Activation of Dioxygen by a Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Complex: Sequential Peroxo, Oxo, and Hydroxo Intermediates.
ABSTRACT: The activation of dioxygen by FeII(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (1) is reported. Reaction of 1 with O2 at -135 °C in 2-MeTHF generates a thiolate-ligated (peroxo)diiron complex FeIII2(O2)(Me3TACN)2(S2SiMe2)2 (2) that was characterized by UV-vis (?max = 300, 390, 530, 723 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.53, |?EQ| = 0.76 mm s-1), resonance Raman (RR) (?(O-O) = 849 cm-1), and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Complex 2 is distinct from the outer-sphere oxidation product 1ox (UV-vis (?max = 435, 520, 600 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.45, |?EQ| = 3.6 mm s-1), and EPR (S = 5/2, g = [6.38, 5.53, 1.99])), obtained by one-electron oxidation of 1. Cleavage of the peroxo O-O bond can be initiated either photochemically or thermally to produce a new species assigned as an FeIV(O) complex, FeIV(O)(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (3), which was identified by UV-vis (?max = 385, 460, 890 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.21, |?EQ| = 1.57 mm s-1), RR (?(FeIV?O) = 735 cm-1), and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, as well as reactivity patterns. Reaction of 3 at low temperature with H atom donors gives a new species, FeIII(OH)(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (4). Complex 4 was independently synthesized from 1 by the stoichiometric addition of a one-electron oxidant and a hydroxide source. This work provides a rare example of dioxygen activation at a mononuclear nonheme iron(II) complex that produces both FeIII-O-O-FeIII and FeIV(O) species in the same reaction with O2. It also demonstrates the feasibility of forming Fe/O2 intermediates with strongly donating sulfur ligands while avoiding immediate sulfur oxidation.
Project description:Redox-inactive metal ions that function as Lewis acids play pivotal roles in modulating reactivities of oxygen-containing metal complexes in a variety of biological and biomimetic reactions, including dioxygen activation/formation and functionalization of organic substrates. Mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-peroxo species are invoked as active oxygen intermediates in the catalytic cycles of dioxygen activation by nonheme iron enzymes and their biomimetic compounds. Here, we report mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-peroxo complexes binding redox-inactive metal ions, [(TMC)FeIII(O2)]+-M3+ (M3+ = Sc3+ and Y3+; TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), which are characterized spectroscopically as a 'side-on' iron(III)-peroxo complex binding a redox-inactive metal ion, (TMC)FeIII-(?,?2:?2-O2)-M3+ (2-M). While an iron(III)-peroxo complex, [(TMC)FeIII(O2)]+, does not react with electron donors (e.g., ferrocene), one-electron reduction of the iron(III)-peroxo complexes binding redox-inactive metal ions occurs readily upon addition of electron donors, resulting in the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo complex, [(TMC)FeIV(O)]2+ (4), via heterolytic O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide ligand. The rates of the conversion of 2-M to 4 are found to depend on the Lewis acidity of the redox-inactive metal ions and the oxidation potential of the electron donors. We have also determined the fundamental electron-transfer properties of 2-M, such as the reduction potential and the reorganization energy in electron-transfer reaction. Based on the results presented herein, we have proposed a mechanism for the reactions of 2-M and electron donors; the reduction of 2-M to the reduced species, (TMC)FeII-(O2)-M3+ (2'-M), is the rate-determining step, followed by heterolytic O-O bond cleavage of the reduced species to form 4. The present results provide a biomimetic example demonstrating that redox-inactive metal ions bound to an iron(III)-peroxo intermediate play a significant role in activating the peroxide O-O bond to form a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo species.
