Anti-platelet antibody immunoassays in childhood immune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In adult immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an acquired autoimmune bleeding disorder, anti-platelet autoantibody testing may be useful as a rule-in test. Childhood ITP has different disease characteristics, and the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-platelet antibody testing remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the diagnostic accuracy of anti-platelet autoantibody testing in childhood ITP. METHODS:PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies evaluating immunoassays in childhood ITP. Study quality was assessed (QUADAS2), and evidence was synthesized descriptively. RESULTS:In total, 40 studies (1606 patients) were identified. Nine studies reported sufficient data to determine diagnostic accuracy measures. Anti-platelet IgG antibody testing showed a moderate sensitivity (0·36-0·80 platelet-associated IgG [direct test]; 0·19-0·39 circulating IgG [indirect test]). In studies that reported control data, including patients with non-immune thrombocytopenia, specificity was very good (0·80-1·00). Glycoprotein-specific immunoassays showed comparable sensitivity (three studies) and predominantly identified IgG anti-GP IIb/IIIa antibodies, with few IgG anti-GP Ib/IX antibodies. Anti-platelet IgM antibodies were identified in a substantial proportion of children (sensitivity 0·62-0·64 for direct and indirect tests). CONCLUSION:The diagnostic evaluation of IgG and IgM anti-platelet antibodies may be useful as a rule-in test for ITP. In children with insufficient platelets for a direct test, indirect tests may be performed instead. A negative test does not rule out the diagnosis of ITP. Future studies should evaluate the value of anti-platelet antibody tests in thrombocytopenic children with suspected ITP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anti-platelet antibody testing may be useful for the diagnosis and management of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). OBJECTIVES:Here we aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. METHODS:Children with newly diagnosed ITP were included at diagnosis and randomized to an intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or careful observation group (TIKI trial). In this well-defined and longitudinally followed cohort (N = 179), anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were determined by monoclonal antibody-immobilization of platelet antigens. RESULTS:The dominant circulating anti-platelet antibody class in childhood ITP was IgM (62% of patients); but IgG antibodies were also found (10%). Children without IgM platelet antibodies were older and more often female. There was weak evidence for an association between IgM anti-GP IIb/IIIa antibodies and an increased bleeding severity (P = .03). The IgM and IgG anti-platelet responses partially overlapped, and reactivity was frequently directed against multiple glycoproteins. During 1-year follow-up, children with IgM antibodies in the observation group displayed a faster platelet recovery compared to children without, also after adjustment for age and preceding infections (P = 7.1 × 10-5 ). The small group of patients with detectable IgG anti-platelet antibodies exhibited an almost complete response to IVIg treatment (N = 12; P = .02), suggesting that IVIg was particularly efficacious in these children. CONCLUSIONS:Testing for circulating anti-platelet antibodies may be helpful for the clinical prognostication and the guidance of treatment decisions in newly diagnosed childhood ITP. Our data suggest that the development of even more sensitive tests may further improve the clinical value of antibody testing.
Project description:Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common bleeding disorder caused primarily by autoantibodies against platelet GPIIbIIIa and/or the GPIb complex. Current theory suggests that antibody-mediated platelet destruction occurs in the spleen, via macrophages through Fc-Fc?R interactions. However, we and others have demonstrated that anti-GPIb? (but not GPIIbIIIa)-mediated ITP is often refractory to therapies targeting Fc?R pathways. Here, we generate mouse anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize GPIb? and GPIIbIIIa of different species. Utilizing these unique mAbs and human ITP plasma, we find that anti-GPIb?, but not anti-GPIIbIIIa antibodies, induces Fc-independent platelet activation, sialidase neuraminidase-1 translocation and desialylation. This leads to platelet clearance in the liver via hepatocyte Ashwell-Morell receptors, which is fundamentally different from the classical Fc-Fc?R-dependent macrophage phagocytosis. Importantly, sialidase inhibitors ameliorate anti-GPIb?-mediated thrombocytopenia in mice. These findings shed light on Fc-independent cytopenias, designating desialylation as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the treatment of refractory ITP.
