Total Synthesis of Tri-, Hexa- and Heptasaccharidic Substructures of the O-Polysaccharide of Providencia rustigianii O34.
ABSTRACT: A general and efficient strategy for synthesis of tri-, hexa- and heptasaccharidic substructures of the lipopolysaccharide of Providencia rustigianii O34 is described. For the heptasaccharide seven different building blocks were employed. Special features of the structures are an ?-linked galactosamine and the two embedded ?-fucose units, which are either branched at positions-3 and -4 or further linked at their 2-position. Convergent strategies focused on [4+3], [3+4], and [4+2+1] couplings. Whereas the [4+3] and [3+4] coupling strategies failed the [4+2+1] strategy was successful. As monosaccharidic building blocks trichloroacetimidates and phosphates were employed. Global deprotection of the fully protected structures was achieved by Birch reaction.
Project description:The Aeromonas hydrophila wb*(O34) gene cluster of strain AH-3 (serotype O34) was cloned and sequenced. This cluster contains genes necessary for the production of O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in A. hydrophila. We determined, using either mutation or sequence homology, roles for the majority of genes in the cluster by using the chemical O34-antigen LPS structure obtained for strain AH-3. The O34-antigen LPS export system has been shown to be a Wzy-dependent pathway typical of heteropolysaccharide pathways. Furthermore, the production of A. hydrophila O34-antigen LPS in Escherichia coli K-12 strains is dependent on incorporation of the Gne enzyme (UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine 4-epimerase) necessary for the formation of UDP-galactosamine in these strains. By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends we were able to identify a transcription start site upstream of the terminal wzz gene, which showed differential transcription depending on the growth temperature of the strain. The Wzz protein is able to regulate the O34-antigen LPS chain length. The differential expression of this protein at different temperatures, which was substantially greater at 20 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, explains the previously observed differential production of O34-antigen LPS and its correlation with the virulence of A. hydrophila serotype O34 strains.
Project description:Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype O34 typically express smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on their surface. A single mutation in the gene that codes for UDP N-acetylgalactosamine 4-epimerase (gne) confers the O(-) phenotype (LPS without O-antigen molecules) on a strain in serotypes O18 and O34, but not in serotypes O1 and O2. The gne gene is present in all the mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested. No changes were observed for the LPS core in a gne mutant from A. hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34). O34 antigen LPS contains N-acetylgalactosamine, while no such sugar residue forms part of the LPS core from A. hydrophila AH-3. Some of the pathogenic features of A. hydrophila AH-3 gne mutants are drastically reduced (serum resistance or adhesion to Hep-2 cells), and the gne mutants are less virulent for fish and mice compared to the wild-type strain. Strain AH-3, like other mesophilic Aeromonas strains, possess two kinds of flagella, and the absence of O34 antigen molecules by gne mutation in this strain reduced motility without any effect on the biogenesis of both polar and lateral flagella. The reintroduction of the single wild-type gne gene in the corresponding mutants completely restored the wild-type phenotype (presence of smooth LPS) independently of the O wild-type serotype, restored the virulence of the wild-type strain, and restored motility (either swimming or swarming).
Project description:Highly enantioselective vicinal iodoamination of olefins is accomplished through the iodocyclization of alkenyl trichloroacetimidates catalyzed by a new chiral Schiff-base urea derivative. The resulting products are converted readily to a variety of polyfunctional amine-containing chiral building blocks.
Project description:The mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34) strain shows two different UDP-hexose epimerases in its genome: GalE (EC 18.104.22.168) and Gne (EC 22.214.171.124). Similar homologues were detected in the different mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested. GalE shows only UDP-galactose 4-epimerase activity, while Gne is able to perform a dual activity (mainly UDP-N-acetyl galactosamine 4-epimerase and also UDP-galactose 4-epimerase). We studied the activities in vitro of both epimerases and also in vivo through the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure of A. hydrophila gne mutants, A. hydrophila galE mutants, A. hydrophila galE-gne double mutants, and independently complemented mutants with both genes. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity in vivo, which renders different LPS structures on the mentioned A. hydrophila mutant strains or the complemented mutants, allowed us to confirm a clear relationship between the virulence of these strains and the presence/absence of the O34 antigen LPS.