Project description:The focus of this study is in the description of synthetic heme/copper/O2 chemistry employing a heme-containing binucleating ligand which provides a tridentate chelate for copper ion binding. The addition of O2 (-80 °C, tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent) to the reduced heme compound (PImH)FeII (1), gives the oxy-heme adduct, formally a heme-superoxide complex FeIII-(O2•-) (2) (resonance Raman spectroscopy (rR): ?O-O, 1171 cm-1 (?18O2, -61 cm-1); ?Fe-O, 575 cm-1 (?18O2, -24 cm-1)). Simple warming of 2 to room temperature regenerates reduced complex 1; this reaction is reversible, as followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. Complex 2 is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-silent and exhibits upfield-shifted pyrrole resonances (? 9.12 ppm) in 2H NMR spectroscopy, indicative of a six-coordinate low-spin heme. The coordination of the tethered imidazolyl arm to the heme-superoxide complex as an axial base ligand is suggested. We also report the new fully reduced heme-copper complex [(PImH)FeIICuI]+ (3), where the copper ion is bound to the tethered tridentate portion of PImH. This reacts with O2 to give a distinctive low-temperature-stable, high-spin (S = 2, overall) peroxo-bridged complex [(PImH)FeIII-(O22-)-CuII]+ (3a): ?max, 420 (Soret), 545, 565 nm; ?pyrr, 93 ppm; ?O-O, 799 cm-1 (?18O2, -48 cm-1); ?Fe-O, 524 cm-1 (?18O2, -23 cm-1). To 3a, the addition of dicyclohexylimidazole (DCHIm), which serves as a heme axial base, leads to low-spin (S = 0 overall) species complex [(DCHIm)(PImH)FeIII-(O22-)-CuII]+ (3b): ?max, 425 (Soret), 538 nm; ?pyrr, 10.2 ppm; ?O-O, 817 cm-1 (?18O2, -55 cm-1); ?Fe-O, 610 cm-1 (?18O2, -26 cm-1). These investigations into the characterization of the O2-adducts from (PImH)FeII (1) with/without additional copper chelation advance our understanding of the dioxygen reactivity of heme-only and heme/Cu-ligand heterobinuclear system, thus potentially relevant to O2 reduction in heme-copper oxidases or fuel-cell chemistry.
Project description:We report the generation and characterization of an intermediate in a mutant form of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase component from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. The reaction of chemically reduced I100W variant in the presence of the coupling protein, ToMOD, with dioxygen was monitored by stopped-flow UV/visible spectroscopy. Rapid-freeze quench (RFQ) samples were also generated for EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. A transient species is observed in the UV/visible spectrum with an absorption maximum at 500 nm. EPR and Mössbauer spectra of RFQ samples identified this species as a diiron(III,IV) cluster spin-coupled to a neutral W radical. A diamagnetic precursor to the mixed-valent diiron(III,IV) was also observed at an earlier time point, with Mössbauer parameters typical of high-spin FeIII. We have tentatively assigned this antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(III) intermediate as a peroxo-bridged cluster, and this complex has also been observed in preliminary studies of the wild-type hydroxylase.
Project description:Tetramethylcyclam (TMC, 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) exhibits two faces in supporting an oxoiron(IV) moiety, as exemplified by the prototypical [(TMC)FeIV(Oanti)(NCCH3)](OTf)2, where anti indicates that the O atom is located on the face opposite all four methyl groups, and the recently reported syn isomer [(TMC)FeIV(Osyn)(OTf)](OTf). The ability to access two isomers of [(TMC)FeIV(Oanti/syn)] raises the fundamental question of how ligand topology can affect the properties of the metal center. Previously, we have reported the formation of [(CH3CN)(TMC)FeIII-Oanti-CrIII(OTf)4(NCCH3)] (1) by inner-sphere electron transfer between Cr(OTf)2 and [(TMC)FeIV(Oanti)(NCCH3)](OTf)2. Herein we demonstrate that a new species 2 is generated from the reaction between Cr(OTf)2 and [(TMC)FeIV(Osyn)(NCCH3)](OTf)2, which is formulated as [(TMC)FeIII-Osyn-CrIII(OTf)4(NCCH3)] based on its characterization by UV-vis, resonance Raman, Mössbauer, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic methods, as well as electrospray mass spectrometry. Its pre-edge area (30 units) and Fe-O distance (1.77 Å) determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy are distinctly different from those of 1 (11-unit pre-edge area and 1.81 Å Fe-O distance) but more closely resemble the values reported for [(TMC)FeIII-Osyn-ScIII(OTf)4(NCCH3)] (3, 32-unit pre-edge area and 1.75 Å Fe-O distance). This comparison suggests that 2 has a square pyramidal iron center like 3, rather than the six-coordinate center deduced for 1. Density functional theory calculations further validate the structures for 1 and 2. The influence of the distinct TMC topologies on the coordination geometries is further confirmed by the crystal structures of [(Cl)(TMC)FeIII-Oanti-FeIIICl3] (4Cl) and [(TMC)FeIII-Osyn-FeIIICl3](OTf) (5). Complexes 1-5 thus constitute a set of complexes that shed light on ligand topology effects on the coordination chemistry of the oxoiron moiety.