Project description:Autoantibodies cause platelet destruction in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP); yet only 50% to 60% of patients have detectable platelet autoantibodies in peripheral blood. We hypothesized that in some ITP patients, platelet autoantibodies are sequestered in the bone marrow where pathological immune reactions target megakaryocytes or newly formed platelets. In this study, we modified the platelet glycoprotein-specific assay to test bone marrow aspiration samples for free platelet autoantibodies or antibodies bound to bone marrow cells in aspirate fluid from patients with ITP (n = 18), patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia (n = 3), and healthy donors (n = 6). We found that 10 (56%) of 18 patients with ITP had autoantibodies in the bone marrow, including 5 (50%) of 10 with autoantibodies in bone marrow only, and 5 (50%) of 10 with autoantibodies in bone marrow and peripheral blood. In comparison, 6 (33%) of 18 ITP patients had autoantibodies in peripheral blood, most of whom (5 [83%] of 6) also had autoantibodies in bone marrow. Bone marrow autoantibodies were not detected in patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia or healthy donors; however, peripheral blood autoantibodies were detectable in 1 (33%) of 3 patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia. The sensitivity of platelet autoantibodies for the diagnosis of ITP increased from 60% (peripheral blood testing) to 72% (peripheral blood and bone marrow testing). Immune reactions limited to the bone marrow may be characteristic of certain subsets of ITP patients.
Project description:Platelet autoantibody-induced platelet clearance represents a major pathomechanism in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). There is growing evidence for clinical differences between anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and anti-glycoprotein Ib/IX mediated ITP. Glycoprotein V is a well characterized target antigen in Varicella-associated and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. We conducted a systematic study assessing the prevalence and functional capacity of autoantibodies against glycoprotein V. A total of 1140 patients were included. In one-third of patients, platelet-bound autoantibodies against glycoproteins Ib/IX, IIb/IIIa, or V were detected in a monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay; platelet-bound autoantiglycoprotein V was present in the majority of samples (222 out of 343, 64.7%). Investigation of patient sera revealed the presence of free autoantibodies against glycoprotein V in 13.5% of these patients by an indirect monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay, but in 39.6% by surface plasmon resonance technology. These antibodies showed significantly lower avidity (association/dissociation ratio 0.32±0.13 vs 0.73±0.14; P<0.001). High- and low-avidity antibodies induced comparable amounts of platelet uptake in a phagocytosis assay using CD14+ positively-selected human macrophages [mean phagocytic index, 6.81 (range, 4.75-9.86) vs 6.01 (range, 5.00-6.98); P=0.954]. In a NOD/SCID mouse model, IgG prepared from both types of anti-glycoprotein V autoantibodies eliminated human platelets with no detectable difference between the groups from the murine circulation [mean platelet survival at 300 minutes, 40% (range, 27-55) vs 35% (16-46); P=0.025]. Our data establish glycoprotein V as a relevant immune target in immune thrombocytopenia. We would suggest that further studies including glycoprotein V will be required before ITP treatment can be tailored according to platelet autoantibody specificity.
Project description:Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by anti-platelet autoantibody-mediated platelet destruction. Antigen-presenting cell (APC) dysfunction is considered to play crucial roles in ITP. However, how APC affects autoreactive B cells in ITP is still unknown. Using a mouse model of immune thrombocytopenia, we demonstrated an increase in levels of TLR7 in splenic mononuclear cells (SMCs). Using both TLR7 agonist and TLR7 silencing lentivirus, we found stimulation of TLR7 decreased platelet counts and increased levels of platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) in ITP mice, which correlates TLR7 with platelet destruction by autoantibodies. Levels of serum BAFF increased significantly in ITP mice and stimulation of TLR7 promoted secretion of BAFF. Among the three BAFF receptors, only BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) increased in ITP mice. However, activation of TLR7 showed no effect on the expression of BAFF receptors. These findings indicate that upregulation of TLR7 may augment BAFF secretion by APC and through ligation of BAFF-R promote autoreactive B cell survival and thus anti-platelet autoantibody production. The pathway of TLR7/BAFF/BAFF-R provides us with an explanation of how activation of APC affects autoantibody production by B cells in ITP and thus might provide a reasonable therapeutic strategy for ITP.
