Organised and opportunistic prevention in primary health care: estimation of missed opportunities by population based health interview surveys in Hungary.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Improvement of preventive services for adults can be achieved by opportunistic or organised methods in primary care. The unexploited opportunities of these approaches were estimated by our investigation. METHODS:Data from the Hungarian implementation of European Health Interview Surveys in 2009 (N?=?4709) and 2014 (N?=?5352) were analysed. Proportion of subjects used interventions in target group (screening for hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and influenza vaccination) within a year were calculated. Taking into consideration recommendations for the frequency of intervention, numbers of missed interventions among patients visited a general practitioner in a year and among patients did not visit a general practitioner in a year were calculated in order to describe missed opportunities that could be utilised by opportunistic or organised approaches. Numbers of missed interventions were estimated for the entire population of the country and for an average-sized general medical practice. RESULTS:Implementation ratio were 66.8% for blood pressure measurement among subjects above 40?years and free of diagnosed hypertension; 63.5% for checking blood glucose among adults above 45 and overweighed and free of diagnosed diabetes mellitus; and 19.1% for vaccination against seasonal influenza. There were 4.1 million interventions implemented a year in Hungary, most of the (3.8 million) among adults visited general practitioner in a year. The number of missed interventions was 4.5 million a year; mostly (3.4 million) among persons visited general practitioner in a year. For Hungary, the opportunistic and organised missed opportunities were estimated to be 561,098, and 1,150,321 for hypertension screening; 363,270, and 227,543 for diabetes mellitus screening; 2,784,072, and 380,033 for influenza vaccination among the
Project description:INTRODUCTION:During the 2013-2014 influenza season, Public Health England extended routine influenza vaccination to all 2- and 3-year-old children in England. To estimate the impact of this change in policy on influenza-related morbidity and mortality, we developed a disease transmission and surveillance model informed by real-world data. METHODS:We combined real-world and literature data sources to construct a model of influenza transmission and surveillance in England. Data were obtained for four influenza seasons, starting with the 2010-2011 season. Bayesian inference was used to estimate model parameters on a season-by-season basis to assess the impact of targeting 2- and 3-year-old children for influenza vaccination. This provided the basis for the construction of counterfactual scenarios comparing vaccination rates of ~2% and ~35% in the 2- and 3- year-old population to estimate reductions in general practitioner (GP) influenza-like-illness (ILI) consultations, respiratory hospitalizations and deaths in the overall population. RESULTS:Our model was able to replicate the main patterns of influenza across the four seasons as observed through laboratory surveillance data. Targeting 2- and 3-year-old children for influenza vaccination resulted in reductions in the general population of between 6.2-9.9% in influenza-attributable GP ILI consultations, 6.1-10.7% in influenza-attributable respiratory hospitalizations, and 5.7-9.4% in influenza-attributable deaths. The decrease in influenza-attributable ILI consultations represents a reduction of between 4.5% and 7.3% across all ILI consultations. The reduction in influenza-attributable respiratory hospitalizations represents a reduction of between 1.2% and 2.3% across all respiratory hospitalizations. Reductions in influenza-attributable respiratory deaths represent a reduction of between 0.9% and 2.4% in overall respiratory deaths. CONCLUSION:This study has provided evidence that extending routine influenza vaccination to all healthy children aged 2 and 3 years old leads to benefits in terms of reduced utilization of healthcare resources and fewer respiratory health outcomes and deaths.
Project description:There are many differential diagnoses in investigating patients who present with retinal vasculitis, and the laboratory investigations used to investigate this have low-to-moderate sensitivity and/or specificity. Diagnoses include conditions such as tuberculosis or sarcoidosis, which may require long courses of antibiotics or immunosuppression. Influenza vaccination has been recognised as a cause of vasculitis for decades, although a purely ocular presentation is rare. We present a case of a 78-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a single vessel arterial vasculitis of the right eye 8 weeks following influenza vaccination at her local general practitioner practice. We encourage ophthalmologists, rheumatologists and uveitis specialists to consider influenza vaccine as a cause of ocular vasculitis if the vaccine has been recently administered.
Project description:An evidence-based, step-by-step guide, the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program, was the foundation of an intervention to increase adult immunizations in primary care and was tested in a randomized controlled cluster trial. The purpose of this study is to report changes in influenza immunization rates and on factors related to receipt of influenza vaccine.Twenty five primary care practices were recruited in 2013, stratified by city (Houston, Pittsburgh), location (rural, urban, suburban) and type (family medicine, internal medicine), and randomized to the intervention (n?=?13) or control (n?=?12) in Year 1 (2013-14). A follow-up intervention occurred in Year 2 (2014-15). Demographic and vaccination data were derived from de-identified electronic medical record extractions.A cohort of 70,549 adults seen in their respective practices (n?=?24 with 1 drop out) at least once each year was followed. Baseline mean age was 55.1 years, 35 % were men, 21 % were non-white and 35 % were Hispanic. After one year, both intervention and control arms significantly (P?<?0.001) increased influenza vaccination, with average increases of 2.7 to 6.5 percentage points. In regression analyses, likelihood of influenza vaccination was significantly higher in sites with lower percentages of patients with missed opportunities (P?<?0.001) and, after adjusting for missed opportunities, the intervention further improved vaccination rates in Houston (lower baseline rates) but not Pittsburgh (higher baseline rates). In the follow-up intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased for both intervention sites and those that reduced missed opportunities (P?<?0.005).Reducing missed opportunities across the practice increases likelihood of influenza vaccination of adults. The 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program provides strategies for reducing missed opportunities to vaccinate adults.This study was registered as a clinical trial on 03/20/2013 at ClinicalTrials.gov, Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT01868334 , with a date of enrollment of the first participant to the trial of April 1, 2013.