Project description:Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH), a diiron-containing enzyme, can activate dioxygen to oxidize aromatic substrates. To elucidate the role of a strictly conserved T201 residue during dioxygen activation of the enzyme, T201S, T201G, T201C, and T201V variants of ToMOH were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. X-ray crystal structures of all the variants were obtained. Steady-state activity, regiospecificity, and single-turnover yields were also determined for the T201 mutants. Dioxygen activation by the reduced T201 variants was explored by stopped-flow UV-vis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. These studies demonstrate that the dioxygen activation mechanism is preserved in all T201 variants; however, both the formation and decay kinetics of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, T201(peroxo), were greatly altered, revealing that T201 is critically involved in dioxygen activation. A comparison of the kinetics of O(2) activation in the T201S, T201C, and T201G variants under various reaction conditions revealed that T201 plays a major role in proton transfer, which is required to generate the peroxodiiron(III) intermediate. A mechanism is postulated for dioxygen activation, and possible structures of oxygenated intermediates are discussed.
Project description:The synthesis and reactivity of a series of mononuclear nonheme iron complexes that carry out intramolecular aromatic C-F hydroxylation reactions is reported. The key intermediate prior to C-F hydroxylation, [FeIV(O)(N4Py2Ar1)](BF4)2 (1-O, Ar1 = -2,6-difluorophenyl), was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure revealed a nonbonding C-H···O?Fe interaction with a CH3CN molecule. Variable-field Mössbauer spectroscopy of 1-O indicates an intermediate-spin (S = 1) ground state. The Mössbauer parameters for 1-O include an unusually small quadrupole splitting for a triplet FeIV(O) and are reproduced well by density functional theory calculations. With the aim of investigating the initial step for C-F hydroxylation, two new ligands were synthesized, N4Py2Ar2 (L2, Ar2 = -2,6-difluoro-4-methoxyphenyl) and N4Py2Ar3 (L3, Ar3 = -2,6-difluoro-3-methoxyphenyl), with -OMe substituents in the meta or ortho/para positions with respect to the C-F bonds. FeII complexes [Fe(N4Py2Ar2)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 (2) and [Fe(N4Py2Ar3)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 (3) reacted with isopropyl 2-iodoxybenzoate to give the C-F hydroxylated FeIII-OAr products. The FeIV(O) intermediates 2-O and 3-O were trapped at low temperature and characterized. Complex 2-O displayed a C-F hydroxylation rate similar to that of 1-O. In contrast, the kinetics (via stopped-flow UV-vis) for complex 3-O displayed a significant rate enhancement for C-F hydroxylation. Eyring analysis revealed the activation barriers for the C-F hydroxylation reaction for the three complexes, consistent with the observed difference in reactivity. A terminal FeII(OH) complex (4) was prepared independently to investigate the possibility of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution pathway, but the stability of 4 rules out this mechanism. Taken together the data fully support an electrophilic C-F hydroxylation mechanism.
