Efficacy and the Adverse Effects of Oral Versus Intravenous Arsenic for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized-Controlled Studies.
ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia, a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia, is highly curable. In subgroup of patients with non-high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, intravenous arsenic trioxide plus all-trans-retinoic acid is considered the preferred regimen for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, there are interests in the use of the oral form of arsenic, named the Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula, but the data on its efficacy and safety are still relatively limited. The current study was conducted with the aims to identify and summarize the results of all available randomized-controlled studies. A systematic review was conducted in the 2 major databases, utilizing the terms for arsenic and acute promyelocytic leukemia. Eligible studies had to be randomized-controlled studies that compared efficacy and/or adverse effects of oral arsenic versus intravenous arsenic for treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to pool the effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the included studies together. A total of 4 randomized controlled studies with 482 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (258 in Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula group and 224 in intravenous arsenic trioxide group) were included in the meta-analysis. The chances of achieving complete remission were numerically higher in the Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula group but the difference was not statistically significant (pooled odds ratio: 4.59, 95% CI: 0.74-28.57, I 2 = 0%). Similarly, other efficacy outcomes, including 30-day mortality rate, overall survival, and event-free survival, also tended to favor the Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula group but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the chance of developing differentiation syndrome, cardiac complications, grades 3 to 4 liver toxicity, grades 3 to 4 renal toxicity, and infection between the 2 groups. The results may suggest that all-trans-retinoic acid plus oral Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula regimen is, at minimum, not a worse alternative to the standard all-trans-retinoic acid plus intravenous intravenous arsenic trioxide regimen for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, especially for patients with low-to-intermediate risk.
Project description:Intravenous arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been adopted as the first-line treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Another arsenic compound named the Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF), an oral traditional Chinese medicine containing As4 S4 , has been shown to be highly effective in treating adult APL. In the treatment of pediatric APL, the safety and efficacy of RIF remains to be confirmed. This randomized, multicenter, and noninferiority trial was conducted to determine whether intravenous ATO can be substituted by oral RIF in the treatment of pediatric APL. From September 2011 to January 2017, among 92 patients who were 16?years old or younger with newly diagnosed PML-RARa positive APL, 82 met eligible criteria and were randomly assigned to ATO (n?=?42) or RIF (n?=?40) group. The remaining 10 patients did not fulfilled eligible criteria because five did not accept randomization, four died and one had hemiplegia prior to arsenic randomization due to intracranial hemorrhage or cerebral thrombosis. Induction and consolidation treatment contained ATO or RIF, all-trans-retinoic acid and low intensity chemotherapy. End points included event-free survival (EFS), adverse events and hospital days. After a median 3-year follow-up, the estimated 5-year EFS was 100% in both groups, and adverse events were mild. However, patients in the RIF group had significantly less hospital stay than those in the ATO group. This interim analysis shows that oral RIF is as effective and safe as intravenous ATO for the treatment of pediatric APL, with the advantage of reducing hospital stay. Final trial analysis will reveal mature outcome data.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a highly curable disease when treated with all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). The combination of ATO and ATRA has become the standard therapeutic protocol for induction therapy in non-high-risk APL. An oral arsenic realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) has also showed high efficacy and it has a more convenient route of administration than the standard intravenous regimen. Unlike in previous trials, the arsenical agent was used simultaneously with ATRA during post-remission therapy in this trial. METHODS:This study was designed as a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. The trial has a non-inferiority design with superiority being explored if non-inferiority is identified. All patients receive ATRA-ATO during the induction therapy. After achieving hematologic complete remission (HCR), patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive treatment with ATRA-RIF (experimental group) or ATRA-ATO (control group) as the consolidation therapy. During the consolidation therapy, the two groups receive ATRA plus RIF or intravenous ATO 2?weeks on and 2 to ~?4?weeks off until molecular complete remission (MCR), then ATRA and oral RIF 2?weeks on and 2 to ~?4?weeks off giving a total of six courses. DISCUSSION:This trial aims to compare the efficacy of ATRA-ATO versus ATRA-RIF in non-high-risk patients with APL, to demonstrate that oral RIF application reduces the total hospitalization days and medical costs. The simple schedule was studied in this trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02899169. Registered on 14 September 2016.
