedures.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively analyzed genetic variants identified through targeted NGS or WES in 45 patients with complex PID of unknown etiology.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-seven variants were identified using targeted NGS, while 5 were identified using WES. Newly identified genetic variants were classified into four groups: (I) variations associated with a well-defined PID, (II) variations associated with atypical features of a well-defined PID, (III) functionally relevant variations potentially involved in the immunological features, and (IV) non-diagnostic genotype, in whom the link with phenotype is missing. We reached a conclusive genetic diagnosis in 7/45 patients (~16%). Among them, four patients presented with a typical well-defined PID. In the remaining three cases, mutations were associated with unexpected clinical features, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of typical PIDs. In addition, we identified 31 variants in 10 patients with complex phenotype, individually not causative <i>per se</i> of the disorder.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NGS technologies represent a cost-effective and rapid first-line genetic approach for the evaluation of complex PIDs. WES, despite a moderate higher cost compared to targeted, is emerging as a valuable tool to reach in a timely manner, a PID diagnosis with a considerable potential to draw genotype-phenotype correlation. Nevertheless, a large fraction of patients still remains without a conclusive diagnosis. In these patients, the sum of non-diagnostic variants might be proven informative in future studies with larger cohorts of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is complex and cumbersome yet important for the clinical management of the disease. Exome sequencing may provide a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients in a single genetic test. METHODS:In May 2013, we implemented exome sequencing in routine diagnostics for patients suffering from PIDs. This study reports the clinical utility and diagnostic yield for a heterogeneous group of 254 consecutively referred PID patients from 249 families. For the majority of patients, the clinical diagnosis was based on clinical criteria including rare and/or unusual severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, sometimes accompanied by autoimmune manifestations. Functional immune defects were interpreted in the context of aberrant immune cell populations, aberrant antibody levels, or combinations of these factors. RESULTS:For 62 patients (24%), exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in well-established PID genes. An exome-wide analysis diagnosed 10 additional patients (4%), providing diagnoses for 72 patients (28%) from 68 families altogether. The genetic diagnosis directly indicated novel treatment options for 25 patients that received a diagnosis (34%). CONCLUSION:Exome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.
Project description:Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.
Project description:Skin manifestations are frequent among patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Their prevalence varies according to the type of immunodeficiency. This review provides the reader with an up-to-date summary of the common dermatologic manifestations of PIDs among Tunisian children. We conducted a prospective study on two hundred and ninety children with immune deficiency. Demographic details (including age, sex, and consanguinity) with personal and family history were recorded. Special attention was paid to cutaneous manifestations. Dermatological involvements were grouped according to the etiology of their most prominent sign. Cutaneous manifestations were found in 164 patients (56.5%). They revealed the diagnosis of PIDs in 71 patients (24.5 %). The mean age at presentation was 21 months. Overall the most prominent cutaneous alterations were infectious. They accounted for 106 cases (36.55%). The most prevalent causes of cutaneous infections were bacterial: 93 cases (32.06%). Immuno-allergic skin diseases were among the common findings in our study. These include eczematous dermatitis found in 62 cases (21.38%). Malignancy related PIDs was seen in a boy with Wiskott Aldrich syndrome. He developed Kaposi's sarcoma at the age of 14 months. Cutaneous changes are common among children with PIDs. In pediatric patients with failure to thrive, chronic refractory systemic manifestations often present in other family members, recurrent cutaneous infections unresponsive to adequate therapy, atypical forms of eczematous dermatitis or unusual features should arouse the suspicion of PIDs and prompt specialized immunologic consultation should be made.
Project description:Immunodeficiencies (IDs) are disorders of the immune system that increase susceptibility to infections and cancer, and are therefore associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. IDs can be primary (not caused by other condition or exposure) or secondary due to the exposure to different agents (infections, chemicals, aging, etc.). Most primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are of genetic origin, caused by mutations affecting genes with key roles in the development or function of the cells of the immune system. A large percentage of PIDs are associated with a defective development and/or function of lymphocytes and, especially, B cells, the ones in charge of generating the different types of antibodies. B-cell development is a tightly regulated process in which many different factors participate. Among the regulators of B-cell differentiation, a correct epigenetic control of cellular identity is essential for normal cell function. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, more and more alterations in different types of epigenetic regulators are being described at the root of PIDs, both in humans and in animal models. At the same time, it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic alterations triggered by the exposure to environmental agents have a key role in the development of secondary immunodeficiencies (SIDs). Due to their largely reversible nature, epigenetic modifications are quickly becoming key therapeutic targets in other diseases where their contribution has been known for more time, like cancer. Here, we establish a parallelism between IDs and the nowadays accepted role of epigenetics in cancer initiation and progression, and propose that epigenetics forms a "third axis" (together with genetics and external agents) to be considered in the etiology of IDs, and linking PIDs and SIDs at the molecular level. We therefore postulate that IDs arise due to a variable contribution of (i) genetic, (ii) environmental, and (iii) epigenetic causes, which in fact form a continuum landscape of all possible combinations of these factors. Additionally, this implies the possibility of a fully epigenetically triggered mechanism for some IDs. This concept would have important prophylactic and translational implications, and would also imply a more blurred frontier between primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eosinophilia is not an uncommon clinical finding. However, diagnosis of its cause can be a dilemma once common culprits, namely infection, allergy and reactive causes are excluded. Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are among known differentials of eosinophilia. However, the list of PIDs typically reported with eosinophilia is small and the literature lacks an inclusive list of PIDs which have been reported with eosinophilia. This motivated us to review the literature for all PIDs which have been described to have elevated eosinophils as this may contribute to an earlier diagnosis of PID and further the understanding of eosinophilia. METHODS:A retrospective PubMed, and Google Scholar search using the terms "eosinophilia" and "every individual PID" as classified by Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies with the limit of the English language was performed. Results were assessed to capture case(s) which reported eosinophilia in the context of PID conditions. Absolute eosinophil counts (AEC) were retrieved from manuscripts whenever reported. RESULTS:In addition to the typical PID conditions described with eosinophilia, we document that MHC class II deficiency, CD3? deficiency, STAT1 deficiency (AD form), Kostmann disease, cyclic neutropenia, TCR? deficiency, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome, CD40 deficiency, CD40L deficiency, anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency, ataxia-telangiectasia, common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID), Blau syndrome, CARD9 deficiency, neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease or chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome (NOMID/CINCA), chronic granulomatous disease, MALT1 deficiency and Roifman syndrome have been noted to have elevated eosinophils. Severe eosinophilia (>5.0 × 10(9)/L) was reported in Omenn syndrome, Wiskott Aldrich syndrome, ADA deficiency, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked, STAT3 deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency, CD40 deficiency, MHC II deficiency, Kostmann disease, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome, and CVID. CONCLUSIONS:This literature review shows that there is an extensive list of PIDs which have been reported with eosinophilia. This list helps clinicians to consider an extended differential diagnoses when tasked with exclusion of PID as a cause for eosinophilia.