Project description:Peroxynitrite (-OON?O, PN) is a reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which can effect deleterious nitrative or oxidative (bio)chemistry. It may derive from reaction of superoxide anion (O2•-) with nitric oxide (·NO) and has been suggested to form an as-yet unobserved bound heme-iron-PN intermediate in the catalytic cycle of nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) enzymes, which facilitate a ·NO homeostatic process, i.e., its oxidation to the nitrate anion. Here, a discrete six-coordinate low-spin porphyrinate-FeIII complex [(PIm)FeIII(-OON?O)] (3) (PIm; a porphyrin moiety with a covalently tethered imidazole axial "base" donor ligand) has been identified and characterized by various spectroscopies (UV-vis, NMR, EPR, XAS, resonance Raman) and DFT calculations, following its formation at -80 °C by addition of ·NO(g) to the heme-superoxo species, [(PIm)FeIII(O2•-)] (2). DFT calculations confirm that 3 is a six-coordinate low-spin species with the PN ligand coordinated to iron via its terminal peroxidic anionic O atom with the overall geometry being in a cis-configuration. Complex 3 thermally transforms to its isomeric low-spin nitrato form [(PIm)FeIII(NO3-)] (4a). While previous (bio)chemical studies show that phenolic substrates undergo nitration in the presence of PN or PN-metal complexes, in the present system, addition of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4DTBP) to complex 3 does not lead to nitrated phenol; the nitrate complex 4a still forms. DFT calculations reveal that the phenolic H atom approaches the terminal PN O atom (farthest from the metal center and ring core), effecting O-O cleavage, giving nitrogen dioxide (·NO2) plus a ferryl compound [(PIm)FeIV?O] (7); this rebounds to give [(PIm)FeIII(NO3-)] (4a).The generation and characterization of the long sought after ferriheme peroxynitrite complex has been accomplished.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOs) comprise a class of substrate activating mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes which catalyze the hydroperoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. A commonly proposed mechanism for LO catalysis involves H-atom abstraction by an FeIII-OH- site, best described as a proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) process, followed by direct reaction of O2 with the resulting substrate radical to yield product. An alternative mechanism that has also been discussed involves the abstraction of a proton from the substrate by the FeIII-OH leading to a sigma-organoiron intermediate, where the subsequent sigma bond insertion of dioxygen into the C-Fe bond completes the reaction. H-atom abstraction is favored by a high E(o) of the FeII/FeIII couple and high pK(a) of water bound to the ferrous state, while an organoiron mechanism would be favored by a low E(o) (to keep the site oxidized) and a high pK(a) of water bound to the ferric state (to deprotonate the substrate). A first coordination sphere mutant of soybean LO (N694C) has been prepared and characterized by near-infrared circular dichroism (CD) and variable-temperature, variable-field (VTVH) magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopies (FeII site), as well as UV/vis absorption, UV/vis CD, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies (FeIII site). These studies suggest that N694C has a lowered E degrees of the FeII/FeIII couple and a raised pKa of water bound to the ferric site relative to wild type soybean lipoxygenase-1 (WT sLO-1) which would favor the organoiron mechanism. However, the observation in N694C of a significant deuterium isotope effect, anaerobic reduction of iron by substrate, and a substantial decrease in k(cat) (approximately 3000-fold) support H-atom abstraction as the relevant substrate-activation mechanism in sLO-1.
Project description:Addition of H(+) to a synthetic (mu-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) model complex results in protonation of a carboxylate rather than the peroxo ligand. This conclusion is based on spectroscopic evidence from UV-vis, (57)Fe Mossbauer, resonance Raman, infrared, and (1)H/(19)F NMR studies. These results suggest a similar role for protons in the dioxygen activation reactions in soluble methane monooxygenase and related carboxylate-bridged diiron enzymes.
Project description:Site-directed mutagenesis studies of a strictly conserved T201 residue in the active site of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH) revealed that a single mutation can facilitate kinetic isolation of two distinctive peroxodiiron(III) species, designated T201(peroxo) and ToMOH(peroxo), during dioxygen activation. Previously, we characterized both oxygenated intermediates by UV-vis and Mo?ssbauer spectroscopy, proposed structures from DFT and QM/MM computational studies, and elucidated chemical steps involved in dioxygen activation through the kinetic studies of T201(peroxo) formation. In this study, we investigate the kinetics of T201(peroxo) decay to explore the reaction mechanism of the oxygenated intermediates following O(2) activation. The decay rates of T201(peroxo) were monitored in the absence and presence of external (phenol) or internal (tryptophan residue in an I100W variant) substrates under pre-steady-state conditions. Three possible reaction models for the formation and decay of T201(peroxo) were evaluated, and the results demonstrate that this species is on the pathway of arene oxidation and appears to be in equilibrium with ToMOH(peroxo).