A mutation update for the FLNC gene in myopathies and cardiomyopathies.
ABSTRACT: Filamin C (FLNC) variants are associated with cardiac and muscular phenotypes. Originally, FLNC variants were described in myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) patients. Later, high-throughput screening in cardiomyopathy cohorts determined a prominent role for FLNC in isolated hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies (HCM and DCM). FLNC variants are now among the more prevalent causes of genetic DCM. FLNC-associated DCM is associated with a malignant clinical course and a high risk of sudden cardiac death. The clinical spectrum of FLNC suggests different pathomechanisms related to variant types and their location in the gene. The appropriate functioning of FLNC is crucial for structural integrity and cell signaling of the sarcomere. The secondary protein structure of FLNC is critical to ensure this function. Truncating variants with subsequent haploinsufficiency are associated with DCM and cardiac arrhythmias. Interference with the dimerization and folding of the protein leads to aggregate formation detrimental for muscle function, as found in HCM and MFM. Variants associated with HCM are predominantly missense variants, which cluster in the ROD2 domain. This domain is important for binding to the sarcomere and to ensure appropriate cell signaling. We here review FLNC genotype-phenotype correlations based on available evidence.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify novel dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) causing genes, and to elucidate the pathological mechanism leading to DCM by utilizing zebrafish as a model organism. BACKGROUND:DCM, a major cause of heart failure, is frequently familial and caused by a genetic defect. However, only 50% of DCM cases can be attributed to a known DCM gene variant, motivating the ongoing search for novel disease genes. METHODS:We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in two multigenerational Italian families and one US family with arrhythmogenic DCM without skeletal muscle defects, in whom prior genetic testing had been unrevealing. Pathogenic variants were sought by a combination of bioinformatic filtering and cosegregation testing among affected individuals within the families. We performed function assays and generated a zebrafish morpholino knockdown model. RESULTS:A novel filamin C gene splicing variant (FLNC c.7251+1 G>A) was identified by WES in all affected family members in the two Italian families. A separate novel splicing mutation (FLNC c.5669-1delG) was identified in the US family. Western blot analysis of cardiac heart tissue from an affected individual showed decreased FLNC protein, supporting a haploinsufficiency model of pathogenesis. To further analyze this model, a morpholino knockdown of the ortholog filamin Cb in zebrafish was created which resulted in abnormal cardiac function and ultrastructure. CONCLUSIONS:Using WES, we identified two novel FLNC splicing variants as the likely cause of DCM in three families. We provided protein expression and in vivo zebrafish data supporting haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism leading to DCM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Filamin C (FLNC) mutation was reported as a cause of HCM, with a high probability of sudden cardiac death. However, the mutation profile of FLNC, and its relationship with phenotypic expression in HCM, remains to be elucidated. METHODS:In this study, FLNC gene was sequenced in 540 HCM patients and 307 healthy controls. RESULTS:We found that 39 (7.2%) patients carried FLNC mutations, with a similar frequency to that of controls (4.2%, p = 0.101). Pedigree analysis showed that mutations were not well segregated with HCM. The baseline characteristics between HCM patients, with and without mutations, were comparable. FLNC mutations did not increase the risk for either all-cause mortality (HR 0.746, 95% CI 0.222-2.295, p = 0.575) or cardiac mortality (HR 0.615, 95% CI 0.153-1.947, p = 0.354) in HCM patients during a follow-up of 4.7 ± 3.2 years. Moreover, there was no significant difference in survival free from sudden cardiac arrest (HR 0.721, 95% CI 0.128-3.667, p = 0.660) and heart failure (HR 0.757, 95% CI 0.318-1.642, p = 0.447). CONCLUSIONS:FLNC mutations were common in both HCM patients and healthy population. The pathogenicity of FLNC mutations detected in HCM patients and its association with the clinical outcomes should be cautiously interpreted.