Project description:To enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribe a combination of plant species/minerals, called formulae, based on clinical experience. Nearly 100,000 formulae have been recorded, but the working mechanisms of most remain unknown. In trying to address the possible beneficial effects of formulae with current biomedical approaches, we use Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF), which has been proven to be very effective in treating human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as a model. The main components of RIF are realgar, Indigo naturalis, and Salvia miltiorrhiza, with tetraarsenic tetrasulfide (A), indirubin (I), and tanshinone IIA (T) as major active ingredients, respectively. Here, we report that the ATI combination yields synergy in the treatment of a murine APL model in vivo and in the induction of APL cell differentiation in vitro. ATI causes intensified ubiquitination/degradation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) oncoprotein, stronger reprogramming of myeloid differentiation regulators, and enhanced G(1)/G(0) arrest in APL cells through hitting multiple targets compared with the effects of mono- or biagents. Furthermore, ATI intensifies the expression of Aquaglyceroporin 9 and facilitates the transportation of A into APL cells, which in turn enhances A-mediated PML-RARalpha degradation and therapeutic efficacy. Our data also indicate A as the principal component of the formula, whereas T and I serve as adjuvant ingredients. We therefore suggest that dissecting the mode of action of clinically effective formulae at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels may be a good strategy in exploring the value of traditional medicine.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid combined to anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the standard regimen of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The advent of arsenic trioxide has contributed to improve the anti-leukemic efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate if dual induction by all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide could accelerate the recovery of abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.Retrospective analysis was performed in 103 newly-diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hemostatic variables and the consumption of component blood were comparably analyzed among patients treated by different induction regimen with or without arsenic trioxide.Compared to patients with other subtypes of de novo acute myeloid leukemia, patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia had lower platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, significantly prolonged prothrombin time and elevated D-dimers (P<0.001). Acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with high or intermediate risk prognostic stratification presented lower initial fibrinogen level than that of low-risk group (P<0.05). After induction treatment, abnormal coagulation and fibrinolysis of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia was significantly improved before day 10. The recovery of abnormal hemostatic variables (platelet, prothrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimer) was not significantly accelerated after adding arsenic trioxide in induction regimens; and the consumption of transfused component blood (platelet and plasma) did not dramatically change either. Acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with high or intermediate risk prognostic stratification had higher platelet transfusion demands than that of low-risk group (P<0.05).Unexpectedly, adding arsenic trioxide could not accelerate the recovery of abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received all-trans retinoic acid combining chemotherapy.
Project description:In standard-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, recent results have shown that all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide combinations are at least as effective as classical all-trans retinoic acid plus anthracycline-based chemotherapy while being less myelosuppressive. However, the role of frontline arsenic trioxide is less clear in higher-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, and access to arsenic remains limited for front-line treatment of standard-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia in many countries. In this randomized trial, we compared arsenic, all-trans retinoic acid and the "classical" cytarabine for consolidation treatment (after all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy induction treatment) in standard-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, and evaluated the addition of arsenic during consolidation in higher-risk disease. Patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia with a white blood cell count <10x109/L, after an induction treatment consisting of all-trans retinoic acid plus idarubicin and cytarabine, received consolidation chemotherapy with idarubicin and cytarabine, arsenic or all-trans retinoic acid. Patients with a white blood cell count >10x109/L received consolidation chemotherapy with or without arsenic. Overall, 795 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia were enrolled in this trial. Among those with standard-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (n=581), the 5-year event-free survival rates from randomization were 88.7%, 95.7% and 85.4% in the cytarabine, arsenic and all-trans retinoic acid consolidation groups, respectively (P=0.0067), and the 5-year cumulative incidences of relapse were was 5.5%, 0% and 8.2%. (P=0.001). Among those with higher-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (n=214), the 5-year event-free survival rates were 85.5% and 92.1% (P=0.38) in the chemotherapy and chemotherapy plus arsenic groups, respectively, and the corresponding 5-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 4.6% and 3.5% (P=0.99). Given the prolonged myelosuppression that occurred in the chemotherapy plus arsenic arm, a protocol amendment excluded cytarabine during consolidation cycles in the chemotherapy plus arsenic group, resulting in no increase in relapse. Our results therefore advocate systematic introduction of arsenic in the first-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, but probably not concomitantly with intensive chemotherapy, a situation in which we found myelosuppression to be significant. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00378365).
