Extensively-Drug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Recovered From Neonatal Sepsis Cases From a Major NICU in Egypt.
ABSTRACT: Background:Neonatal sepsis is a nuisance to clinicians and medical microbiologists, particularly those cases caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, we aimed at investigating the profile and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the clonal relationships between K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates at the largest tertiary care hospital's neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Minia, Egypt. Methods:This study comprised 156 neonates diagnosed with culture-proven sepsis from February 2019 to September 2019, at a major NICU of Minia City. All K. pneumoniae isolates were collected and characterized by antimicrobial profile, resistance genotype, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. Results:Twenty-four K. pneumoniae isolates (15.3%) were collected out of the 156 sepsis diagnosed neonates. These samples showed extensive drug resistance (XDR) to most of the tested antimicrobials, except fluoroquinolones. All the K. pneumoniae isolates possessed bla VIM and bla NDM carbapenemase genes, while bla KPC gene was detected in 95.8%. Considering extended-spectrum ?-lactamases genes, bla CTX-M was found in all the isolates and bla OXA-1 gene in 75% of them. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrS, was predominantly found among our isolates in comparison to qnrB or qnrA. A moderate degree of clonal relatedness was observed between the isolates. Conclusion:To the best of our knowledge, this the first report of an alarming occurrence of XDR among K. penumoniae isolates recovered from neonatal sepsis in Egypt. Our data necessitate proper antimicrobial stewardship as the choices will be very limited.
Project description:Introduction:Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents in neonates. There are "classic" and hypervirulent strains of K. pneumoniae. The "classic" non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is associated with nosocomial infections. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infections in previously healthy adult people, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility. The role of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae (including hv-KP) in neonatal infections is unknown. The aim of the study was the assessment of the impact of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae strains on clinical features and outcomes of neonatal infection. Materials and Methods: Two groups of infants were enrolled. The first group consisted of 10 neonates with sepsis caused by K. pneumoniae. The second group consisted of 10 neonates with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by K. pneumoniae. We investigated the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae isolates to antibiotics, the ability of the microorganism to produce ESBL, and virulence factors, including the rmpA gene, aerobactin, and colibactin genes. In neonates with sepsis, we investigated K. pneumoniae isolates, which was taken from the blood, in neonates with UTI-from the urine. Results: In neonates with sepsis testing of K. pneumoniae isolates for ESBL production was positive in 60% of cases, in neonates with UTI-in 40% of cases. All blood and urine ESBL producing K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillins, including protected ones, and third-generation cephalosporins. At the same time, these isolates were sensitive to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The rmpA gene was detected in four blood, and three urine K. pneumoniae isolates. In neonates with sepsis rmpA gene in two cases was detected in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. They were infants with meningitis, and both cases were fatal. In the group of infants with UTI, the rmpA gene was detected only in K. pneumoniae isolates not producing ESBL. Aerobactin and colibactin genes were detected in two neonates with sepsis and in three neonates with UTI. In all cases, aerobactin and colibactin genes were detected only in rmpA-positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Out of three fatal outcomes, two cases were caused by hv-KP producing ESBL. Conclusion: The prevalence of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae among neonates with sepsis and other neonatal infection is higher than we think. The most severe forms of neonatal sepsis with an unfavorable outcome in our study were due to virulent strains of K. pneumoniae.
Project description:The study was conducted to establish predictors of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) neonatal sepsis and mortality in a tertiary hospital, Tanzania. Between July and December 2016, blood culture was performed in neonates with clinical features of sepsis and neonates/mothers/guardians were screened for ESBL colonization. Selected isolates underwent whole genome sequencing to investigate relatedness. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for ESBL-PE associated neonatal sepsis and mortality. Neonatal ESBL-PE sepsis was detected in 32(10.5%) of the 304 neonates investigated. Neonatal ESBL-PE sepsis was independently predicted by admission at the Intensive care Unit and positive mother and neonate ESBL-PE colonization. Deaths occurred in 55(18.1%) of neonates. Neonates infected with ESBL-PE, admitted at ICU, increased age and those transferred from other centres had significantly high mortality rates. Gram-negative bacteria formed the majority (76%) of the isolates, of which 77% were ESBL-PE. Virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae ST45 carrying blaCTX-M-15 were commonly isolated from neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST45) were the predominant cause of ESBL-PE neonatal sepsis and mortality. Improved infection control and antibiotic stewardship are crucial in controlling the spread of resistant strains. Rapid diagnostic tests to detect ESBL-PE in low-income countries are needed to guide treatment and reduce ESBL-PE-associated mortality.