Project description:Cardiac ?-myosin variants cause hypertrophic (HCM) or dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathy by disrupting sarcomere contraction and relaxation. The locations of variants on isolated myosin head structures predict contractility effects but not the prominent relaxation and energetic deficits that characterize HCM. During relaxation, pairs of myosins form interacting-heads motif (IHM) structures that with other sarcomere proteins establish an energy-saving, super-relaxed (SRX) state. Using a human ?-cardiac myosin IHM quasi-atomic model, we defined interactions sites between adjacent myosin heads and associated protein partners, and then analyzed rare variants from 6112 HCM and 1315 DCM patients and 33,370 ExAC controls. HCM variants, 72% that changed electrostatic charges, disproportionately altered IHM interaction residues (expected 23%; HCM 54%, p=2.6×10-19; DCM 26%, p=0.66; controls 20%, p=0.23). HCM variant locations predict impaired IHM formation and stability, and attenuation of the SRX state - accounting for altered contractility, reduced diastolic relaxation, and increased energy consumption, that fully characterizes HCM pathogenesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to assess the phenotype of Filamin C (FLNC) truncating variants in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and understand the mechanism leading to an arrhythmogenic phenotype. BACKGROUND:Mutations in FLNC are known to lead to skeletal myopathies, which may have an associated cardiac component. Recently, the clinical spectrum of FLNC mutations has been recognized to include a cardiac-restricted presentation in the absence of skeletal muscle involvement. METHODS:A population of 319 U.S. and European DCM cardiomyopathy families was evaluated using whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequencing. FLNC truncation probands were identified and evaluated by clinical examination, histology, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:A total of 13 individuals in 7 families (2.2%) were found to harbor 6 different FLNC truncation variants (2 stopgain, 1 frameshift, and 3 splicing). Of the 13 FLNC truncation carriers, 11 (85%) had either ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death, and 5 (38%) presented with evidence of right ventricular dilation. Pathology analysis of 2 explanted hearts from affected FLNC truncation carriers showed interstitial fibrosis in the right ventricle and epicardial fibrofatty infiltration in the left ventricle. Ultrastructural findings included occasional disarray of Z-discs within the sarcomere. Immunohistochemistry showed normal plakoglobin signal at cell-cell junctions, but decreased signals for desmoplakin and synapse-associated protein 97 in the myocardium and buccal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS:We found FLNC truncating variants, present in 2.2% of DCM families, to be associated with a cardiac-restricted arrhythmogenic DCM phenotype characterized by a high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and a pathological cellular phenotype partially overlapping with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are classic forms of systolic and diastolic heart failure, respectively. Mutations in genes encoding sarcomere and cytoskeletal proteins are major causes of HCM and DCM. MURC, encoding muscle-restricted coiled-coil, a Z-line protein, regulates cardiac function in mice. We investigated potential causal role of MURC in human cardiomyopathies. METHODS AND RESULTS:We sequenced MURC in 1199 individuals, including 383 probands with DCM, 307 with HCM, and 509 healthy control subjects. We found 6 heterozygous DCM-specific missense variants (p.N128K, p.R140W, p.L153P, p.S307T, p.P324L, and p.S364L) in 8 unrelated probands. Variants p.N128K and p.S307T segregated with inheritance of DCM in small families (?(2)=8.5, P=0.003). Variants p.N128K, p.R140W, p.L153P, and p.S364L were considered probably or possibly damaging. Variant p.P324L recurred in 3 independent probands, including 1 proband with a TPM1 mutation (p.M245T). A deletion variant (p.L232-R238del) was present in 3 unrelated HCM probands, but it did not segregate with HCM in a family who also had a MYH7 mutation (p.L907V). The phenotype in mutation carriers was notable for progressive heart failure leading to heart transplantation in 4 patients, conduction defects, and atrial arrhythmias. Expression of mutant MURC proteins in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes transduced with recombinant adenoviruses was associated with reduced RhoA activity, lower mRNA levels of hypertrophic markers and smaller myocyte size as compared with wild-type MURC. CONCLUSIONS:MURC mutations impart loss-of-function effects on MURC functions and probably are causal variants in human DCM. The causal role of a deletion mutation in HCM is uncertain.
Project description:Sarcomere mutations cause both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the steps leading from mutation to disease are not well described. By studying mutation carriers before a clinical diagnosis develops, we characterize the early manifestations of sarcomere mutations in DCM and investigate how these manifestations differ from sarcomere mutations associated with HCM.Sixty-two genotyped individuals in families with sarcomeric DCM underwent clinical evaluation including strain echocardiography. The group included 12 subclinical DCM mutation carriers with normal cardiac dimensions and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ?55%), 21 overt DCM subjects, and 29 related mutation (-) normal controls. Results were compared with a previously characterized cohort of 60 subclinical HCM subjects (sarcomere mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy). Systolic myocardial tissue velocity, longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain, and longitudinal and radial strain rate were reduced by 10%-23% in subclinical DCM mutation carriers compared with controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons), after adjusting for age and family relations. No significant differences in diastolic parameters were identified comparing the subclinical and control cohorts. The opposite pattern of contractile abnormalities with reduced diastolic but preserved systolic function was seen in subclinical HCM.Subtle abnormalities in systolic function are present in subclinical DCM mutation carriers, despite normal left ventricular size and ejection fraction. In contrast, impaired relaxation and preserved systolic function appear to be the predominant early manifestations of sarcomere mutations that lead to HCM. These findings support the theory that the mutation's intrinsic impact on sarcomere function influences whether a dilated or hypertrophic phenotype develops.