Project description:Detailed data are lacking on influenza burden in the United Kingdom (UK). The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden associated with influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United Kingdom stratified by age, risk and influenza vaccination status.This retrospective, cross-sectional, exploratory, observational study used linked data from the General Practice Research Database and the Hospital Episode Statistics databases to estimate resource use and cost associated with ILI in the UK.Data were included from 156,193 patients with ?1 general practitioner visit with ILI. There were 21,518 high-risk patients, of whom 12,514 (58.2%) were vaccinated and 9,004 (41.8%) were not vaccinated, and 134,675 low-risk patients, of whom 17,482 (13.0%) were vaccinated and 117,193 (87.0%) were not vaccinated. High-risk vaccinated patients were older (p<0.001) and had more risk conditions (p<0.001). High-risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.16) or vaccinated (OR 1.19) patients had a higher probability of >1 general practitioner visit compared with low-risk and unvaccinated patients. Patients who were high-risk and vaccinated had a reduced risk of >1 general practitioner visit (OR 0.82; p<0.001). High-risk individuals who were also vaccinated had a lower probability of ILI-related hospitalisation than individuals who were high-risk or vaccinated alone (OR 0.59). In people aged ?65 years, the mortality rate was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated individuals (OR 0.75). The cost of ILI-related GP visits and hospital admissions in the UK over the study period in low-risk vaccinated patients was £27,391,142 and £141,932,471, respectively. In low-risk unvaccinated patients the corresponding values were £168,318,709 and £112,534,130, respectively.Although vaccination rates in target groups have increased, many people are still not receiving influenza vaccination, and the burden of ILI in the United Kingdom remains substantial. Improving influenza vaccination uptake may have the potential to reduce this burden.
Project description:CONTEXT:Influenza vaccination rates remain below Healthy People 2020 goals. This project sought to systematically review economic evaluations of healthcare-based quality improvement interventions for improving influenza vaccination uptake among general populations and healthcare workers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:The databases MEDLINE, Econlit, Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, Greylit, and Worldcat were searched in July 2016 for papers published from January 2004 to July 2016. Eligible studies evaluated efforts by bodies within the healthcare system to encourage influenza vaccination by means of an organizational or structural change. For each study, program costs per enrollee and per additional enrollee vaccinated were derived (excluding vaccine costs, standardized to 2017 U.S. dollars). Complete economic evaluations were examined when available. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:Of 2,350 records, 18 articles were eligible and described 29 unique interventions. Most interventions improved vaccine uptake. Among 23 interventions in general populations, the median program cost was $3.27 (interquartile range, $0.82-$11.53) per enrollee and $50.78 (interquartile range, $27.85-$124.84) per additional enrollee vaccinated. Among ten complete economic evaluations in general populations, three studies reported net cost savings, four reported costs <$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year, and three reported costs <$60,000 per life saved. Among six interventions in healthcare workers, the median program cost was $8.09 (interquartile range, $5.03-$10.31) per worker enrolled and $125.24 (interquartile range, $96.06-$171.38) per additional worker vaccinated (there were no complete economic analyses). CONCLUSIONS:Quality improvement interventions for influenza vaccination involve per-enrollee costs that are similar to the cost of the vaccine itself ($11.78-$36.08/dose). Based on limited available evidence in general populations, quality improvement interventions may be cost saving to cost effective for the health system.
Project description:Seasonal influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among the elderly population. Determinants of vaccination uptake and its impact on health outcomes in the seasons 2014/2015-2016/2017 in elderly living in Treviso area (Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy) were evaluated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted combining information from several health administrative databases, and multiple Poisson regression models were applied to evaluate the influenza vaccine effectiveness, also adjusting for confounding factors. MF59-adjuvanted trivalent-inactivated vaccine was mainly administered. Data from more than 83,000 elderly people were analyzed by year. Vaccine coverage was about 50%; influenza vaccination uptake was independently associated with older age, male sex, increasing number of underlying chronic conditions, previous pneumococcal vaccination, annual expenses for specialist medical cares, and general practitioner to whom the elderly was in charge. After adjusting for previously described characteristics, vaccination was associated with lower mortality and influenza-related hospitalization rates. Specifically, during influenza season the adjusted incidence rate ratio of death and of influenza-related hospitalizations for vaccinated compared to unvaccinated persons was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.69, p < .001] and 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.91, p < .001), respectively. A similar effectiveness was estimated for death in all age groups (?74, 75-84, ?85 years old), whereas a higher effect was found for hospitalizations in subjects aged ?75 years old. Vaccination was also effective both in males and females. Findings suggest a health benefit of the influenza vaccination in the elderly population. Efforts should be focused on strategies to increase the vaccination uptake as important instrument of prevention.