Project description:Previously, arsenic trioxide showed impressive regression rates of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Here, we investigated molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance of cell lines of different tumor types towards arsenic trioxide. Arsenic trioxide was the most cytotoxic compound among 8 arsenicals investigated in the NCI cell line panel. We correlated transcriptome-wide microarray-based mRNA expression to the IC(50) values for arsenic trioxide by bioinformatic approaches (COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses, Ingenuity signaling pathway analysis). Among the identified pathways were signaling routes for p53, integrin-linked kinase, and actin cytoskeleton. Genes from these pathways significantly predicted cellular response to arsenic trioxide. Then, we analyzed whether classical drug resistance factors may also play a role for arsenic trioxide. Cell lines transfected with cDNAs for catalase, thioredoxin, or the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene were more resistant to arsenic trioxide than mock vector transfected cells. Multidrug-resistant cells overexpressing the MDR1, MRP1 or BCRP genes were not cross-resistant to arsenic trioxide. Our approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards arsenic trioxide is multi-factorial.
Project description:p53 is frequently mutated in tumor cells, and mutant p53 is often highly expressed due to its increased half-life. Thus, targeting mutant p53 for degradation might be explored as a therapeutic strategy to manage tumors that are addicted to mutant p53 for survival. Arsenic trioxide, a drug for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, is found to target and degrade a class of proteins with high levels of cysteine residues and vicinal thiol groups, such as promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and PML-retinoic acid receptor ? fusion protein. Interestingly, wild type p53 is accumulated in cells treated with arsenic compounds, presumably due to arsenic-induced oxidative stresses. In this study, we found that wild type p53 is induced by arsenic trioxide in tumor cells, consistent with published studies. In contrast, we found that arsenic compounds degrade both endogenous and ectopically expressed mutant p53 in time- and dose-dependent manners. We also found that arsenic trioxide decreases the stability of mutant p53 protein through a proteasomal pathway, and blockage of mutant p53 nuclear export can alleviate the arsenic-induced mutant p53 degradation. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of endogenous mutant p53 sensitizes, whereas ectopic expression of mutant p53 desensitizes, tumor cells to arsenic treatment. Taken together, we found that mutant p53 is a target of arsenic compounds, which provides an insight into exploring arsenic compound-based therapy for tumors harboring a mutant p53.
Project description:Various forms of arsenic were used in China and elsewhere for over 5,000 years. Following the initial success of intravenous arsenic trioxide (i.v. As2O3), we revived an oral formulation of pure As2O3 in 1998 for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We were the first to produce a 1 mg/ml oral-As2O3 solution and showed that it had comparable bioavailability to i.v. As2O3. Moreover, we also reported that intracellular arsenic concentrations were considerably higher than the corresponding plasma values. Our oral-As2O3 was patented internationally and registered in Hong Kong for the treatment of APL. Safety, tolerability and clinical efficacy was confirmed in long-term follow-up studies. We have extended the use of oral-As2O3 to frontline induction of newly diagnosed APL. With these findings, we are moving toward an era of completely oral and chemotherapy-free management of APL.
Project description:The aim of this study was to gain insight into the potential mechanism of resistance to arsenic trioxide (ATO). The gene expression profile of naive (NB4) (Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line and one of its in house generated ATO resistant sub clone (NB4-VM-AsR1) was done using whole genome microarray and compared to generate the differential expression profile which will give insight into the mechanisms of ATO resistance in APL. Agilent one-color experiment,Organism: Human ,Agilent Whole Genome Human 4x44k (AMADID: 014850) , Labeling kit: Agilent Quick-Amp labeling Kit (p/n5190-0442) naive versus arsenic trioxide resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4
Project description:Since arsenic trioxide was first approved as the front line therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia 25 years ago, its anti-cancer properties for various malignancies have been under intense investigation. However, the clinical successes of arsenic trioxide in treating hematological cancers have not been translated to solid cancers. This is due to arsenic's rapid clearance by the body's immune system before reaching the tumor site. Several attempts have henceforth been made to increase its bioavailability toward solid cancers without increasing its dosage albeit without much success. This review summarizes the past and current utilization of arsenic trioxide in the medical field with primary focus on the implementation of nanotechnology for arsenic trioxide delivery to solid cancer cells. Different approaches that have been employed to increase arsenic's efficacy, specificity and bioavailability to solid cancer cells were evaluated and compared. The potential of combining different approaches or tailoring delivery vehicles to target specific types of solid cancers according to individual cancer characteristics and arsenic chemistry is proposed and discussed.