Project description:Genetic mutations account for a significant percentage of cardiomyopathies, which are a leading cause of congestive heart failure. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac output is limited by the thickened myocardium through impaired filling and outflow. Mutations in the genes encoding the thick filament components myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C (MYH7 and MYBPC3) together explain 75% of inherited HCMs, leading to the observation that HCM is a disease of the sarcomere. Many mutations are "private" or rare variants, often unique to families. In contrast, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is far more genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. DCM is characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions and impaired systolic and diastolic function. Private mutations account for most DCMs, with few hotspots or recurring mutations. More than 50 single genes are linked to inherited DCM, including many genes that also link to HCM. Relatively few clinical clues guide the diagnosis of inherited DCM, but emerging evidence supports the use of genetic testing to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.
Project description:Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mutations in the genes encoding the sarcomere, the force-generating unit in the cardiomyocyte, cause familial forms of both HCM and DCM. This study examines two HCM-causing (I79N, E163K) and two DCM-causing (R141W, R173W) mutations in the troponin T subunit of the troponin complex using human ?-cardiac myosin. Unlike earlier reports using various myosin constructs, we found that none of these mutations affect the maximal sliding velocities or maximal Ca(2+)-activated ADP release rates involving the thin filament human ?-cardiac myosin complex. Changes in Ca(2+) sensitivity using the human myosin isoform do, however, mimic changes seen previously with non-human myosin isoforms. Transient kinetic measurements show that these mutations alter the kinetics of Ca(2+) induced conformational changes in the regulatory thin filament proteins. These changes in calcium sensitivity are independent of active, cycling human ?-cardiac myosin.
Project description:The mechanisms by which truncating mutations in MYBPC3 (encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C; cMyBPC) or myosin missense mutations cause hypercontractility and poor relaxation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are incompletely understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we explored how depletion of cMyBPC altered sarcomere function. We demonstrated that stepwise loss of cMyBPC resulted in reciprocal augmentation of myosin contractility. Direct attenuation of myosin function, via a damaging missense variant (F764L) that causes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), normalized the increased contractility from cMyBPC depletion. Depletion of cMyBPC also altered dynamic myosin conformations during relaxation, enhancing the myosin state that enables ATP hydrolysis and thin filament interactions while reducing the super relaxed conformation associated with energy conservation. MYK-461, a pharmacologic inhibitor of myosin ATPase, rescued relaxation deficits and restored normal contractility in mouse and human cardiomyocytes with MYBPC3 mutations. These data define dosage-dependent effects of cMyBPC on myosin that occur across the cardiac cycle as the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which MYBPC3 truncations cause HCM. Therapeutic strategies to attenuate cMyBPC activity may rescue depressed cardiac contractility in patients with DCM, whereas inhibiting myosin by MYK-461 should benefit the substantial proportion of patients with HCM with MYBPC3 mutations.
Project description:The M-band is the prominent cytoskeletal structure that cross-links the myosin and titin filaments in the middle of the sarcomere. To investigate M-band alterations in heart disease, we analyzed the expression of its main components, proteins of the myomesin family, in mouse and human cardiomyopathy. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and compared to the expression pattern of myomesins evaluated with RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescent analysis. Disease progression in transgenic mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was accompanied by specific M-band alterations. The dominant splice isoform in the embryonic heart, EH-myomesin, was strongly up-regulated in the failing heart and correlated with a decrease in cardiac function (R = -0.86). In addition, we have analyzed the expressions of myomesins in human myocardial biopsies (N = 40) obtained from DCM patients, DCM patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and controls. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the EH-myomesin isoform was up-regulated 41-fold (P < 0.001) in the DCM patients compared to control patients. In DCM hearts supported by a LVAD and HCM hearts, the EH-myomesin expression was comparable to controls. Immunofluorescent analyses indicate that EH-myomesin was enhanced in a cell-specific manner, leading to a higher heterogeneity of the myocytes' cytoskeleton through the myocardial wall. We suggest that the up-regulation of EH-myomesin denotes an adaptive remodeling of the sarcomere cytoskeleton in the dilated heart and might serve as a marker for DCM in mouse and human myocardium.