Project description:An extensively drug-resistant (XDR) <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> isolate MS3802 from a tracheostomy exudate was whole-genome sequenced using MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION platforms in order to identify the antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates and their genomic context. Isolate MS3802 belonged to the clone ST23 and presented a capsular serotype K1, associated with hypervirulent <i>K. pneumoniae</i> (hvKp) isolates. The isolate harboured a chromosomally encoded <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> gene and contained a large IncHI1B hybrid virulence/resistance plasmid carrying another copy of the <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub> and the virulence factors <i>iucABCD-iutA, iroBCDN, rmpA</i> and <i>rmpA2.</i> The carbapenemase gene <i>bla</i><sub>OXA-48</sub> was found in a Tn<i>1999</i>-like transposon and the 16S rRNA methylase <i>armA</i> gen located in the vicinity of other antibiotic-resistant genes on an IncM2 plasmid. This study represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of a <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub>-, <i>bla</i><sub>OXA-48</sub>- and <i>armA</i>-harbouring <i>K. pneumoniae</i> of ST23 and capsular serotype K1 in Spain. Our report emphasizes the importance of implementing new surveillance strategies to monitor the risk of emergence and spread of such XDR and hypervirulent <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates.
Project description:Treatment of neonatal sepsis has become a challenge with the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria. This study documents the trend of carbapenem susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae that caused septicaemia in neonates over a five year period (2007-2011) and the molecular characterisation of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems and cephalosporins. Hundred and five Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli (n?=?27), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n?=?68) and Enterobacter spp. (n?=?10) were isolated from blood of septicaemic neonates followed by antibiotic susceptibility tests, determination of MIC values, phenotypic and genotypic detection of ?-lactamases. Carbapenem was the most active antimicrobial tested after tigecycline. CTX-M type was the most prevalent ESBL throughout the period (82%). New Delhi Metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), which is a recent addition to the carbapenemase list, was the only carbapenemase identified in our setting. Fourteen percent of the isolates possessed blaNDM-1. Carbapenem non-susceptibility was first observed in 2007 and it was due to loss of Omp F/Ompk36 in combination with the presence of ESBLs/AmpCs. NDM-1 first emerged in E. coli during 2008; later in 2010, the resistance was detected in K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae isolates. NDM-1-producing isolates were resistant to other broad-spectrum antibiotics and possessed ESBLs, AmpCs, 16S-rRNA methylases, AAC(6')-Ib-cr, bleomycin resistant gene and class 1 integron. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the NDM-1-producing isolates indicated that the isolates were clonally diverse. The study also showed that there was a significantly higher incidence of sepsis caused by NDM-1-harbouring isolates in the male sex, in neonates with low birth weight and neonates born at an extramural centre. However, sepsis with NDM-1-harbouring isolates did not result in a higher mortality rate. The study is the first to review the carbapenem resistance patterns in neonatal sepsis over an extended period of time. The study highlights the persistence of ESBLs (CTX-Ms) and the emergence of NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae in the unit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of sepsis in outborn neonates being referred to level-3 units in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of sepsis and outcomes of outborn neonates with sepsis, and to characterize the pathogen profile and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of common isolates in them. METHODS:In this prospective observational cohort study (2011-2015), a dedicated research team enrolled all neonates admitted to an outborn level-3 neonatal unit and followed them until discharge/death. Sepsis work-up including blood culture(s) was performed upon suspicion of sepsis. All the isolates were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Gram-negative pathogens resistant to any three of the five antibiotic classes (extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and piperacillin-tazobactam) were labeled multi-drug resistant. RESULTS:Of the total of 2588 neonates enrolled, culture positive sepsis and total sepsis-i.e. culture positive and/or culture negative sepsis-was diagnosed in 13.1% (95% CI 11.8% to 14.5%) and 54.7% (95% CI 52.8% to 56.6%), respectively. The case fatality rates were 23.4% and 11.0% in culture-positive and total sepsis, respectively. Sepsis accounted for two-thirds of total neonatal deaths (153/235, 63.0%). Bacterial isolates caused about three-fourths (296/401; 73.8%) of the infections. The two common pathogens-Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 50, 12.5%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 46, 11.5%)-showed high degree of multi-drug resistance (78.0% and 91.3%, respectively) and carbapenem resistance (84.0% and 91.3%, respectively). About a quarter of infections were caused by Candida spp. (n = 91; 22.7%); almost three-fourths (73.7%) of these infections occurred in neonates born at or after 32 weeks' gestation and about two-thirds (62.1%) in those weighing 1500 g or more at birth. CONCLUSIONS:In this large outborn cohort, we report high burden of sepsis, high prevalence of systemic fungal infections, and alarming rates of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant determinants and their surrounding genetic structure were studied in Acinetobacter spp. from neonatal sepsis cases collected over 7 years at a tertiary care hospital. Acinetobacter spp. (n = 68) were identified by ARDRA followed by susceptibility tests. Oxacillinases, metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), extended-spectrum ?