Project description:Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. This is still an area of active research given that the role of gut microbiota on the primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unclear. In this study, fecal samples of 30 untreated adult primary ITP patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were used to investigate the gut microbial community and metabolite profiles. Our results show that fecal bacteria such as Blautia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus are enriched, whereas bacteria such as Bacteroides are depleted in ITP patients. Notably, fecal metabolites such as fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids are enriched and strongly correlate with discrepant gut microbiota. Furthermore, combinations of Weissella and Streptococcus anginosus, or Cer (t18:0/16:0), Cer (d18:1/17:0), and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid could provide good diagnostic markers for ITP. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between platelet count and altered gut microbiota such as S. anginosus and gut metabolites such as Cer (t18:0/16:0) in ITP. In conclusion, dysbiosis of both gut microbiota and metabolome develops in ITP patients compared to HCs. Several ITP-altered gut bacteria and metabolites can be diagnostic biomarkers for ITP, and are highly correlated with platelet count, suggesting that they may also play a role in ITP pathogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune bleeding disorder, there is a need for better prediction of individual disease courses and treatment outcomes.<h4>Objective</h4>To predict the response to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) and ITP disease course using genetic and immune markers.<h4>Methods</h4>Children aged younger than 7 years with newly diagnosed ITP (N = 147) from the Treatment With or Without IVIG for Kids with ITP study were included, which randomized children to an IVIg or observation group. A total of 46 variables were available: clinical characteristics, targeted genotyping, lymphocyte immune phenotyping, and platelet autoantibodies.<h4>Results</h4>In the treatment arm, 48/80 children (60%) showed a complete response (platelets ≥100 × 10<sup>9</sup> /L) that lasted for at least 1 month (complete sustained response [CSR]) and 32 exhibited no or a temporary response (absence of a sustained response [ASR]). For a biological risk score, five variables were selected by regularized logistic regression that predicted ASR vs CSR: (1) hemoglobin; (2) platelet count; (3) genetic polymorphisms of Fc-receptor (FcγR) IIc; (4) the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-platelet antibodies; and (5) preceding vaccination. The ASR sensitivity was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.00) and specificity was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.80). In the 67 patients of the observation arm, this biological score was also associated with recovery during 1 year of follow-up. The addition of the biological score to a predefined clinical score further improved the discrimination of favorable ITP disease courses.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The prediction of disease courses and IVIg treatment responses in ITP is improved by using both clinical and biological stratification.
Project description:Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune bleeding disorder, characterized by a low platelet count (<100?×?10<sup>9</sup> /L) in the absence of other causes associated with thrombocytopenia. In most patients, IgG autoantibodies directed against platelet receptors can be detected. They accelerate platelet clearance and destruction, inhibit platelet production, and impair platelet function, resulting in increased risk of bleeding and impaired quality of life. Efgartigimod is a human IgG1 antibody Fc-fragment, a natural ligand of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), engineered for increased affinity to FcRn, while preserving its characteristic pH-dependent binding. Efgartigimod blocks FcRn, preventing IgG recycling, and causing targeted IgG degradation. In this Phase 2 study, 38 patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive four weekly intravenous infusions of either placebo (N = 12) or efgartigimod at a dose of 5 mg/kg (N = 13) or 10 mg/kg (N = 13). This short treatment cycle of efgartigimod in patients with ITP, predominantly refractory to previous lines of therapy, was shown to be well tolerated, and demonstrated a favorable safety profile consistent with Phase 1 data. Efgartigimod induced a rapid reduction of total IgG levels (up to 63.7% mean change from baseline), which was associated with clinically relevant increases in platelet counts (46% patients on efgartigimod vs 25% on placebo achieved a platelet count of ?50?×?10<sup>9</sup> /L on at least two occasions, and 38% vs 0% achieved ?50?×?10<sup>9</sup> /L for at least 10 cumulative days), and a reduced proportion of patients with bleeding. Taken together, these data warrant further evaluation of FcRn antagonism as a novel therapeutic approach in ITP.