Project description:Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34) were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous glycan. Mutants unable to produce WecP or Gne enzymes showed altered motility, and the study of their polar flagellin glycosylation showed that the patterns of glycosylation differed from that observed with wild type polar flagellin. This suggested the involvement of a lipid carrier in glycosylation. A gene coding for an enzyme linking sugar to a lipid carrier was identified in strain AH-3 (WecX) and subsequent mutation abolished completely motility, flagella production by EM, and flagellin glycosylation. This is the first report of a lipid carrier involved in flagella O-glycosylation. A molecular model has been proposed. The results obtained suggested that the N-acetylhexosamines are N-acetylgalactosamines and that the heptasaccharide is completely independent of the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, by comparing the mutants with differing degrees of polar flagellin glycosylation, we established their importance in A. hydrophila flagella formation and motility.
Project description:Here we present the complete genome sequence of Providencia stuartii MRSN 2154, isolated from an Afghan national. P. stuartii is a Gram-negative bacillus capable of causing infections in a wide variety of human tissues. Because Providencia readily acquires plasmids bearing drug resistance loci, it is of growing clinical significance.
Project description:The bacterial genus Providencia is Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, which have been isolated from a variety of environments and organisms, ranging from humans to animals. Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii are the most common clinical isolates, however, these three species differ in their pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation. Genomes of 91 isolates of the genus Providencia were investigated to clarify their genetic diversity, focusing on virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, and environmental adaptation genes. Our study revealed an open pan-genome for the genus Providencia containing 14,720 gene families. Species of the genus Providencia exhibited different functional constraints, with the core genes, accessory genes, and unique genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogeny reconstructed with concatenated single-copy core genes classified all Providencia isolates into 11 distant groups. Comprehensive and systematic comparative genomic analyses revealed that specific distributions of virulence genes, which were highly homologous to virulence genes of the genus Proteus, contributed to diversity in pathogenicity of Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii. Furthermore, multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes of isolates of Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii were predominantly due to resistance genes from class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii harbored more genes related to material transport and energy metabolism, which conferred a stronger ability to adapt to diverse environments. Overall, our study provided valuable insights into the genetic diversity and functional features of the genus Providencia, and revealed genetic mechanisms underlying diversity in pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation of members of this genus.
Project description:Bacteria in the genus Providencia are pathogens of many organisms, including humans and insects. We and colleagues have isolated five different strains belonging to four distinct Providencia species as natural infections of Drosophila melanogaster captured in the wild. We found that these isolates vary considerably in pathology to infected D. melanogaster, differing in the level of mortality they cause, their ability to replicate within the host and the level that the fly's immune response is elicited. One interesting bacterium was Providencia sneebia, which causes nearly complete mortality and reaches large numbers in the fly but does not elicit a comparably strong immune response. Through coinfection experiments, we determined that P. sneebia avoids recognition by the immune system. We tested for biofilm formation and replication within D. melanogaster cells as possible mechanisms for P. sneebia escape from host immunity, but did not find evidence for either. D. melanogaster and Providencia provide a powerful system for studying general host-pathogen interactions, and for understanding how the well-studied immune model host D. melanogaster interacts with its natural bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Comparative genomics can be an initial step in finding the genetic basis for phenotypic differences among bacterial strains and species. Bacteria belonging to the genus Providencia have been isolated from numerous and varied environments. We sequenced, annotated and compared draft genomes of P. rettgeri, P. sneebia, P. alcalifaciens, and P. burhodogranariea. These bacterial species that were all originally isolated as infections of wild Drosophila melanogaster and have been previously shown to vary in virulence to experimentally infected flies.We found that these Providencia species share a large core genome, but also possess distinct sets of genes that are unique to each isolate. We compared the genomes of these isolates to draft genomes of four Providencia isolated from the human gut and found that the core genome size does not substantially change upon inclusion of the human isolates. We found many adhesion related genes among those genes that were unique to each genome. We also found that each isolate has at least one type 3 secretion system (T3SS), a known virulence factor, though not all identified T3SS belong to the same family nor are they in syntenic genomic locations.The Providencia species examined here are characterized by high degree of genomic similarity which will likely extend to other species and isolates within this genus. The presence of T3SS islands in all of the genomes reveal that their presence is not sufficient to indicate virulence towards D. melanogaster, since some of the T3SS-bearing isolates are known to cause little mortality. The variation in adhesion genes and the presence of T3SSs indicates that host cell adhesion is likely an important aspect of Providencia virulence.