-lactamases and AmpCs, were detected phenotypically and/or by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Transconjugants possessing the bla NDM-1(New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase) underwent further analysis for plasmids, integrons and associated genes. Genetic environment of the carbapenemases were studied by PCR mapping and DNA sequencing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for sepsis caused by NDM-1-harboring organisms. A. baumannii (72%) was the predominant species followed by A. calcoaceticus (10%), A. lwoffii (6%), A. nosocomialis (3%), A. junni (3%), A. variabilis (3%), A. haemolyticus (2%), and 14TU (2%). Fifty six percent of the isolates were meropenem-resistant. Oxacillinases present were OXA-23-like, OXA-58-like and OXA-51-like, predominately in A. baumannii. NDM-1 was the dominant MBL (22%) across different Acinetobacter spp. Isolates harboring NDM-1 also possessed bla (VIM-2, PER-1, VEB-2, CTX-M-15), armA, aac(6')Ib, aac(6')Ib-cr genes. bla NDM-1was organized in a composite transposon between two copies of ISAba125 in the isolates irrespective of the species. Further, OXA-23-like gene and OXA-58-like genes were linked with ISAba1 and ISAba3 respectively. Isolates were clonally diverse. Integrons were variable in sequence but not associated with carbapenem resistance. Most commonly found genes in the 5' and 3'conserved segment were aminoglycoside resistance genes (aadB, aadA2, aac4'), non-enzymatic chloramphenicol resistance gene (cmlA1g) and ADP-ribosylation genes (arr2, arr3). Outborn neonates had a significantly higher incidence of sepsis due to NDM-1 harboring isolates than their inborn counterparts. This study demonstrates the significance of both A. baumannii and other species of Acinetobacter in cases of neonatal sepsis over an extended period. Oxacillinases and bla NDM-1 are the major contributors to carbapenem resistance. The dissemination of the bla NDM-1 is likely linked to Tn125 in diverse clones of the isolates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sepsis is the third most common cause of death among neonates, with about 225,000 newborns dying every year globally. Data concerning the microbial etiology of neonatal sepsis and antimicrobial resistance profiles of its causative agents are necessary to inform targeted and effective treatment and prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE:To determine the proportion of newborns with symptoms and signs of sepsis who had a positive blood culture, its bacterial etiology, the antimicrobial resistance patterns as well as the factors associated with culture-positivity and case fatality at Mulago national referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study among 359 neonates with symptoms and signs of sepsis who presented to the pediatric emergency care unit of Mulago national referral hospital from mid-January to end of December 2018. We performed blood culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and conducted polymerase chain reaction to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between potential risk factors and culture-positive neonatal sepsis. FINDINGS:Of the 359 neonates recruited, 46 (12.8%; 95% CI 9.5%, 16.7%) had a positive blood culture. The predominant isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus in 29 (63.0%), Escherichia coli in seven (15.2%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae in five (10.9%). Of the 46 pathogens, 73.9% were resistant to ampicillin, 23.9% to gentamicin and 8.7% to ceftriaxone. We isolated MRSA from the blood specimens of 19 (5.3%) of the 359 neonates, while 3 (0.8%) grew extended spectrum beta lactamase producers. The case fatality risk among neonates with neonatal sepsis was 9.5% (95% CI: 6.6%, 13.0%). Cesarean section delivery was strongly associated with culture-positive sepsis (adjusted odds ratio 3.45, 95% CI: 1.2, 10.1). CONCLUSION:One in eight neonates with clinical signs of sepsis grew a likely causative bacterial pathogen. S. aureus was the main pathogen isolated and a third of these isolates were MRSA. A significant proportion of the isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant to the first and second line antibiotics used for the treatment of neonatal sepsis. There is need to revisit the current treatment guidelines for neonatal sepsis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) isolates among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae, have risen substantially worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in K. pneumoniae, we analyzed the drug resistance determinants for K. pneumoniae isolates collected from the 306 Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China, for the period of