Project description:Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a predominantly immunoglobulin G (IgG)-autoantibody-mediated disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Rozanolixizumab, a subcutaneously infused humanized monoclonal anti-neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) antibody, reduced serum IgG in healthy volunteers. In this phase 2, multicenter, open-label study, patients with persistent/chronic primary ITP received 1 to 5 once-weekly subcutaneous infusions of rozanolixizumab (cumulative doses, 15-21 mg/kg). Primary objectives were safety and tolerability, and secondary objectives were clinical efficacy (change in platelet count) and pharmacodynamic effect (change in IgG). In all, 51 (77.3%) of 66 patients reported 1 or more adverse events (AEs), all mild-to-moderate, most commonly headaches (26 [39.4%] of 66), of which 15 were treatment related. Four patients had serious AEs, but none were treatment related. No AEs resulted in discontinuation of the study drug. No serious infections occurred. Platelet counts of ?50 × 109/L were achieved at least once at any time after multiple infusions (5 × 4, 3 × 7, or 2 × 10 mg/kg: 35.7%, 35.7%, and 45.5% of patients, respectively) or single infusions (15 or 20 mg/kg: 66.7% and 54.5% patients, respectively). Minimum mean IgG levels and maximum mean platelet counts both occurred by day 8 in the higher (15 and 20 mg/kg) single-dose cohorts and maximum platelet count occurred by day 11 onward in the multiple-dose cohorts. No clinically meaningful changes occurred in IgA, IgM, IgE, or albumin levels. In patients with persistent/chronic primary ITP, rozanolixizumab demonstrated a favorable safety profile and rapid, substantial platelet increases concordant with substantial IgG reductions, especially with single doses. By day 8, in the 15 and 20 mg/kg single-dose cohorts, >50% patients achieved clinically relevant platelet responses (?50 × 109/L), coinciding with the lowest mean IgG levels. These data support phase 3 development of rozanolixizumab in persistent/chronic primary ITP. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02718716.
Project description:Antibodies to first-generation recombinant thrombopoietin (TPO) neutralized endogenous TPO and caused thrombocytopenia in some healthy subjects and chemotherapy patients. The second-generation TPO receptor agonist romiplostim, having no sequence homology to TPO, was developed to avoid immunogenicity. This analysis examined development of binding and neutralising antibodies to romiplostim or TPO among adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in 13 clinical trials and a global postmarketing registry. 60/961 (6·2%) patients from clinical trials developed anti-romiplostim-binding antibodies post-baseline. The first positive binding antibody was detected 14 weeks (median) after starting romiplostim, at median romiplostim dose of 2 µg/kg and median platelet count of 29.5 × 109 /l; most subjects had ?98·5% of platelet assessments showing response. Neutralising antibodies to romiplostim developed in 0·4% of patients, but were unrelated to romiplostim dose and did not affect platelet count. Thirty-three patients (3·4%) developed anti-TPO-binding antibodies; none developed anti-TPO-neutralising antibodies. In the global postmarketing registry, 9/184 (4·9%) patients with spontaneously submitted samples had binding antibodies. One patient with loss of response had anti-romiplostim-neutralising antibodies (negative at follow-up). Collectively, anti-romiplostim-binding antibodies developed infrequently. In the few patients who developed neutralising antibodies to romiplostim, there was no cross-reactivity with TPO and no associated loss of platelet response.