Project description:Influenza vaccination remains below the federally targeted levels outlined in Healthy People 2020. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to be vaccinated for influenza, despite being at increased risk for influenza-related complications and death. Also, vaccinated minorities are more likely to receive influenza vaccinations in office-based settings and less likely to use non-medical vaccination locations compared to non-Hispanic white vaccine users.To assess the number of "missed opportunities" for influenza vaccination in office-based settings by race and ethnicity and the magnitude of potential vaccine uptake and reductions in racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination if these "missed opportunities" were eliminated.National cross-sectional Internet survey administered between March 4 and March 14, 2010 in the United States.Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults living in the United States (N?=?3,418).We collected data on influenza vaccination, frequency and timing of healthcare visits, and self-reported compliance with a potential provider recommendation for vaccination during the 2009-2010 influenza season. "Missed opportunities" for seasonal influenza vaccination in office-based settings were defined as the number of unvaccinated respondents who reported at least one healthcare visit in the Fall and Winter of 2009-2010 and indicated their willingness to get vaccinated if a healthcare provider strongly recommended it. "Potential vaccine uptake" was defined as the sum of actual vaccine uptake and "missed opportunities."The frequency of "missed opportunities" for influenza vaccination in office-based settings was significantly higher among racial and ethnic minorities than non-Hispanic whites. Eliminating these "missed opportunities" could have cut racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination by roughly one half.Improved office-based practices regarding influenza vaccination could significantly impact Healthy People 2020 goals by increasing influenza vaccine uptake and reducing corresponding racial and ethnic disparities.
Project description:PURPOSE:Oncological patients are susceptible to various severe viral infections, including influenza. Vaccinating oncological patients and their household contacts ("cocoon vaccination") may protect these patients from contracting influenza. To understand the potential of cocoon vaccination in oncological patients, this study assesses the influenza vaccination status of oncological patients and their household contacts and their considerations regarding the vaccination. METHODS:In this retrospective study, oncological patients with a solid tumor were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their own and their household contacts' influenza vaccination status in the influenza season of 2018-2019. RESULTS:Ninety-eight patients were included (response rate 88%). The influenza vaccination rates of oncological patients and their first household contacts were 43.9% and 44.9%, respectively. The majority of vaccinated patients and vaccinated first household contacts had been advised by their general practitioner to get the vaccination. A minority of the first household contacts reported getting vaccinated specifically because of the patient's vulnerability. Unvaccinated patients and unvaccinated household contacts mainly believed the vaccination was unnecessary or were afraid of side effects. None of the included patients had been hospitalized with influenza. CONCLUSION:The oncological patients' and first household contacts' vaccination rates in this study were lower than the vaccination rates of the general Dutch population of over 60 years old, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and misconceptions about the vaccination. Further research is required to establish whether cocoon vaccination can contribute to protecting oncological patients from contracting an influenza infection.
Project description:Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of influenza in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with influenza vaccination coverage in hospitalized patients aged ? 65 years hospitalized due to causes unrelated to influenza in Spain. We carried out a cross-sectional study. Bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking in to account sociodemographic variables and medical risk conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. We included 1038 patients: 602 (58%) had received the influenza vaccine in the 2013-14 season. Three or more general practitioner visits (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.19-2.18); influenza vaccination in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 13.57; 95% CI 9.45-19.48); and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.38-2.80) were associated with receiving the influenza vaccine. Vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low in Spain and some predisposing characteristics influence vaccination coverage. Healthcare workers should take these characteristics into account and be encouraged to proactively propose influenza vaccination to all patients aged ? 65 years.
Project description:Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and practices about influenza among patients on dialysis services of Italian hospitals at risk of severe influenza infection and vaccine and to identify predictive factors to vaccination adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out from January 2017 to July 2017 after the 2016/2017 influenza vaccination campaign. The questionnaire was administered to all patients treated in seven large Italian dialysis services. It consisted of influenza vaccination coverage, knowledge about influenza and its vaccination, perceived risk of influenza complications, recommendations on influenza uptake received by general practitioner (GP) and nephrologist. Results: Response rate was 90% (703/781). Patients' knowledge about influenza infection and vaccine were detected by nine closed questions: 35.6% of responders answered correctly to ? 6 sentences, 47.5% of them reported that "influenza vaccine can cause influenza" and 45.7% believed that "antibiotics are a correct strategy to treat influenza". Levels of perceived risks of hospitalisation and death were low in 39.3% and 16.5% of patients respectively. The adherence to the last seasonal influenza vaccination was 57.5%. The multivariate predictors of influenza vaccination uptake resulted: age ?65, male, consulting TV/radio, asking information to GP and/or nephrologist. Conclusions: The study reveals the low adherence to influenza vaccination and the subotpimal level of knowledge in dialysis patients. Different strategies, including a greater alliance among nephrologists and GPs to prevent influenza should be encouraged to improve the adherence to influenza vaccination in this at risk group.