September 1, 2010-October 31, 2011. Drug susceptibility testing, PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug resistance determinants were performed. Conjugation experiments were conducted to examine the natural ability of drug resistance to disseminate among Enterobacteriaceae strains using a sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 strain as a recipient. Among the 223 consecutive non-repetitive K. pneumoniae isolates included in this study, 101 (45.3%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) positive. The rates of MDR, XDR, and PDR isolates were 61.4% (n = 137), 22.0% (n = 49), and 1.8% (n = 4), respectively. Among the tested drug resistance-associated genes, the following ones were detected at relatively high rates bla(CTX-M-10) (80, 35.9%), aacC2 (73, 32.7%), dhfr (62, 27.8%), qnrS (58, 26.0%), aacA4 (57, 25.6%), aadA1 (56, 25.1%). Results from conjugation experiments indicate that many of the drug resistance genes were transmissible. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data give a "snapshot" of the complex genetic background responsible for drug resistance in K. pneumoniae in China and demonstrate that a high degree of awareness and monitoring of those drug resistance determinants are urgently needed in order to better control the emergence and transmission of drug-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates in hospital settings.
Project description:Outbreaks of infection occur more often than they are reported in most developing countries, largely due to poor diagnostic services. A Klebsiella species bacteremia outbreak in a newborn unit with high mortality was recently encountered at a location being surveilled for childhood bacteremia. These surveillance efforts offered the opportunity to determine the cause of this neonatal outbreak. In this report, we present the whole-genome sequences of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-5)-containing Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae bloodstream isolates from a neonatal bacteremia outbreak at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and as part of the largest collection of K. pneumoniae bloodstream isolates from children in Africa. Comparative analysis of the genetic environment surrounding the NDM-5 genes revealed nearly perfect sequence identity to bla NDM-5-bearing IncX3-type plasmids from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae IMPORTANCE Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is of global health importance, yet there is a paucity of genome-based studies in Africa. Here we report fatal blood-borne NDM-5-producing K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae infections from Nigeria, Africa. New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-producing Klebsiella spp. are responsible for high mortality and morbidity, with the NDM-5 variant showing elevated carbapenem resistance. The prevalence of NDM-5 in Klebsiella has been limited primarily to K. pneumoniae, with only one isolate being collected from Africa. During an outbreak of sepsis in a teaching hospital in Nigeria, five NDM-5-producing K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae sequence type 476 isolates were identified. Given the increased resistance profile of these strains, this study highlights the emerging threat of bla NDM-5 dissemination in hospital environments. The observation of these NDM-5-producing isolates in Africa stresses the urgency to improve monitoring and clinical practices to reduce or prevent the further spread of resistance.
Project description:Introduction:The emergence and spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents are considered as a serious challenge for nosocomial infections. Materials and methods:In this study, 175 nonrepetitive clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from hospitalized patients in Kerman, Iran. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC, and carbapenemase-producing isolates were recognized by phenotypic methods. The resistance genes including efflux pumps oqxA/oqxB, 16S rRNA methylase, ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase were detected by PCR-sequencing method. Molecular typing was performed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR and multilocus sequence typing methods among bla NDM-positive isolates. Results:Thirty-seven (21.14%) isolates along with sequence types (STs): ST43, ST268, ST340, ST392, ST147, and ST16 were harbored bla NDM. ST43 in 2015 and ST268 during 2016-2017 were the most frequent STs among New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive isolates. We found the distribution of some isolates with bla NDM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla OXA, bla TEM, bla CMY, rmtC, and oqxA/oqxB. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR represented seven clusters (A-G) plus four singletons among NDM-positive isolates. This study provides the first report of bla NDM-1-positve K. pneumoniae along with ST268 as well as the spread of nosocomial infections with six different STs harboring bla NDM-1 and other resistance genes in hospital settings especially neonatal intensive care unit. Conclusion:The dissemination of various clones of NDM-producing K. pneumoniae can contribute to increase the rate of their spread in health care settings. Therefore, molecular typing and detection of resistance genes have an important role in preventing and controlling infection by limiting the dissemination of multidrug-resistant isolates.